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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445312

RESUMO

"Neuroplasticity" is often evoked to explain adaptation and compensation after acute lesions of the Central Nervous System (CNS). In this study, we investigated the modification of 80 genes involved in synaptic plasticity at different times (24 h, 8 and 45 days) from the traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), adopting a bioinformatic analysis. mRNA expression levels were analyzed in the motor cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and in the spinal segments rostral and caudal to the lesion. The main results are: (i) a different gene expression regulation is observed in the Spinal Cord (SC) segments rostral and caudal to the lesion; (ii) long lasting changes in the SC includes the extracellular matrix (ECM) enzymes Timp1, transcription regulators (Egr, Nr4a1), second messenger associated proteins (Gna1, Ywhaq); (iii) long-lasting changes in the Motor Cortex includes transcription regulators (Cebpd), neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and receptors (Cnr1, Gria1, Nos1), growth factors and related receptors (Igf1, Ntf3, Ntrk2), second messenger associated proteins (Mapk1); long lasting changes in Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum include ECM protein (Reln), growth factors (Ngf, Bdnf), transcription regulators (Egr, Cebpd), neurotransmitter receptors (Grin2c). These data suggest the molecular mapping as a useful tool to investigate the brain and SC reorganization after SCI.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/genética , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208772

RESUMO

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as a critical mediator of angiogenesis, and unregulated angiogenic responses often involve human diseases. The importance of regulating angiogenesis in inflammatory diseases has been demonstrated through some successful cases of anti-angiogenesis therapies in related diseases, including arthritis, but it has been reported that some synthetic types of antiangiogenic drugs have potential side effects. In recent years, the importance of finding alternative strategies for regulating angiogenesis has begun to attract the attention of researchers. Therefore, identification of natural ingredients used to prevent or treat angiogenesis-related diseases will play a greater role. Isookanin is a phenolic flavonoid presented in Bidens extract, and it has been reported that isookanin possesses some biological properties, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, anti-diabetic properties, and an ability to inhibit α-amylase. However, its antiangiogenic effects and mechanism thereof have not been studied yet. In this study, our results indicate that isookanin has an effective inhibitory effect on the angiogenic properties of microvascular endothelial cells. Isookanin shows inhibitory effects in multiple stages of PGE2-induced angiogenesis, including the growth, proliferation, migration, and tube formation of microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, isookanin induces cell cycle arrest in S phase, which is also the reason for subsequent inhibition of cell proliferation. The mechanism of inhibiting angiogenesis by isookanin is related to the inhibition of PGE2-mediated ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. These findings make isookanin a potential candidate for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação
3.
J Gen Virol ; 102(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328830

RESUMO

The 5' capped, message-sense RNA genome of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) utilizes the host cell machinery for translation. Translation is regulated by eIF2 alpha at the initiation phase and by eIF4F at cap recognition. Translational suppression by eIF2 alpha phosphorylation occurs as an early event in many alphavirus infections. We observe that in CHIKV-infected HEK293 cells, this occurs as a late event, by which time the viral replication has reached an exponential phase, implying its minimal role in virus restriction. The regulation by eIF4F is mediated through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, p38 MAPK and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathways. A kinetic analysis revealed that CHIKV infection did not modulate AKT phosphorylation, but caused a significant reduction in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It caused degradation of phospho-ERK 1/2 by increased autophagy, leaving the PI3K-Akt-mTOR and p38 MAPK pathways for pharmacological targeting. mTOR inhibition resulted in moderate reduction in viral titre, but had no effect on CHIKV E2 protein expression, indicating a minimal role of the mTOR complex in virus replication. Inhibition of p38 MAPK using SB202190 caused a significant reduction in viral titre and CHIKV E2 and nsP3 protein expression. Furthermore, inhibiting the two pathways together did not offer any synergism, indicating that inhibiting the p38 MAPK pathway alone is sufficient to cause restriction of CHIKV replication. Meanwhile, in uninfected cells the fully functional RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway can circumvent the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on cap-dependent translation. Thus, our results show that host-directed antiviral strategies targeting cellular p38 MAPK are worth exploring against Chikungunya as they could be selective against CHIKV-infected cells with minimal effects on uninfected host cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Piridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Regulação para Baixo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Capuzes de RNA , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3753-3758, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cabazitaxel is known to be effective in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) showing resistance to docetaxel. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism mediating cytotoxic activity of cabazitaxel in docetaxel-resistant human CRPC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parental human CRPC cell line PC3 (PC3/P) was continuously exposed to increasing doses of docetaxel, and a cell line resistant to docetaxel, PC3/R, was developed. Phenotypic differences between these cell lines were investigated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in sensitivity to cabazitaxel between PC3/P and PC3/R. In PC3/P, both docetaxel and cabazitaxel markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In PC3/R, however, phosphorylation of AKT and p44/42 MAPK were maintained following treatment with docetaxel, whereas treatment with cabazitaxel resulted in the marked down-regulation of phosphorylation of AKT but not that of p44/42 MAPK. Furthermore, additional treatment of PC3/R with a specific inhibitor of AKT significantly enhanced the cytotoxic activity of docetaxel but not that of cabazitaxel. Growth of PC3/R in nude mice after treatment with cabazitaxel was significantly inhibited compared with that after treatment with docetaxel. CONCLUSION: Antitumor activity of cabazitaxel in docetaxel-resistant CRPC cells was explained, at least in part, by the inactivation of persistently phosphorylated AKT even after treatment with docetaxel.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacologia , Animais , Cromonas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279406

RESUMO

Three novel pyrazolo-[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolopyrimidine derivatives (1, 2, and 3) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro biological activity. All three compounds exhibited different levels of cytotoxicity against cervical and breast cancer cell lines. However, compound 1 showed the best antiproliferative activity against all tested tumor cell lines, including HCC1937 and HeLa cells, which express high levels of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Western blot analyses demonstrated that compound 1 inhibited the activation of EGFR, protein kinase B (Akt), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 in breast and cervical cancer cells at concentrations of 7 and 11 µM, respectively. The results from docking experiments with EGFR suggested the binding of compound 1 at the ATP binding site of EGFR. Furthermore, the crystal structure of compound 3 (7-(4-bromophenyl)-9-(pyridin-4-yl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Our work represents a promising starting point for the development of a new series of compounds targeting EGFR.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Triazóis/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 279: 119703, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miRNAs are involved in plaque formation of atherosclerosis and vessel restenosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of miR-599, miR-204, and miR-181b on VSMC proliferation, and migration through TGFß receptor 2 (TGFßR2), ß-arrestin 2 (ß-ARR2), SMAD2/p-SMAD2, and ERK1/2/p-ERK1/2. MATERIALS & METHODS: Genes and miRNAs were predicted by bioinformatics tools and were transfected by PEI-miRNAs (miR-599, miR-204, and miR-181b) complexes into VSMCs. The gene and protein expression levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting techniques, respectively. The VSMC proliferation and migration were studied by MTT and scratch assay, respectively. RESULTS: The miR-181b and miR-204 downregulated significantly ß-ARR2 gene and protein expression levels and p-ERK1/2 values. Moreover, TGFßR2 gene and protein expression levels and p-SMAD2 values were not significantly affected by miR-181b and miR-204. The VSMC proliferation (p = 0.0019, p = 0.0054, respectively) and migration (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively) were inhibited by the miR-181b and miR-204. The miR-599 inhibited VSMC proliferation (p = 0.044) and migration (p = 0.0055) but it did not affect significantly the ß-ARR2 and TGFßR2 gene and protein expression levels. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the inhibitory effects of miR-181b and miR-204 on VSMC proliferation and migration are mediated by the ß-ARR2/p-ERK1/2 pathway. Since VSMC proliferation and migration are involved in plaque growth, therefore this pathway can be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , beta-Arrestina 2/genética , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073872

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common and devastating clinical disorders with high mortality and no specific therapy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is usually used intratracheally to induce ALI in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in mice subjected to LPS-induced ALI. Histopathological analysis reveals that um-PEA reduced alteration in lung after LPS intratracheal administration. Besides, um-PEA decreased wet/dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase, a marker of neutrophils infiltration, macrophages and total immune cells number and mast cells degranulation in lung. Moreover, um-PEA could also decrease cytokines release of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18. Furthermore, um-PEA significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation in ALI, and at the same time decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK) expression, that was increased after LPS administration. Our study suggested that um-PEA contrasted LPS-induced ALI, exerting its potential role as an adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapeutic for treating lung injury, maybe also by p38/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Amidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Palmíticos/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Ácidos Palmíticos/uso terapêutico , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
8.
Cell Prolif ; 54(8): e13083, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nodakenin (NK) is a coumarin glucoside that is found in the roots of Angelicae gigas. A limited number of studies have been conducted on the pharmacological activities of NK. Although NK is an important natural resource having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, no investigation has been conducted to examine the effects of NK on obesity and obesity-induced inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of NK treatment on obesity and its complications, and its mechanism of action using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Oil red O staining, western blot assay, qRT-PCR assay, siRNA transfection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, molecular docking and immunofluorescence staining were utilized. RESULTS: Treatment with NK demonstrated anti-adipogenesis effects via the regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and genes associated with triglyceride synthesis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compared with the control group, the group administered NK showed a suppression in weight gain, dyslipidaemia and the development of fatty liver in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, NK administration inhibited adipogenic differentiation and obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress via the suppression of the VLDLR and MEK/ERK1/2 pathways. This is the first study that has documented the interaction between NK and VLDLR structure. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the potential of NK as a natural product-based therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and its complications by targeting adipogenesis and adipose tissue inflammation-associated markers.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de LDL/genética , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070901

RESUMO

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are major components of the glycocalyx. The secreted GAG and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid (HA), and the cell surface PG syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) modulate the expression and activity of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules, acting as critical regulators of tumor cell behavior. Here, we studied the effect of Sdc-1 siRNA depletion and HA treatment on hallmark processes of cancer in breast cancer cell lines of different levels of aggressiveness. We analyzed HA synthesis, and parameters relevant to tumor progression, including the stem cell phenotype, Wnt signaling constituents, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and angiogenic markers in luminal MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Sdc-1 knockdown enhanced HAS-2 synthesis and HA binding in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Sdc-1-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells showed a reduced CD24-/CD44+ population. Furthermore, Sdc-1 depletion was associated with survival signals in both cell lines, affecting cell cycle progression and apoptosis evasion. These changes were linked to the altered expression of KLF4, MSI2, and miR-10b and differential changes in Erk, Akt, and PTEN signaling. We conclude that Sdc-1 knockdown differentially affects HA metabolism in luminal and triple-negative breast cancer model cell lines and impacts the stem phenotype, cell survival, and angiogenic factors.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Sindecana-1/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Antígeno CD24/genética , Antígeno CD24/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Glicocálix/química , Glicocálix/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Hialuronan Sintases/genética , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Sindecana-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
10.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(8): 1039-1050, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential nephroprotective effects of febuxostat, mirtazapine, and their combination against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Induction of nephrotoxicity was achieved via gentamicin injection (100 mg/kg, I.P., for 7 days). Two different doses of mirtazapine (15-30 mg/kg), febuxostat (5-10 mg/kg), and their combination were administered daily for 14 days prior to gentamicin injection and then concomitantly with gentamicin for additional 7 days. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Renal caspase-3, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear factor-kappa-ß (NF-κß), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) were assayed. RESULTS: Febuxostat and mirtazapine significantly (p < 0.05) alleviated biochemical and histopathological alterations that were induced by gentamicin and, for the first time, significantly decreased the renal levels of ERK1/2 and MCP-1. Conclusion: Febuxostat and mirtazapine were found to have a synergistic impact in reducing gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. EXPERT OPINION: The utility of nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, such as febuxostat and mirtazapine are offering a new potential opportunity for the future nephroprotective effects therapy: Febuxostat and mirtazapine are found to have a synergistic impact in reducing gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Febuxostat/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/toxicidade , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Mirtazapina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Febuxostat/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Supressores da Gota/administração & dosagem , Supressores da Gota/farmacologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Mirtazapina/administração & dosagem , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos
11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 562: 36-42, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034091

RESUMO

There are six different longevity models in Caenorhabditis elegans. Previous studies have identified several convergence points, such as hlh-30, daf-16, and klf-3, required for lifespan extension in these longevity models. However, it is not clear whether there other such convergence points. In this study, based on analysis of transcriptome data, we found that the expression of klo-1/klotho was elevated in several longevity models. klo-1 was required for lifespan extension in the glp-1(e2141) and isp-1(qm150) mutants. klo-1 extended the lifespan of glp-1(e2141) and isp-1(qm150) worms by activating extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In addition, klo-1 and mpk-1 (the homologous gene encoding ERK) regulated autophagy in glp-1(e2141) mutants, suggesting that klo-1 regulates lifespan by activating autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Longevidade , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Mutação/genética
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(10): 5867-5880, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048556

RESUMO

Mammalian oocyte maturation is driven by strictly regulated polyadenylation and translational activation of maternal mRNA stored in the cytoplasm. However, the poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that directly mediates cytoplasmic polyadenylation in mammalian oocytes has not been determined. In this study, we identified PAPα as the elusive enzyme that catalyzes cytoplasmic mRNA polyadenylation implicated in mouse oocyte maturation. PAPα was mainly localized in the germinal vesicle (GV) of fully grown oocytes but was distributed to the ooplasm after GV breakdown. Inhibition of PAPα activity impaired cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translation of maternal transcripts, thus blocking meiotic cell cycle progression. Once an oocyte resumes meiosis, activated CDK1 and ERK1/2 cooperatively mediate the phosphorylation of three serine residues of PAPα, 537, 545 and 558, thereby leading to increased activity. This mechanism is responsible for translational activation of transcripts lacking cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements in their 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). In turn, activated PAPα stimulated polyadenylation and translation of the mRNA encoding its own (Papola) through a positive feedback circuit. ERK1/2 promoted Papola mRNA translation in a 3'-UTR polyadenylation signal-dependent manner. Through these mechanisms, PAPα activity and levels were significantly amplified, improving the levels of global mRNA polyadenylation and translation, thus, benefiting meiotic cell cycle progression.


Assuntos
Meiose , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oogênese , Polinucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro Estocado/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Meiose/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oogênese/genética , Fosforilação , Poliadenilação , Polinucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Polinucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro Estocado/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Fuso Acromático/genética , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 910-920, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865893

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction. Previous studies have demonstrated that TRAF6 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and that TRAF6 knockdown dramatically attenuates tumor cell growth. Thus, TRAF6 may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC. Herein, we identified bis (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl) sulfone (TMBPS) as a novel inhibitor that can directly bind to and downregulate the level of TRAF6. In vitro experimental results showed that TMBPS arrests the cell cycle in the G2/M phase by inactivating the protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways and induces apoptosis by activating the p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In addition, TMBPS exhibited significant tumor growth inhibition in mouse xenograft models. In summary, our findings offer a proof-of-concept for the use of TMBPS as a novel chemotherapy drug for the prevention or treatment of HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Sulfonas/química , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
14.
FASEB J ; 35(5): e21598, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871068

RESUMO

Fibrillin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein which contains one conserved RGD integrin-binding motif. It constitutes the backbone of microfibrils in many tissues, and mutations in fibrillin-1 cause various connective tissue disorders. Although it is well established that fibrillin-1 interacts with several RGD-dependent integrins, very little is known about the associated intracellular signaling pathways. Recent published evidence identified a subset of miRNAs regulated by fibrillin-1 RGD-cell adhesion, with miR-1208 among the most downregulated. The present study shows that the downregulated miR-1208 controls fibroblast proliferation. Inhibitor experiments revealed that fibrillin-1 RGD suppressed miR-1208 expression via c-Src kinase and the downstream JNK signaling. Bioinformatic prediction and experimental target sequence validation demonstrated four miR-1208 binding sites on the ERK2 mRNA and one on the MEK1 mRNA. ERK2 and MEK1 are critical proliferation-promoting kinases. Decreased miR-1208 levels elevated the total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 protein levels and the phosphorylated to total ERK1/2 ratio. Together, the data demonstrate a novel outside-in signaling mechanism explaining how fibrillin-1 RGD-cell binding regulates fibroblast proliferation.


Assuntos
Fibrilina-1/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fibrilina-1/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/genética
15.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 17(5): 3168-3177, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929855

RESUMO

We develop an approach by which reliable estimates of the transfer entropy can be obtained from the variance-covariance matrix of atomic fluctuations, which converges quickly and retains sensitivity to the full chemical profile of the biomolecular system. We validate our method on ERK2, a well-studied kinase involved in the MAPK signaling cascade for which considerable computational, experimental, and mutation data are available. We present the results of transfer entropy analysis on data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of wild-type active and inactive ERK2, along with mutants Q103A, I84A, L73P, and G83A. We show that our method is systematically consistent within the context of other approaches for calculating transfer entropy, and we provide a method for interpreting networks of interconnected residues in the protein from a perspective of allosteric coupling. We introduce new insights about possible allosteric activity of the extreme N-terminal region of the kinase, and we describe evidence that suggests that activation may occur by different paths or routes in different mutants. Our results highlight systematic advantages and disadvantages of each method for calculating transfer entropy and show the important role of transfer entropy analysis for understanding allosteric behavior in biomolecular systems.


Assuntos
Entropia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 557: 143-150, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865222

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2), is essential for cellular response to hypoxia and holds an important role in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastasis, thus, constituting an important therapeutic target. Maximal HIF-2 transcriptional activation requires HIF-2α phosphorylation by ERK1/2 that impairs its CRM1-mediated nuclear export. Herein, we reveal a novel interaction of HIF-2α with Reptin52, a multifunctional protein involved in cellular functions orchestrated both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. HIF-2α and Reptin52 interact both in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, however, ERK1/2 pathway inactivation seems to favour their association in the cytoplasm. Notably, we demonstrate that Reptin52 reduces HIF-2 transcriptional activity, which results in decreased EPO secretion under hypoxia, by impairing HIF-2α stability via a non-canonical PHD-VHL-proteasome independent mechanism. This interaction represents a novel HIF-2 fine tuning mechanism that allows for distinct HIF1/2 isoforms regulation.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , Eritropoese/genética , Eritropoetina/genética , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806711

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that has been reported to damage various types of cells/tissues, yet its effects on endothelial cells (ECs) have never been investigated. Therefore, this study investigates the potential effects of ZEN using bovine aortic ECs (BAECs). In this study, we found that ZEN induced apoptosis of BAECs through increased cleavage of caspase 3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). ZEN also increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p53, and treatment with the ERK1/2 or p53 inhibitor reversed ZEN-induced EC apoptosis. Transfection of BAECs with small interfering RNA against ERK1/2 or p53 revealed ERK1/2 as an upstream target of p53 in ZEN-stimulated apoptosis. ZEN increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), yet treatment with the antioxidant did not prevent EC apoptosis. Similarly, blocking of estrogen receptors by specific inhibitors also did not prevent ZEN-induced apoptosis. Finally, chelation of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) using BAPTA-AM or inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ channel using 2-APB reversed ZEN-induced EC apoptosis, but not by inhibiting ER stress using 4-PBA. Together, our findings demonstrate that ZEN induces EC apoptosis through an ERK1/2/p53/caspase 3 signaling pathway activated by Ca2+ release from the ER, and this pathway is independent of ROS production and estrogen receptor activation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Fosforilação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100676, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865857

RESUMO

Human cell division is a highly regulated process that relies on the accurate capture and movement of chromosomes to the metaphase plate. Errors in the fidelity of chromosome congression and alignment can lead to improper chromosome segregation, which is correlated with aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. These processes are known to be regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in other species, but the role of ERK2 in mitosis in mammals remains unclear. Here, we have identified the dual-specificity phosphatase 7 (DUSP7), known to display selectivity for ERK2, as important in regulating chromosome alignment. During mitosis, DUSP7 bound to ERK2 and regulated the abundance of active phospho-ERK2 through its phosphatase activity. Overexpression of DUSP7, but not catalytically inactive mutants, led to a decrease in the levels of phospho-ERK2 and mitotic chromosome misalignment, while knockdown of DUSP7 also led to defective chromosome congression that resulted in a prolonged mitosis. Consistently, knockdown or chemical inhibition of ERK2 or chemical inhibition of the MEK kinase that phosphorylates ERK2 led to chromosome alignment defects. Our results support a model wherein MEK-mediated phosphorylation and DUSP7-mediated dephosphorylation regulate the levels of active phospho-ERK2 to promote proper cell division.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos/metabolismo , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mitose , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Células HCT116 , Células HeLa , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Fosforilação/genética
19.
Life Sci ; 276: 119407, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794254

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the interaction between cannabinoid CB1/CB2 and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors in controlling neuronal signaling and fate. METHODS: HT22 hippocampal cells were treated with different cannabinoid and LPA receptor agonists and antagonists. Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to study intracellular signaling and the expression of apoptotic markers. Cell viability was determined by a luminescence assay. KEY FINDINGS: Cannabinoid agonists induced activation of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases. The effects of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist HU210 were antagonized by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant, whereas the responses to the CB2 agonist JWH133 were blocked by the CB2 antagonist SR144528. HU210 reduced the apoptotic cell death induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, whereas JWH133 enhanced the cytokine cytotoxicity. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation abrogated the HU210 pro-survival and the JWH133 pro-apoptotic effects, respectively. HU210 and the endocannabinoid anandamide, but not JWH133, potentiated ERK1/2 stimulation by LPA and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline acting through the LPA1 receptor. HU210 enhanced amitriptyline-stimulated CREB phosphorylation and protection against TNF-α-induced apoptosis, whereas JWH133 had no effect. ERK1/2 stimulation by either HU210 or amitriptyline was dependent on fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R) kinase activity and the combination of the two stimulants induced FGF-R phosphorylation. Moreover, the CB1 receptor was found to co-immunoprecipitate with the LPA1 receptor. CONCLUSIONS: In HT22 hippocampal cells CB1 and CB2 receptors differentially regulate TNF-α-induced apoptosis and CB1 receptors positively interact with amitriptyline-stimulated LPA1 in promoting FGF-R-mediated ERK1/2 signaling and neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/farmacologia , Amitriptilina/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918729

RESUMO

Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) is the ubiquitin E3 ligase that mediates degradation of c-Jun protein upon Erk1/2 inactivation. It remains unknown how this protein degradation pathway is regulated. In this study, we investigated the roles of protein phosphatases, ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBE2), and an intrinsic motif of c-Jun in regulating this degradation pathway. By using pharmacological inhibitors and/or gene knockdown techniques, we identified protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and PP2A as the phosphatases and UBE23d as the UBE2 promoting c-Jun degradation, triggered by Erk1/2 inactivation. In addition, we report that the C-terminus of c-Jun protein facilitates its degradation. The addition of a C-terminal tag or deletion of the last four amino acid residues from the C-terminus of c-Jun protects it from degradation under Erk1/2-inactivating conditions. Taken together, this study reveals that the Erk1/2 inactivation-triggered and COP1-mediated c-Jun degradation is extrinsically and intrinsically regulated, providing a new understanding of the mechanisms underlying this protein degradation pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise
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