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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4467, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948751

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported that upregulation of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) prevented lipid-induced renal injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role and regulation of proximal tubular DsbA-L for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) remains unclear. In current study, we found that a proximal tubules-specific DsbA-L knockout mouse (PT-DsbA-L-KO) attenuated UUO-induced TIF, renal cell apoptosis and inflammation. Mechanistically, the DsbA-L interacted with Hsp90 in mitochondria of BUMPT cells which activated the signaling of Smad3 and p53 to produce connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and then resulted in accumulation of ECM of BUMPT cells and mouse kidney fibroblasts. In addition, the progression of TIF caused by UUO, ischemic/reperfusion (I/R), aristolochic acid, and repeated acute low-dose cisplatin was also alleviated in PT-DsbA-L-KO mice via the activation of Hsp90 /Smad3 and p53/CTGF axis. Finally, the above molecular changes were verified in the kidney biopsies from patients with obstructive nephropathy (Ob). Together, these results suggest that DsbA-L in proximal tubular cells promotes TIF via activation of the Hsp90 /Smad3 and p53/CTGF axis.


Assuntos
Fibrose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Nefropatias/genética , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim/lesões , Nefropatias/patologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857768

RESUMO

Epidermal lineages and injury induced regeneration are controlled by transcriptional programs coordinating cellular signaling and epigenetic regulators, but the mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies showed that conditional deletion of the transcriptional coactivator Mediator 1 (Med1) changes epidermal lineages and accelerates wound re-epithelialization. Here, we studied a molecular mechanism by which Med1 facilitates these processes, in particular, by focusing on TGFß signaling through genome wide transcriptome analysis. The expression of the TGF ligands (Tgfß1/ß2) and their downstream target genes is decreased in both normal and wounded Med1 null skin. Med1 silencing in cultured keratinocytes likewise reduces the expression of the ligands (TGFß1/ß2) and diminishes activity of TGFß signaling as shown by decreased p-Smad2/3. Silencing Med1 increases keratinocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Epigenetic studies using chromatin immuno-precipitation and next generation DNA sequencing reveals that Med1 regulates transcription of TGFß components by forming large clusters of enhancers called super-enhancers at the regulatory regions of the TGFß ligand and SMAD3 genes. These results demonstrate that Med1 is required for the maintenance of the TGFß signaling pathway. Finally, we show that pharmacological inhibition of TGFß signaling enhances epidermal lineages and accelerates wound re-epithelialization in skin similar to that seen in the Med1 null mice, providing new insights into epidermal regeneration.


Assuntos
Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/genética , Regulação para Cima
3.
Life Sci ; 256: 117909, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512009

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is a wound-healing response that occurs during chronic liver injury and features by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC), the leading effector in HF, is responsible for overproduction of ECM. It has been documented that transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) stimulates superfluous accumulation of ECM and triggers HSCs activation mainly via canonical Smad-dependent pathway. Also, the pro-fibrogenic TGF-ß1 is correlated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of antioxidant mechanisms. Moreover, involvement of oxidative stress (OS) can be clearly elucidated as a fundamental event in liver fibrogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response elements (Nrf2-AREs) pathway, a group of OS-mediated transcription factors with diverse downstream targets, is associated with the induction of diverse detoxifying enzymes and the most pivotal endogenous antioxidative system. More specifically, Nrf2-AREs pathway has recently assigned as a new therapeutic target for cure of HF. The overall goal of this review will focus on recent findings about activation of Nrf2-AREs-mediated antioxidant and suppression of profibrotic TGF-ß1/Smad3 pathway in the liver, providing an overview of recent advances in transcriptional repressors that dislocated during HF formation, and highlighting possible novel therapeutic targets for liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 513-522, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441195

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the way that miR-136 regulated spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smad3 signaling pathways on renal fibrosis.Methods: 100 male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into diabetic nephropathy (DN) group, normal control (NC) group, miR-136 mimics group, and control group. The renal fibrosis model of diabetic rats was established by streptozotocin (STZ) method. NRK-52E cells were transfected into six groups: HG group, HG + miR-136 group, HG + miR-NC group, miR-136 + SYK group, miR-136 + NC group, and control group. Histopathological examination, the expressions of miR-136 and SYK mRNA, the expression of mTOR, blood glucose, urine protein, body weight, creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and KW/BW were detected in each group. Transfection efficiency, the targeted binding, and regulation between miR-136 and SYK, as well as the expression level of related inflammatory factors, the expression levels of SYK, E-Cad (E-cadherin), Vimentin, Collagen I, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were detected.Results: It was shown that the expression level of miR-136 in DN group significantly decreased. The blood glucose and urine protein concentrations in the DN group and miR-136 mimics group significantly increased and the body weight was decreased, but the blood glucose concentration in the miR-136 mimics group increased with time. The prolongation of the decline significantly decreased, and the growth rate of urinary protein reduced. Creatinine, BUN, and the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW) in DN group increased significantly. Cell culture results showed that SYK was a target gene of miR-136 and miR-136/SYK-mediated renal fibrosis by activating TGF-ß1/Smad3 signal.Conclusion: SYK activates TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling, while miR-136 inhibits TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling mediating tubular epithelial cell fibrosis by down-regulating SYK.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
5.
Phytomedicine ; 72: 153232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease, although fibrosis prevention is beneficial, few interventions are available that specifically target fibrogenesis. Poricoic acid A (PAA) isolated from Poria cocos exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in the kidney, however the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. PURPOSE: We isolated PAA and investigated its effects and the underlying mechanisms in renal fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) animal models and TGF-ß1-induced renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) were used to investigate the anti-fibrotic activity of PAA and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Western blots, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, co-immunoprecipitation and molecular docking methods were used. Knock-down and knock-in of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the UUO model and cultured NRK-49F cells were employed to verify the mechanisms of action of PAA. RESULTS: PAA improved renal function and alleviated fibrosis by stimulating AMPK and inhibiting Smad3 specifically in Nx and UUO models. Reduced AMPK activity was associated with Smad3 induction, fibroblast activation, and the accumulation and aberrant remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in human renal puncture samples and cultured NRK-49F cells. PAA stimulated AMPK activity and decreased fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, thus showing that AMPK was essential for PAA to exert its anti-fibrotic effects. AMPK deficiency reduced the anti-fibrotic effects of PAA, while AMPK overexpression enhanced its effect. CONCLUSION: PAA activated AMPK and further inhibited Smad3 specifically to suppress fibrosis by preventing aberrant ECM accumulation and remodelling and facilitating the deactivation of fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia
6.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2385-2399, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385953

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of various components including cancer cells, tumor vessels, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and inflammatory cells. These components interact with each other via various cytokines, which often induce tumor progression. Thus, a greater understanding of TME networks is crucial for the development of novel cancer therapies. Many cancer types express high levels of TGF-ß, which induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), leading to formation of CAFs. Although we previously reported that CAFs derived from EndMT promoted tumor formation, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells secrete various cytokines, including TNF-α. However, the role of TNF-α in TGF-ß-induced EndMT has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study examined the effect of TNF-α on TGF-ß-induced EndMT in human endothelial cells (ECs). Various types of human ECs underwent EndMT in response to TGF-ß and TNF-α, which was accompanied by increased and decreased expression of mesenchymal cell and EC markers, respectively. In addition, treatment of ECs with TGF-ß and TNF-α exhibited sustained activation of Smad2/3 signals, which was presumably induced by elevated expression of TGF-ß type I receptor, TGF-ß2, activin A, and integrin αv, suggesting that TNF-α enhanced TGF-ß-induced EndMT by augmenting TGF-ß family signals. Furthermore, oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived cells underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to humoral factors produced by TGF-ß and TNF-α-cultured ECs. This EndMT-driven EMT was blocked by inhibiting the action of TGF-ßs. Collectively, our findings suggest that TNF-α enhances TGF-ß-dependent EndMT, which contributes to tumor progression.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2364, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398665

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the capacity to give rise to all differentiated cells of the adult. TGF-beta is used routinely for expansion of conventional hPSCs as flat epithelial colonies expressing the transcription factors POU5F1/OCT4, NANOG, SOX2. Here we report a global analysis of the transcriptional programme controlled by TGF-beta followed by an unbiased gain-of-function screening in multiple hPSC lines to identify factors mediating TGF-beta activity. We identify a quartet of transcriptional regulators promoting hPSC self-renewal including ZNF398, a human-specific mediator of pluripotency and epithelial character in hPSCs. Mechanistically, ZNF398 binds active promoters and enhancers together with SMAD3 and the histone acetyltransferase EP300, enabling transcription of TGF-beta targets. In the context of somatic cell reprogramming, inhibition of ZNF398 abolishes activation of pluripotency and epithelial genes and colony formation. Our findings have clear implications for the generation of bona fide hPSCs for regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco
8.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(10): 1151-1166, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420596

RESUMO

A percentage of celiac disease (CD) patients develop refractory type-2 disease (RCD2), a condition associated with increased risk of enteropathy-associated T-cell-lymphoma (EATL) and without therapeutic option. Therefore, we profiled the miRNome in series of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), CD, RCD1 or 2 and in the murine interleukin-15 (IL15)-transgenic (TG) model of RCD. The transcriptome was analyzed in 18 intestinal T-cell lymphomas (ITLs). Bioinformatics pipelines provided significant microRNA (miRNA) lists and predicted targets that were confirmed in a second set of patients. Our data show that ITLs have a unique miRNA profile with respect to other PTCLs. The c-MYC regulated miR-17/92 cluster distinguishes monomorphic epitheliotropic ITL (MEITL) from EATL and prognosticates EATL outcome. These miRNAs are decreased in IL15-TG mice upon Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition. The random forest algorithm identified a signature of 38 classifier miRNAs, among which, the miR-200 and miR-192/215 families were progressively lost in RCD2 and ITL-CD, whereas miR-17/92 and C19MC miRNAs were up-regulated. Accordingly, SMAD3, MDM2, c-Myc and activated-STAT3 were increased in RCD2 and EATL tissues while JAK inhibition in IL15-TG mice restored their levels to baseline. Our data suggest that miRNAs circuit supports activation of STAT3 and c-Myc oncogenic signaling in RCD2, thus contributing to lymphomagenesis. This novel understanding might pave the way to personalized medicine approaches for RCD and EATL.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Doença Celíaca/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Intestinos/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109098, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278740

RESUMO

This study evaluates the possible protective effects of gallic acid (GaA) and ferulic acid (FeA) against an experimentally induced liver fibrosis by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. Animals were divided into: Control group, GaA group (20 mg/kg/day, p.o), FeA (20 mg/kg/day, p.o), TAA group (receiving 250 mg/kg twice/week, I.P), TAA + GaA group, TAA + FeA group (received the same previous doses) and TAA+silymarin group (received silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day+TAA as mentioned above). After 6 consecutive weeks, animals were sacrificed and the assessment of liver functions, oxidative stress biomarkers and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were performed. In addition, the effect on TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling and the expression of miR-21, miR-30 and miR-200 were evaluated. The results showed that administration of GaA or FeA with TAA induced a significant reduction in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities and protected the integrity of liver tissues. Furthermore, they increased the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase and catalase while decreased malondialdehyde content to a normal level. The hepatic expression of TGF-ß1, phosphorylated and total Smad3 proteins were significantly decreased. In addition, miR-21 expression was downregulated while miR-30 and miR-200 expressions were upregulated by administration of gallic acid or ferulic acid. In conclusion, gallic and ferulic acids exhibit hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects against TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats. These effects are mediated through inhibition of TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling and differentially regulating the hepatic expression level of miR-21, miR-30 and miR-200.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gálico/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Tioacetamida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
10.
Life Sci ; 253: 117729, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348836

RESUMO

Obstructive nephropathy is a common clinical case that causes chronic kidney disease and ultimately progresses to end-stage renal disease. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) reduces tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation associated with obstructive nephropathy. AIMS: This study was carried out to investigate the potential effect of saroglitazar, dual PPAR-α/γ agonist, in alleviating renal fibrosis induced by unilateralureteral obstruction (UUO). MAIN METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were haphazardly divided into four groups of six rats each, including sham operated group, vehicle- or saroglitazar-treated UUO and saroglitazar groups. Rats received oral gavage of saroglitazar (3 mg/kg/day) for 13 days. On day 14, all rats were sacrificed; blood and renal tissues were collected. KEY FINDINGS: Saroglitazar inhibited UUO-induced oxidative stress; it decreased the elevated levels of MDA and nitric oxide and increased levels of GSH and SOD in renal tissue. Moreover, saroglitazar repressed UUO-induced inflammation; it decreased the renal levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, saroglitazar inhibited the accumulation of extracellular matrix via decreasing collagen, hydroxylproline and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels. Saroglitazar also decreased the expression of both the alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). These effects were in parallel with reduction in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (smad3) expression and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the protective impact of saroglitazar might be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects against UUO-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis through its regulatory effect on TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibrose , Inflamação/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/complicações
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1997-2010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273698

RESUMO

Background: As one of the most widely produced engineered nanomaterials, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are used in biomedicine and healthcare products, and as implant scaffolds; therefore, the toxic mechanism of nano-TiO2 has been extensively investigated with a view to guiding application. Three-dimensional (3D) spheroid models can simplify the complex physiological environment and mimic the in vivo architecture of tissues, which is optimal for the assessment of nano-TiO2 toxicity under ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. Methods and Results: In the present study, the toxicity of nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation was investigated in 3D H22 spheroids cultured in fibrin gels. A significant reduction of approximately 25% in spheroid diameter was observed following treatment with 100 µg/mL nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation after seven days of culture. Nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation triggered the initiation of the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway, increasing the expression levels of TGF-ß1, Smad3, Cdkn1a, and Cdkn2b at both the mRNA and protein level, which resulted in cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In addition, nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation also triggered the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were shown to be involved in cell cycle regulation and the induction of TGF-ß1 expression. Conclusion: Nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and the formation of smaller spheroids, which were associated with TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway activation and ROS generation. These results reveal the toxic mechanism of nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation, providing the possibility for 3D spheroid models to be used in nanotoxicology studies.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Titânio/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110464, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171946

RESUMO

Nickel compounds are known to be common environmental and occupational carcinogens which also promote the migration of lung cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism yet remains to be clarified. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in cancer biological processes. However, the exact effect and functionality of H2S on nickel, towards the promotion of the migration ability of lung cancer cells, remains to be unknown. In this study, we have found that the nickel chloride (NiCl2) treatment significantly downregulates the protein levels of endogenous H2S enzyme cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). A correlation between NiCl2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the migration ability of lung cancer A549 cells has been observed. Exogenous H2S donor, sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) (100 µmol/L), can reverse NiCl2-induced EMT as well as the migration ability of A549 cells. NiCl2 treatment is able to upregulate the protein level of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), p-Smad2, p-Smad3, p-JNK, p-ERK and p-P38 in a time-dependent fashion, indicating that both TGF-ß1/Smad2/Smad3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades (a non-Smad pathway) may play essential roles in NiCl2-dependent EMT as well as cell migration of human lung cancer cells. Furthermore, exogenous NaHS alleviates the NiCl2-induced EMT and the migration ability of A549 cells only by regulating TGF-ß1/Smad2/Smad3, rather than the MAPK, signaling pathway. These results indicate that the exogenous administration of NaHS might be a potential therapeutic strategy against nickel-induced lung cancer progression.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Níquel/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Sulfurtransferases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
13.
Phytomedicine ; 69: 153185, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dihydroquercetin (DHQ) is an antifibrotic agent. However, whether DHQ can prevent renal fibrosis remains unknown. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of DHQ on tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its underlying mechanisms in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice in vivo and NRK-49F cells in vitro. METHODS: In vivo, UUO mice received vehicle or DHQ treatment. In vitro, NRK-49F cells were pretreated with DHQ and exposed to transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1). Changes in fibroblast activation, collagen synthesis, oxidative stress, and related signaling pathways were assessed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blot analysis, real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: UUO induced tubular atrophy, inflammation, fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblast, and collagen deposition, whereas DHQ ameliorated these effects. UUO also resulted in decreased levels of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), catalase, and heme oxygenase-1, but increased H2O2 and malondialdehyde levels. DHQ treatment corrected these changes. In vitro, the intracellular Nrf2 level of NRK-49F exposed to TGF-ß1 decreased. However, DHQ rescued intracellular Nrf2 level and promoted nuclear translocation of Nrf2. DHQ scavenged TGF-ß1-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species, inhibited TGF-ß1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, and prevented TGF-ß1-induced fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis in NRK-49F. Nrf2 knockdown could suppress the DHQ-mediated inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, Smad3 phosphorylation, fibroblast activation, and collagen deposition. Furthermore, DHQ ameliorated established renal fibrosis in UUO mice. CONCLUSIONS: DHQ posed remarkable preventive and therapeutic effects on UUO-induced renal fibrosis and suppressed fibroblast activation by reducing oxidative stress and Smad3 phosphorylation via Nrf2 signaling. This study provided a mechanistic basis for the clinical application of DHQ in renal fibrosis treatment.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fibrose , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia
14.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1210-F1219, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200666

RESUMO

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a vexing problem, and more than 70 million patients undergo studies using iodinated contrast. The molecular mechanisms responsible for CI-AKI are poorly understood. The goal of the present article was to determine the role of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD)3 and associated collagen expression in a murine model of intra-arterial CI-AKI. The murine model of CI-AKI after intra-arterial contrast agent administration was created by first performing a partial nephrectomy to induce chronic kidney disease. Twenty-eight days later, 100 µL of contrast agent [iodixanol (320 mg/mL)] or saline were administered via the carotid artery. Two days after contrast administration, compared with saline, average serum creatinine was significantly elevated (P < 0.05). In the cortex, there was a significant increase in phosphorylated SMAD3 and gene expression of TGF-ß1, TGF-ß receptor type I, and TGF-ß receptor type II at day 2 in the contrast group compared with the saline group. Average gene expressions of connective tissue growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, and collagen type I-α and type IV-α were significantly increased at 2 days after contrast administration (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a decrease in Ki-67 staining in the cortex, with an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling in the cortex and medulla after contrast administration (P < 0.05). In the murine intra-arterial CI-AKI model, there was increased hypoxia and TGF-ß1/SMAD3 pathway activation and collagen expression, resulting in renal fibrosis. Together, these results suggest that the TGF-ß1/SMAD3 pathway could be a potential target in alleviating tissue fibrosis in CI-AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Meios de Contraste , Rim/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos , Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Artérias Carótidas , Hipóxia Celular , Proliferação de Células , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nefrectomia , Fosforilação , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos/administração & dosagem
15.
J Nat Med ; 74(3): 513-524, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193805

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a pathological manifestation induced by chronic liver injury and may cause cirrhosis and liver cancer with the chronic progression of fibrosis. During the onset and progression of liver fibrosis, the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the core mechanism for the secretion of many extracellular matrices to induce fibrosis. Lignans are reportedly the main effective components of Schisandra chinensis with good anti-fibrosis effects. In this study, we compared the inhibiting effects of the seven lignan components from S. chinensis on HSC activation. We found that the seven lignans inhibited the activation of human HSCs (LX-2) in various degrees. Among all lignans, schisanhenol showed the best effect in inhibiting the activation of LX-2 with a dose-effect relationship. Sal also inhibited the phosphorylations of Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), as well as downregulated Smad4. All these findings suggested that schisanhenol may ameliorate liver fibrosis by inhibiting the transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)/Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Remarkably, schisanhenol may be a potential anti-liver fibrosis drug and warrants further research.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Lignanas/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Schisandra/química , Linhagem Celular , Frutas/química , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1819-1832, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127355

RESUMO

RING-finger E3 ligases are instrumental in the regulation of inflammatory cascades, apoptosis, and cancer. However, their roles are relatively unknown in TGFß/SMAD signaling. SMAD3 and its adaptors, such as ß2SP, are important mediators of TGFß signaling and regulate gene expression to suppress stem cell-like phenotypes in diverse cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, PJA1, an E3 ligase, promoted ubiquitination and degradation of phosphorylated SMAD3 and impaired a SMAD3/ß2SP-dependent tumor-suppressing pathway in multiple HCC cell lines. In mice deficient for SMAD3 (Smad3 +/-), PJA1 overexpression promoted the transformation of liver stem cells. Analysis of genes regulated by PJA1 knockdown and TGFß1 signaling revealed 1,584 co-upregulated genes and 1,280 co-downregulated genes, including many implicated in cancer. The E3 ligase inhibitor RTA405 enhanced SMAD3-regulated gene expression and reduced growth of HCC cells in culture and xenografts of HCC tumors, suggesting that inhibition of PJA1 may be beneficial in treating HCC or preventing HCC development in at-risk patients.Significance: These findings provide a novel mechanism regulating the tumor suppressor function of TGFß in liver carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Fosforilação , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/deficiência , Proteína Smad3/genética , Espectrina/genética , Espectrina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação , Regulação para Cima , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6103-6113, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123069

RESUMO

Clinical observation of the association between cancer aggressiveness and embryonic development stage implies the importance of developmental signals in cancer initiation and therapeutic resistance. However, the dynamic gene expression during organogenesis and the master oncofetal drivers are still unclear, which impeded the efficient elimination of poor prognostic tumors, including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, human embryonic stem cells were induced to differentiate into adult hepatocytes along hepatic lineages to mimic liver development in vitro. Combining transcriptomic data from liver cancer patients with the hepatocyte differentiation model, the active genes derived from different hepatic developmental stages and the tumor tissues were selected. Bioinformatic analysis followed by experimental assays was used to validate the tumor subtype-specific oncofetal signatures and potential therapeutic values. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the existence of two subtypes of liver cancer with different oncofetal properties. The gene signatures and their clinical significance were further validated in an independent clinical cohort and The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Upstream activator analysis and functional screening further identified E2F1 and SMAD3 as master transcriptional regulators. Small-molecule inhibitors specifically targeting the oncofetal drivers extensively down-regulated subtype-specific developmental signaling and inhibited tumorigenicity. Liver cancer cells and primary HCC tumors with different oncofetal properties also showed selective vulnerability to their specific inhibitors. Further precise targeting of the tumor initiating steps and driving events according to subtype-specific biomarkers might eliminate tumor progression and provide novel therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatectomia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Hidroxiquinolinas/farmacologia , Hidroxiquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad3/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 785, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034145

RESUMO

Extracellular signals such as TGF-ß can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancers of epithelial origin, promoting molecular and phenotypical changes resulting in pro-metastatic characteristics. We identified C/EBPα as one of the most TGF-ß-mediated downregulated transcription factors in human mammary epithelial cells. C/EBPα expression prevents TGF-ß-driven EMT by inhibiting expression of known EMT factors. Depletion of C/EBPα is sufficient to induce mesenchymal-like morphology and molecular features, while cells that had undergone TGF-ß-induced EMT reverted to an epithelial-like state upon C/EBPα re-expression. In vivo, mice injected with C/EBPα-expressing breast tumor organoids display a dramatic reduction of metastatic lesions. Collectively, our results show that C/EBPα is required for maintaining epithelial homeostasis by repressing the expression of key mesenchymal markers, thereby preventing EMT-mediated tumorigenesis. These data suggest that C/EBPα is a master epithelial "gatekeeper" whose expression is required to prevent unwarranted mesenchymal transition, supporting an important role for EMT in mediating breast cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Camundongos SCID , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 195-210, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific form of progressive and chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. IPF is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and destructive pathological remodeling due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Eventually, lung interstitium thickens and stiffens and breathing becomes difficult. It has been well established that the transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smad signaling pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-ß1-mediated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family affects Smad signaling. p90RSK is a serine/threonine kinase and is activated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. However, the roles played by p90RSK in TGF-ß1 signaling and the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remain unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether p90RSK regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis using in vitro and in vivo systems and Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, transcriptional activity assays and immunofluorescence studies. RESULTS: Pharmacological inhibition of p90RSK by FMK or inhibition of p90RSK with adenoviral vector encoding a dominant negative form of p90RSK suppressed TGF-ß1-induced ECM accumulation and EMT in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Interestingly, FMK significantly inhibited TGF-ß1-induced Smad3 nuclear translocation and smad binding element-dependent transcriptional activity, but not Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, FMK ameliorated pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that p90RSK plays critical roles in pulmonary fibrosis, which suggests it be viewed as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad3/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad3/genética , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(4): 958-972, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Angiocrine factors, mediating the endothelial-mural cell interaction in vascular wall construction as well as maintenance, are incompletely characterized. This study aims to investigate the role of endothelial cell-derived FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) in vascular homeostasis. Approach and Results: Using conditional knockout mouse models, we show that loss of FSTL1 in endothelial cells (Fstl1ECKO) led to an increase of pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in the heart regurgitation especially with tricuspid valves. However, this abnormality was not detected in mutant mice with Fstl1 knockout in smooth muscle cells or hematopoietic cells. We further showed that there was excessive αSMA (α-smooth muscle actin) associated with atrial endocardia, heart valves, veins, and microvessels after the endothelial FSTL1 deletion. There was also an increase in collagen deposition, as demonstrated in livers of Fstl1ECKO mutants. The SMAD3 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) phosphorylation (pSMAD3) was significantly enhanced, and pSMAD3 staining was colocalized with αSMA in vein walls, suggesting the activation of TGFß (transforming growth factor ß) signaling in vascular mural cells of Fstl1ECKO mice. Consistently, treatment with a TGFß pathway inhibitor reduced the abnormal association of αSMA with the atria and blood vessels in Fstl1ECKO mutant mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings imply that endothelial FSTL1 is critical for the homeostasis of vascular walls, and its insufficiency may favor cardiovascular fibrosis leading to heart failure.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Folistatina/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Folistatina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular
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