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1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 393-402, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871633

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes severe disease when the infection occurs during pregnancy. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside involved in numerous physiological processes; however, the role of adenosine receptors in T. gondii-induced trophoblast cell function has not been investigated until now. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the intracellular signaling pathways regulated by adenosine receptors using a HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell model of T. gondii infection. HTR8/SVneo human extravillous trophoblast cells were infected with or without T. gondii and then evaluated for cell morphology, intracellular proliferation of the parasite, adenosine receptor expression, TNF-α production and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways triggered by adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR). HTR8/SVneo cells infected with T. gondii exhibited an altered cytoskeletal changes, an increased infection rate and reduced viability in an infection time-dependent manner. T. gondii significantly promoted increased TNF-α production, A3AR protein levels and p38, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation compared to those observed in uninfected control cells. Moreover, the inhibition of A3AR by A3AR siRNA transfection apparently suppressed the T. gondii infection-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, A3AR production and MAPK activation. In addition, T. gondii-promoted TNF-α secretion was dramatically attenuated by pretreatment with PD098059 or SP600125. These results indicate that A3AR-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and JNK positively regulates TNF-α secretion in T. gondii-infected HTR8/SVneo cells.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Receptor A3 de Adenosina/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237098, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745124

RESUMO

The EGFR-targeting cancer therapies are commonly facing drug resistance, mostly due to mutations. Gene therapy with artificial microRNA targeting EGFR conserved sequence may avoid such problem. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus expressing EGFR-targeting artificial microRNA and active revCASP3 (Ad-EC), under the control of tumor-specific SLPI promoter, and evaluated its inhibitory effect on HEP-2 cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay showed that cell growth inhibition rate at 72h was 44.0% in Ad-EC group at MOI 50, while the rate was 7.7% in the control virus Ad-GFP group and 3.6% in Cetuximab (500 µg/ml) group respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the late apoptotic cells rate was 36.1% in Ad-EC group, significantly higher than 6.5% of Ad-GFP group (p < 0.001). When Ad-EC (MOI 50) was combined with CDDP (0.25 µg/ml), late apoptotic cells rate increased to 61.2%, significantly higher than each monotherapy group (P < 0.001). The real-time xCELLigence system recorded an effective cell growth inhibition in Ad-EC and CDDP groups, and more enhanced effect in Ad-EC plus CDDP group. Western blot revealed that Ad-EC could inhibit the activation of AKT pathway and ERK1/2 pathway, while Cetuximab had the AKT pathway over-activated. In vivo experiments with HEP-2 xenograft in nude mice confirmed the tumor inhibition in Ad-EC, CDDP and Ad-EC plus CDDP groups compared with PBS group (P < 0.01). Collectively, these data support the effective inhibition of cancer cells by this novel gene therapy strategy.


Assuntos
Caspase 3/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Terapêutica com RNAi/métodos , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Apoptose , Caspase 3/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14139-14149, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503917

RESUMO

Agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) must correctly select from hundreds of potential downstream signaling cascades and effectors. To accomplish this, GPCRs first bind to an intermediary signaling protein, such as G protein or arrestin. These intermediaries initiate signaling cascades that promote the activity of different effectors, including several protein kinases. The relative roles of G proteins versus arrestins in initiating and directing signaling is hotly debated, and it remains unclear how the correct final signaling pathway is chosen given the ready availability of protein partners. Here, we begin to deconvolute the process of signal bias from the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) by exploring factors that promote the activation of ERK1/2 or Src, the kinases that lead to cell growth and proliferation. We found that ERK1/2 activation involves both arrestin and Gαs, while Src activation depends solely on arrestin. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation pattern influences both arrestin and Gαs coupling, suggesting an additional way the cells regulate G protein signaling. The phosphorylation sites in the D1R intracellular loop 3 are particularly important for directing the binding of G protein versus arrestin and for selecting between the activation of ERK1/2 and Src. Collectively, these studies correlate functional outcomes with a physical basis for signaling bias and provide fundamental information on how GPCR signaling is directed.


Assuntos
Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arrestina/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Dopamina D1/química , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
4.
Gene ; 754: 144856, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512160

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates the antitumor and antiangiogenesis activities of testis-specific gene antigen 10 (TSGA10). However, the underlying mechanisms and precise role of TSGA10 in angiogenesis are still elusive. In this study, we isolated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 carrying TSGA10 coding sequence. We demonstrated that TSGA10 over-expression significantly decreases HUVEC tubulogenesis and interconnected capillary network formation. HUVECs over-expressing TSGA10 exhibited a significant decrease in migration and proliferation rates. TSGA10 over-expression markedly decreased expression of angiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF-A, VEGFR-2, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2. Our ELISA results showed the decrease in VEGF-A mRNA expression level is associated with a significant decrease in its protein secretion. Additionally, over-expressing TSGA10 decreased expression levels of marker genes of cell migration (MMP-2, MMP-9, and SDF-1a) and proliferation (PCNA and Ki-67. Furthermore, ERK-1 and AKT phosphorylation significantly reduced in HUVECs over-expressing TSGA10. Our findings suggest a potent anti-angiogenesis activity of TSGA10 in HUVECs through down-regulation of ERK and AKT signalling pathways, and may provide therapeutic benefits for the management of different pathological angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Inibidores da Angiogênese/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13457-13467, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482868

RESUMO

The protooncogene MYC regulates a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation and metabolism. Maintaining MYC at homeostatic levels is critical to normal cell function; overexpression drives many cancers. MYC stability is regulated through phosphorylation: phosphorylation at Thr58 signals degradation while Ser62 phosphorylation leads to its stabilization and functional activation. The bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) is a transcriptional and epigenetic regulator with intrinsic kinase and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities that activates transcription of key protooncogenes, including MYC We report that BRD4 phosphorylates MYC at Thr58, leading to MYC ubiquitination and degradation, thereby regulating MYC target genes. Importantly, BRD4 degradation, but not inhibition, results in increased levels of MYC protein. Conversely, MYC inhibits BRD4's HAT activity, suggesting that MYC regulates its own transcription by limiting BRD4-mediated chromatin remodeling of its locus. The MYC stabilizing kinase, ERK1, regulates MYC levels directly and indirectly by inhibiting BRD4 kinase activity. These findings demonstrate that BRD4 negatively regulates MYC levels, which is counteracted by ERK1 activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Acetilação , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Ubiquitinação
6.
Life Sci ; 256: 117914, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512010

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are the primary stressors that elicit mitochondria specific cell stress in diabetes. Here we hypothesized that elevated level of ROS in high glucose (HG) environment, trigger mitochondrial stress by damaging mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), altering inflammatory mediators, and neurodegenerative markers via stress signalling pathway in retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). Mechanistically, our findings illustrated that the HG environment increases the ROS production in retinal cells leading to the disruption of antioxidant defence mechanism, and altering mitochondrial machinery such as an increase in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increase in mitochondrial mass, and increase in mtDNA fragmentation. Furthermore, fragmented mtDNA escape from mitochondria into the cytosol, where it engaged with cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of IFN gene (STING) phosphorylation and activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via ERK1/2-Akt-tuberin-mTOR dependent pathways. Our results further indicate that siRNA-mediated gene silencing of tuberin suppresses the strong downregulation of tuberin-mTOR-IRF3 activation. HG environment resulted in activation of IRF3, coinciding with the increased expression of inflammatory mediators and neurodegenerative markers. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or ERK1/2 or phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt inhibitors in RGC-5 cells significantly reduced the HG-induced IRF3 expression and declined the expression of neurodegenerative markers. Collectively, our results demonstrates that HG-induced over production of ROS, disrupts the antioxidant defence mechanism and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to alterations of inflammatory mediators and neurodegenerative markers through the ERK1/2-Akt-tuberin-mTOR dependent signalling pathway in RGC-5 cells.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(1): 49-60, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358164

RESUMO

Negative allosteric modulation of the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurologic disorders. Despite the success in preclinical studies, many mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) that have reached clinical trials failed due to lack of efficacy. In this study, we provide a detailed in vitro pharmacological characterization of nine clinically and preclinically tested NAMs. We evaluated inhibition of l-glutamate-induced signaling with Ca2+ mobilization, inositol monophosphate (IP1) accumulation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and real-time receptor internalization assays on rat mGlu5 expressed in HEK293A cells. Moreover, we determined association rates (kon) and dissociation rates (koff), as well as NAM affinities with [3H]methoxy-PEPy binding experiments. kon and koff values varied greatly between the nine NAMs (34- and 139-fold, respectively) resulting in long receptor residence times (>400 min) for basimglurant and mavoglurant, medium residence times (10-30 min) for AZD2066, remeglurant, and (RS)-remeglurant, and low residence times (<10 mins) for dipraglurant, F169521, F1699611, and STX107. We found that all NAMs inhibited l-glutamate-induced mGlu5 receptor internalization, generally with a similar potency to IP1 accumulation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas Ca2+ mobilization was less potently inhibited. Operational model of allosterism analyses revealed that dipraglurant and (RS)-remeglurant were biased toward (affinity) receptor internalization and away (cooperativity) from the ERK1/2 phosphorylation pathway, respectively. Our study is the first to measure mGlu5 NAM binding kinetics and negative allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptor internalization and adds significant new knowledge about the molecular pharmacology of a diverse range of clinically relevant NAMs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor is important in many brain functions and implicated in several neurological pathologies. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have shown promising results in preclinical models but have so far failed in human clinical trials. Here we provide the most comprehensive and comparative molecular pharmacological study to date of nine preclinically/clinically tested NAMs at the mGlu5 receptor, which is also the first study to measure ligand binding kinetics and negative allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptor internalization.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Indóis/química , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Isoxazóis/química , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/química , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo , Triazóis/química
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0222969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352958

RESUMO

In inflammatory skin conditions, such as psoriasis, vascular enlargement is associated with endothelial cell proliferation, release of cytokines and adhesion molecule expression. Interleukin (IL)-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by T helper-17 cells that is critically involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. IL-36α, IL-36ß and IL-36γ are also inflammatory cytokines up-regulated in psoriasis and induced by various stimuli, including IL-17A. In this study, we found that human keratinocytes are the main source of IL-36, in particular of IL-36γ. This cytokine was strongly induced by IL-17A and, together with IL-17A, efficiently activated human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), which expressed both IL-17 and IL-36 receptors. Both IL-36γ and IL-17A induced cell proliferation through specific molecular cascades involving ERK1/2 only or ERK1/2, STAT3 and NF-κB, respectively. We highlighted the intense IL-17A- and IL-36γ -dependent interplay between keratinocytes and HDMECs, likely active in the psoriatic lesions and leading to the establishment of a cytokine network responsible for the development and maintenance of the inflamed state. IL-17A or IL-36γ showed in HDMECs a synergic activity with TNF-α by potently inducing inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release and ICAM-1 expression. We also investigated the involvement of IL-36γ and VEGF-A, substantially reduced in lesional skin of psoriatic patients pharmacologically treated with the anti-IL-17A antibody Secukinumab. Importantly, keratinocyte-derived IL-36γ represented an additional pro-angiogenic mediator of IL-17A. We observed that keratinocyte-derived VEGF-A influenced proliferation but did not act on expression of adhesion molecules in HDMECs. On the other hand, inhibition of IL-36γ released by IL-17A-treated keratinocytes impaired either proliferation or ICAM-1 expression both in HDMECs and in an in vivo murine model of psoriasis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that IL-17A and IL-36γ are highly involved in endothelial cells/keratinocytes crosstalk in inflammatory skin conditions.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Psoríase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1943, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327648

RESUMO

Kidney fibrosis is a highly deleterious process and a final manifestation of chronic kidney disease. Alpha-(α)-synuclein (SNCA) is an actin-binding neuronal protein with various functions within the brain; however, its role in other tissues is unknown. Here, we describe the expression of SNCA in renal epithelial cells and demonstrate its decrease in renal tubules of murine and human fibrotic kidneys, as well as its downregulation in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) after TGF-ß1 treatment. shRNA-mediated knockdown of SNCA in RPTECs results in de novo expression of vimentin and α-SMA, while SNCA overexpression represses TGF-ß1-induced mesenchymal markers. Conditional gene silencing of SNCA in RPTECs leads to an exacerbated tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) in two unrelated in vivo fibrotic models, which is associated with an increased activation of MAPK-p38 and PI3K-Akt pathways. Our study provides an evidence that disruption of SNCA signaling in RPTECs contributes to the pathogenesis of renal TIF by facilitating partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix accumulation.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/patologia , Rim/patologia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fibrose , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/genética , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Obstrução Ureteral/genética , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
Virus Res ; 283: 197961, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283129

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged swine coronavirus that causes acute enteritis in neonatal piglets. To date, little is known about the host factors or cellular signaling mechanisms associated with PDCoV replication. Since the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is involved in modulation of various important cellular functions, numerous DNA and RNA viruses coopt this pathway for efficient propagation. In the present study, we found that PDCoV induces the activation of ERK1/2 and its downstream substrate Elk-1 early in infection irrespective of viral biosynthesis. Chemical inhibition or knockdown of ERK1/2 significantly suppressed viral replication, whereas treatment with an ERK activator increased viral yields. Direct pharmacological inhibition of ERK activation had no effect on the viral entry process but sequentially affected the post-entry steps of the virus life cycle. In addition, pharmacological sequestration of cellular or viral cholesterol downregulated PDCoV-induced ERK signaling, highlighting the significance of the cholesterol contents in ERK activation. However, ERK inhibition had no effect on PDCoV-triggered apoptosis through activation of the cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, suggesting the irrelevance of ERK activation to the apoptosis pathway during PDCoV infection. Altogether, our findings indicate that the ERK signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in viral biosynthesis to facilitate the optimal replication of PDCoV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Proteínas Elk-1 do Domínio ets/metabolismo
11.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(5): 520-532, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134157

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant brain tumor in adults. Recently, programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint blockades have been applied for GBM treatment. However, the mechanism of PD-L1 upregulation in GBM is still unclear. COP9 signalosome 6 (CSN6) is crucial for maintaining the protein stabilization in cancer cells. In this study, we applied human GBM specimens and cell lines to investigate whether the EGFR-ERK pathway regulates CSN6 for PD-L1 upregulation. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that high expression of EGFR, CSN6, and PD-L1 in patients with glioma was associated with poor prognosis. In 47 human GBM specimens, high expression of PD-L1 was associated with low amount of CD8+ T cell infiltration as well as the poor prognosis of patients. CSN6 was positively correlated with EGFR and PD-L1 expression in human GBM specimens. We treated two GBM cell lines (U87 and U251) with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vitro, and found EGF-upregulated p-EGFR, p-ERK, CSN6, and PD-L1 expression in GBM cells. PD98059, the ERK blocker, inhibited upregulations of CSN6 and PD-L1 in EGF-treated cells. Inhibition of CSN6 by small interfering RNA decreased PD-L1 expression but also increased CHIP expression in GBM cells. When the cells were treated with EGF and cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, EGF-reduced CHX-induced CSN6 and PD-L1 turnover in GBM cells. Furthermore, CSN6-mediated downregulation of PD-L1 was inhibited by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor in U87 cells. Thus, these results suggest that the EGFR-ERK pathway may upregulate CSN6, which may inhibit PD-L1 degradation and subsequently maintain PD-L1 stability in GBM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Complexo do Signalossomo COP9/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Idoso , Apoptose , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(8): 947-958, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130518

RESUMO

AIMS: Excessive glucose serum concentration, endothelial dysfunction and microangiopathy are key features of diabetes mellitus, being both diagnostic parameters and pathogenetic mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is importantly implicated in the physiology and pathology of blood vessels, including diabetic vascular damage. METHODS: These factors certainly affect endothelial cells, and to evaluate mechanisms involved, we took advantage of telomerase-immortalized human microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells. TIME cells were exposed to different glucose concentrations and to VEGF treatments. Culture conditions also included the use of basement membrane extract, as an in vitro differentiation model. Cell morphology was then evaluated in the different conditions, and cellular proteins were extracted to analyze specific protein products by Western blot. RESULTS: High glucose concentrations and VEGF did substantially affect neither morphology nor growth of cultured TIME cells, while both considerably increased differentiation into "capillary-like" structures when cells were cultured on basement membrane extract. CONCLUSIONS: Under these conditions, high glucose concentration and VEGF also produced a short-term increase in pERK1/2 and p85 proteins, while total and phosphorylated AKT were not affected. These data suggest a direct angiogenetic effect of glucose, affecting intracellular transduction mechanisms with an action similar to that of VEGF. This effect on endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation could be part of pathogenetic mechanisms producing diabetic microvascular alterations.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Classe Ia de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Microvasc Res ; 130: 104001, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198058

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is prominent in atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, peripheral and cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. Novel therapeutic approaches to these conditions often involve development of tissue-engineered veins with ex vivo expanded endothelial cells. However, high cell number requirements limit these approaches to become applicable to clinical applications and highlight the requirement of technologies that accelerate expansion of vascular-forming cells. We have previously shown that novel small molecules could induce hematopoietic stem cell expansion ex vivo. We hypothesized that various small molecules targeting hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and mobilization could be used to induce endothelial cell expansion and angiogenesis due to common origin and shared characteristics of endothelial and hematopoietic cells. Here, we have screened thirty-five small molecules and found that CASIN and AMD3100 increase endothelial cell expansion up to two-fold and induce tube formation and ex vivo sprouting. In addition, we have studied how CASIN and AMD3100 affect cell migration, apoptosis and cell cycle of endothelial cells. CASIN and AMD3100 upregulate key endothelial marker genes and downregulate a number of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that CASIN and AMD3100 could be further tested in the development of artificial vascular systems and vascular gene editing technologies. Furthermore, these findings may have potential to contribute to the development of alternative treatment methods for diseases that cause endothelial damage.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
EBioMedicine ; 52: 102635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ovulatory dysfunction mechanisms underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not completely understood. There is no effective therapy for PCOS so far. METHODS: We measured the expression of four and a half LIM domain 2 (FHL2) and other related-genes in human granulosa cells (hGCs) from patients with and without PCOS. To minimise the heterogeneity of patients with PCOS, we only included PCOS patients meeting all three criteria according to the revised Rotterdam consensus. The in vitro effects of FHL2 on ovulatory genes and the underlying mechanisms were examined in KGN cells. The role of FHL2 in ovulation was investigated in vivo by overexpressing FHL2 in rat ovaries via intrabursal lentivirus injection. FINDINGS: Increased FHL2 and androgen receptor (AR) expression and decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ß (C/EBPß) expression were observed in hGCs from patients with PCOS. FHL2 inhibited the expression of ovulation-related genes, including phosphorylated ERK1/2, C/EBPß, COX2 and HAS2 in KGN cells. It was partially by interacting with AR to act as its co-regulator to inhibit C/EBPß expression and by binding to ERK1/2 to inhibit its phosphorylation. Moreover, FHL2 abundance in hGCs was positively correlated with the basal serum testosterone concentration of patients with PCOS, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced FHL2 upregulation was mediated by AR signalling in KGN cells. Additionally, lentiviral-mediated functional FHL2 overexpression in rat ovaries for 1 week contributed to an impaired superovulatory response, displaying decreased numbers of retrieved oocytes and a lower MII oocyte rate. 3-week FHL2 overexpression rat models without superovulation led to acyclicity and polycystic ovary morphology. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PCOS, suggesting that FHL2 could be a potential treatment target for ovulatory obstacles in PCOS. FUND: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health project and Shanghai Commission of Science and Technology.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Ovulação/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 466(1-2): 55-63, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052247

RESUMO

Rap2B, belonging to the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins, is upregulated and contributes to the progression of several tumors by acting as an oncogene, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism underlying the functional roles of Rap2B in HCC remains unclear. In this study, the evaluation of Rap2B expression in HCC cells and tissues was achieved by qRT-PCR and western blot assays. The effects of Rap2B on the malignant biological behaviors in HCC were explored by means of MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. Protein levels of Ki67, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cleaved caspase-3, together with the alternations of the ERK1/2 and PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways were qualified by western blot assay. Further verification of the Rap2B function on HCC tumorigenesis was attained by performing in vivo assays. We found that Rap2B levels were upregulated in HCC tissues and cells. Rap2B silencing led to a reduction of cell-proliferative and invasive abilities, and an increase of apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, xenograft tumor assay demonstrated that Rap2B silencing repressed HCC xenograft tumor growth in vivo. In addition, we found that Rap2B knockdown significantly inhibited the ERK1/2 and PTEN/PI3K/Akt cascades in HCC cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Together, Rap2B knockdown inhibited HCC-malignant progression, which was involved in inhibiting the ERK1/2 and PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathways. Our findings contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanism of Rap2B in HCC progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína rab2 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Proteína rab2 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
16.
Life Sci ; 248: 117465, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe peripheral nerve injury leads to skeletal muscle atrophy and impaired limb function that is not sufficiently improved by existing treatments. Fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) is involved in tissue regeneration and is dysregulated in denervated rat muscles. However, the way that FGF6 affects skeletal muscle repair after peripheral nerve injury has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role of FGF6 in the regeneration of denervated muscles using myoblast cells and an in vivo model of peripheral nerve injury. RESULTS: FGF6 promoted the viability and migration of C2C12 and primary myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner through FGFR1-mediated upregulation of cyclin D1. Low concentrations of FGF6 promoted myoblast differentiation through FGFR4-mediated activation of ERK1/2, which upregulated expression of MyHC, MyoD, and myogenin. FGFR-1, FGFR4, MyoD, and myogenin were not upregulated when FGF6 expression was inhibited in myoblasts by shRNA-mediated knockdown. Injection of FGF6 into denervated rat muscles enhanced the MyHC-IIb muscle fiber phenotype and prevented muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that FGF6 reduces skeletal muscle atrophy by relying on the ERK1/2 mechanism and enhances the conversion of slow muscle to fast muscle fibers, thereby promoting functional recovery of regenerated skeletal muscle after innervation.


Assuntos
Fator 6 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Fator 6 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 6 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Denervação Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Proteína MyoD/genética , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/patologia , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
17.
Life Sci ; 245: 117365, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001267

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperglycemia in combination with oxidative stress plays a significant pathophysiological role in diabetic testicular dysfunction, often leading to infertility. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to mediate oxidative stress during diabetes. However, engagement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in diabetic testicular dysfunction has not been previously explored. Herein, we investigated the role of TLR4 in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and in the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 in primary Leydig cells exposed to high glucose and in testis isolated from diabetic rats. MAIN METHODS: Testicular levels of TLR4 and phospho-ERK1/2 were determined by Western blotting. ROS production was detected with a fluorescent probe. Additionally, primary Leydig cells were exposed to normal (5.5 mmol/l) or elevated (33 mmol/l) glucose concentrations and treated with or without a TLR4 inhibitor, CLI095 (10-5 mol/l) for 24 h, followed by evaluation of TLR4 and phospho-ERK1/2 expression levels by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: We show that high glucose induces the expression of TLR4 in Leydig cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that blockade of this receptor in this cell population reduces oxidative stress and restores the levels of phospho-ERK1/2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide new insight into TLR4 interaction with ROS and MEK/ERK pathway in Leydig cells exposed to high glucose and present a rationale for the development of new therapeutics for diabetic testicular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Western Blotting , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 4078-4087, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041890

RESUMO

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a protease virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis that is required for its pathogenicity. LT treatment causes a rapid degradation of c-Jun protein that follows inactivation of the MEK1/2-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Here we identify COP1 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase that is essential for LT-induced c-Jun degradation. COP1 knockdown using siRNA prevents degradation of c-Jun, ETV4, and ETV5 in cells treated with either LT or the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126. Immunofluorescence staining reveals that COP1 preferentially localizes to the nuclear envelope, but it is released from the nuclear envelope into the nucleoplasm following Erk1/2 inactivation. At baseline, COP1 attaches to the nuclear envelope via interaction with translocated promoter region (TPR), a component of the nuclear pore complex. Disruption of this COP1-TPR interaction, through Erk1/2 inactivation or TPR knockdown, leads to rapid COP1 release from the nuclear envelope into the nucleoplasm where it degrades COP1 substrates. COP1-mediated degradation of c-Jun protein, combined with LT-mediated blockade of the JNK1/2 signaling pathway, inhibits cellular proliferation. This effect on proliferation is reversed by COP1 knockdown and ectopic expression of an LT-resistant MKK7-4 fusion protein. Taken together, this study reveals that the nuclear envelope acts as a reservoir, maintaining COP1 poised for action. Upon Erk1/2 inactivation, COP1 is rapidly released from the nuclear envelope, promoting the degradation of its nuclear substrates, including c-Jun, a critical transcription factor that promotes cellular proliferation. This regulation allows mammalian cells to respond rapidly to changes in extracellular cues and mediates pathogenic mechanisms in disease states.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 6 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 6 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
19.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(5): 467-477, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077156

RESUMO

Protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 1 (PP4R1) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of centrosome maturation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and tumor necrosis factor signaling. However, the function of PP4R1 in non-small-cell lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we identify PP4R1 as an oncogene through Oncomine database mining and immunohistochemical staining, and we showed that PP4R1 is upregulated in lung cancer tissues as compared with that in normal lung tissues and correlated with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, in vitro study by wound-healing and Transwell assay showed that PP4R1 could promote migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that PP4R1 could cooperate with high mobility group AT-hook 2 and thereby promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via MAPK/extracellular receptor kinase activation. Taken together, our study provides a rich resource for understanding PP4R1 in lung cancer and indicates that PP4R1 may serve as a potential biomarker in lung cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Proteína HMGA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
J Med Chem ; 63(8): 3976-3995, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078308

RESUMO

ERK1 and ERK5 are proposed to have pivotal roles in several types of cancer. Under some circumstance, ERK5 may provide a common bypass route, which rescues proliferation upon abrogation of ERK1 signaling. Thus, we accurately classified the tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) based on the expression levels of ERK1 and ERK5. We proposed a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome the above-mentioned compensatory mechanism in specific tumor types by co-targeting both ERK1 and ERK5. On the basis of the idea of overcoming ERK5 compensation mechanism, 22ac (ADTL-EI1712) as the first selective dual-target inhibitor of ERK1 and ERK5 was discovered to have potent antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, this compound was found to induce regulated cell death accompanied by autophagy in MKN-74 cells. Taken together, our results warrant the potential of this dual-target inhibitor as a new candidate drug that conquers compensatory mechanism in certain tumor types.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Células HL-60 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
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