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1.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 549-558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879254

RESUMO

Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a stabilizer by-product in the process of manufacturing plastic, which is a kind of very strong toxic substance, and has acute, cumulative and chronic toxicity. TMT may cause bradycardia in patients with occupational poisoning, the mechanism of which has not been reported. This study explored the mechanism of TMT resulting in bradycardia of C57BL/6 mice. TMT was administered to mice to measure heart rate, serum succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) level, and myocardial Na+/K+-ATPase activity and expression. The effects of TMT on myocardial apoptosis were observed by changing the expressions of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in myocardium. It was found that the heart rate and SDH activity in serum of mice gradually decreased with the increase of TMT dose compared with the control group. The activity and the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart tissue of mice exposed to TMT was measured and gradually decreased with the increase of dose and time. We measured the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in the heart tissues of TMT exposed mice and found that the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 increased and the expressions of Bcl-2 decreased in the heart tissues of the TMT-exposed mice at different doses. With the extension of TMT exposure time, the expression of Bax and caspase-3 increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in the heart tissues of TMT exposed mice. Our findings suggest the mechanisms of TMT resulting in bradycardia may be associated with the inhibited activity and decreased content of Na+/K+-ATPase, thus further leading to the changes of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in the mice's ventricular tissues.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bradicardia/etiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Compostos de Trimetilestanho/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Bradicardia/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109236, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866467

RESUMO

A series of novel pyrrolopyrimidine urea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity against colon cancer cell lines. Compounds showed the remarkable cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 wt cell line. The most potent compound 4c (IC50 = 0.14 µM) induced apoptosis in HCT-116 wt and HCT-116 p53-/- cell lines. Otherwise, treatment of HCT-116 BAX-/-BAK-/- cells with compound 4c didn't lead to activation of apoptosis, suggesting that compound 4c induces apoptotic cell death by activating BAX/BAK-dependent pathway. Moreover, while the compound 4c increase the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 levels in HCT-116 wt and HCT-116 p53-/- cells, caspase-3 or caspase-9 activation was not observed in HCT-116 BAX-/-BAK-/- cells. In addition, compound 4c induced mitochondrial apoptosis in cells grown as oncospheroids, which better mimic the in vivo milieu of tumors. 4c treatment also activated JNK along with inhibition of prosurvival kinases such as Akt and ERK 1/2 in HCT-116 wt and HCT-116 p53 -/- cells as well as in HCT-116 BAX-/-BAK-/- cells. Notably, our results indicated that compound 4c induced mitochondrial apoptosis through activation p53-independent apoptotic signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 9/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104977, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a severe neurological disorder that affected millions of people worldwide. Neuro-inflammation and apoptosis play an essential role in the pathogenesis of neuronal death during ischemic stroke. Alpha-pinene is a bicyclic terpenoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to assess the protective effect of α-pinene in ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce ischemic stroke in male Wistar rats, the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 60 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. Alpha-pinene was injected intraperitoneally at the beginning of reperfusion. A day after reperfusion, the neurological deficits, volume of infarct area, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were evaluated. The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was assessed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured by ELISA method. RESULTS: The results showed that α-pinene (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly improved sensorimotor function and decreased the volume of infarct area in the brain. The high permeability of BBB was also alleviated by α-pinene (50 and 100 mg/kg) in ischemic areas. Besides, α-pinene (100 mg/kg) attenuated neuro-inflammation through decreasing both the gene and protein expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the hippocampus, cortex, and striatum. Besides, α-pinene (100 mg/kg) suppressed apoptosis via downregulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax mRNA expression with a concomitant upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, it was concluded that α-pinene exerts neuroprotective effect during ischemic stroke through attenuating neuroinflammation and inhibition of apoptosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0228429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722679

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes ototoxicity by inducing oxidative stress, microangiopathy, and apoptosis in the cochlear sensory hair cells. The natural anti-oxidant pterostilbene (PTS) (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystylbene) has been reported to relieve oxidative stress and apoptosis in DM, but its role in diabetic-induced ototoxicity is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dose-dependent PTS on the cochlear cells of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The study included 30 albino male Wistar rats that were randomized into five groups: non-diabetic control (Control), diabetic control (DM), and diabetic rats treated with intraperitoneal PTS at 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/day during the four-week experimental period (DM + PTS10, DM + PTS20, and DM + PTS40). Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests were performed at the beginning and end of the study. At the end of the experimental period, apoptosis in the rat cochlea was investigated using caspase-8, cytochrome-c, and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end labeling (TUNEL). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the mRNA expression levels of the following genes: CASP-3, BCL-associated X protein (BAX), and BCL-2. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the rat groups were evaluated. The mean DPOAE amplitude in the DM group was significantly lower than the means of the other groups (0.9-8 kHz; P < 0.001 for all). A dose-dependent increase of the mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed with PTS treatment (P < 0.05 for all). The Caspase-8 and Cytochrome-c protein expressions and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the hair cells of the Corti organs of the DM rat group were significantly higher than those of the PTS treatment and control groups (DM > DM + PTS10 > DM + PTS20 > DM + PTS40 > Control; P < 0.05 for all). PTS treatment also reduced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by increasing the mRNA expression of the anti-apoptosis BCL2 gene and by decreasing the mRNA expressions of both the pro-apoptosis BAX gene and its effector CASP-3 and the ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05 compared to DM for all). PTS treatment significantly improved the metabolic parameters of the diabetic rats, such as body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and MDA levels, consistent with our other findings (P < 0.05 compared to DM for all). PTS decreased the cochlear damage caused by diabetes, as confirmed by DPOAE, biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings. This study reports the first in vivo findings to suggest that PTS may be a protective therapeutic agent against diabetes-induced ototoxicity.


Assuntos
Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Ototoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Acústica , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Cóclea/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estreptozocina , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
5.
Life Sci ; 256: 117958, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553929

RESUMO

PROPOSE: Understanding the protective effect of exercise against ethanol-induced toxicity through the oxidative stress signaling pathway, apoptosis, and cholesterol metabolism is important to prevent development of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four equal groups as follow: control, exercise training (ET), ethanol (4 g/kg of body weight/day) and ET + ethanol. The ET and ET + Ethanol groups ran on the treadmill at 65% maximum running speed for 60 min for five sessions per week for eight weeks. The ethanol and ET + Ethanol groups received ethanol for eight weeks. At the end of the study, animals were anesthetized and blood and tissues were sampled to examine the biochemical and molecular evaluation. RESULTS: The results showed that the antioxidant enzymes activity decreased and MDA levels increased in the heart and liver of animals in ethanol group compared to control group. The levels of these oxidative biomarkers improved by ET in ET + Ethanol group compared to ethanol group. It showed that ET could protect the heart and liver against oxidative damage induced by ethanol through up-regulating the expression of the Nrf2/Keap-1/HO-1 pathway. ET could exert a cardioprotective effect on ethanol-induced apoptosis through down-regulating the Bax and the caspase-3 and via up-regulating the Bcl-2 expression in the heart. ET could also improve the impairment of cholesterol metabolism induced by ethanol. CONCLUSION: Exercise can protect against ethanol-induced toxicity through moderating the expression of genes which are involved in oxidative status, apoptosis and cholesterol metabolism.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Etanol/toxicidade , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(7): 1751-1764, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although important for apoptosis, the signaling pathway involving MOAP-1(Modulator of Apoptosis 1), RASSF1A (RAS association domain family 1A), and Bax (Bcl-2 associated X protein) is likely to be dysfunctional in many types of human cancers due to mechanisms associated with gene mutation and DNA hyper-methylation. The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential impact of generating physiologically relevant signaling pathway mediated by MOAP-1, Bax, and RASSF1A (MBR) in cancer cells and chemo-drug resistant cancer cells. METHODS: The tricistronic expression construct that encodes MOAP-1, Bax, and RASSF1A (MBR) or its mutant, MOAP-1∆BH3L, Bax and RASSF1A (MBRX) was expressed from an IRES (Internal Ribosome Entry Site)-based tricistronic expression vector in human breast cancer cells, including MCF-7, MCF-7-CR (cisplatin resistant) and triple negative breast cancer cells, BMET05, for functional characterization through in vitro and in vivo models. RESULTS: Transient expression of MBR potently promoted dose-dependent apoptotic signaling and chemo-sensitization in the cancer cells, as evidenced by loss of cell viability, nuclei condensation and Annexin-V positive staining while stable expression of MBR in MCF-7 cells significantly reduced the number of MBR stable clone by 86% and the stable clone exhibited robust chemo-drug sensitivity. In contrast, MBRX stable clone exhibited chemo-drug resistance while transiently over-expressed MOAP-1ΔBH3L inhibited the apoptotic activity of MBR. Moreover, the spheroids derived from the MBR stable clone displayed enhanced chemo-sensitivity and apoptotic activity. In mouse xenograft model, the tumors derived from MBR stable clone showed relatively high level of tumor growth retardation associated with the increase in apoptotic activity, leading to the decreases in both tumor weight and volume. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of MBR in cancer cells induces apoptotic cell death with enhanced chemo-sensitization requiring the BH3L domain of MOAP-1. In animal model, the expression of MBR significantly reduces the growth of tumors, suggesting that MBR is a potent apoptotic sensitizer with potential therapeutic benefits for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2598, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451402

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are toxic to mammalian cells. However, during meiosis, more than 200 DSBs are generated deliberately, to ensure reciprocal recombination and orderly segregation of homologous chromosomes. If left unrepaired, meiotic DSBs can cause aneuploidy in gametes and compromise viability in offspring. Oocytes in which DSBs persist are therefore eliminated by the DNA-damage checkpoint. Here we show that the DNA-damage checkpoint eliminates oocytes via the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 pathway members Puma, Noxa and Bax. Deletion of these factors prevents oocyte elimination in recombination-repair mutants, even when the abundance of unresolved DSBs is high. Remarkably, surviving oocytes can extrude a polar body and be fertilised, despite chaotic chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. Our findings raise the possibility that allelic variants of the BCL-2 pathway could influence the risk of embryonic aneuploidy.


Assuntos
Mutação , Oócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética , Aneuploidia , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/deficiência , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endodesoxirribonucleases/deficiência , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilização , Genes bcl-2 , Meiose/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Oócitos/citologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/deficiência , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
8.
Cancer Invest ; 38(6): 349-355, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441531

RESUMO

Background: Meningiomas represent ∼30% of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Although advances in surgery and radiotherapy have significantly improved survival, there remains an important subset of patients whose tumors have more aggressive behavior and are refractory to conventional therapy. Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics suggest that this aggressive behavior may be due to the deletion of the DNA repair and tumor suppressor gene, CHEK2, neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) mutation on chromosome 22q12, and genetic abnormalities in multiple RTKs including FGFRs. Management of higher-grade meningiomas, such as anaplastic meningiomas (AM: WHO grade III), is truly challenging and there isn't an established chemotherapy option. We investigate the effect of active multi tyrosine receptor kinase inhibitor Dovitinib at stopping AM cell growth in in vitro with either frequent codeletion or mutated CHEK2 and NF2 gene.Methods: Treatment effects were assessed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, western blot analysis, caspases assay, and DNA fragmentation assay.Results: Treatment of CH157MN and IOMM-Lee cells with Dovitinib suppressed multiple angiokinases-mainly FGFRs, leading to suppression of downstream signaling by RAS-RAF-MAPK molecules and PI3K-AKT molecules which are involved in cell proliferation, cell survival, and tumor invasion. Furthermore, Dovitinib induced apoptosis via downregulation of survival proteins (Bcl-XL), and over-expression of apoptotic factors (Bax and caspase-3) regardless of CHEK2 and NF2 mutation status.Conclusions: This study establishes the groundwork for the development of Dovitinib as a therapeutic agent for high-grade AM with either frequent codeletion or mutated CHEK2 and NF2, an avenue with high translational potential.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Meningioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neurofibromina 2/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Meningioma/genética , Meningioma/patologia , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína bcl-X/genética
9.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(11): 1191-1218, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432676

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Interleukin (IL)-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine present in most cardiac cells and is secreted on necrosis where it acts as a functional ligand for the ST2 receptor. Although IL-33/ST2 axis is protective against various forms of cardiovascular diseases, some studies suggest potential detrimental roles for IL-33 signaling. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of IL-33 administration on cardiac function post-MI in mice. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. Mice were treated with IL-33 (1 µg/day) or vehicle for 4 and 7 days. Functional and molecular changes of the left ventricle (LV) were assessed. Single cell suspensions were obtained from bone marrow, heart, spleen, and peripheral blood to assess the immune cells using flow cytometry at 1, 3, and 7 days post-MI in IL-33 or vehicle-treated animals. The results of the present study suggest that IL-33 is effective in activating a type 2 cytokine milieu in the damaged heart, consistent with reduced early inflammatory and pro-fibrotic response. However, IL-33 administration was associated with worsened cardiac function and adverse cardiac remodeling in the MI mouse model. IL-33 administration increased infarct size, LV hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and overall mortality rate due to cardiac rupture. Moreover, IL-33-treated MI mice displayed a significant myocardial eosinophil infiltration at 7 days post-MI when compared with vehicle-treated MI mice. The present study reveals that although IL-33 administration is associated with a reparative phenotype following MI, it worsens cardiac remodeling and promotes heart failure.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-33/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Sístole/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinofilia/patologia , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-33/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
10.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1731-1737, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. Cinnamon procyanidin oligomers (CPOs) are flavonoids with many claimed health benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate the neuroprotection of A-type CPOs (CPO-A) and the underlying mechanisms in cultured cell and animal models of PD. METHODS: Thirty male mice (C57BL/6, 9-wk old) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 10), and were given daily gavage of saline [control and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) groups] or CPO-A (150 mg/kg, CPO-A group) during days 1-15 and daily intraperitoneal injections of saline (control group) or MPTP (20 mg/kg; MPTP and MPTP + CPO-A groups) during days 11-15. After the motor behavior test, all mice were killed on day 16 to collect the substantia nigra (SN) for assaying the neuroprotective effects of CPO-A. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with 12.5 µM CPO-A for 2 h or 3 activators of stress-related kinases (5-25 µM) for 12-48 h followed by 1 mM 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) for assays of viability, morphology, and stress status. RESULTS: Compared with the control, the MPTP treatment decreased (P < 0.05) locomotor activity by 21%, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons by 55% and Th mRNA concentration by 51% in the SN. The CPO-A treatment attenuated or restored (P < 0.05) these changes and inhibited (P < 0.05) the MPTP-induced activation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38MAPK) and P53, along with the downstream expression of BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX) in the SN. In SH-SY5Y cells, the CPO-A treatment blocked (P < 0.01) the MPP+-induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and neurotoxicity. However, this protection was abolished (P < 0.05) by activators of the P38MAPK/P53/BAX pathway. CONCLUSION: CPO-A protected against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in mice by regulating the P38MAPK/P53/BAX signaling. Our findings reveal a novel role and mechanism of a food flavonoid CPO-A in preventing neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Catequina/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Intoxicação por MPTP , Morfolinos/química , Morfolinos/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0223208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302311

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage in Wistar rats. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were investigated by flat mount analysis and flow cytometry. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: negative control, NMDA80 (i.e., 80 nmoles NMDA intravitreally injected), NMDA80 + 10ng EPO, NMDA80 + 50ng EPO, and NMDA80 + 250ng EPO. The NMDA80 + 50ng EPO treatment group was used to evaluate various administrated points (pre-/co-/post- administration of NMDA80). Meanwhile, the transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay of RGCs, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and the apoptotic signal transduction pathways of µ-calpain, Bax, and caspase 9 were assessed simultaneously using an immunohistochemical method (IHC). When EPO was co-administered with NMDA80, attenuated cell death occurred through the downregulation of the apoptotic indicators: µ-calpain was activated first (peak at ~18hrs), followed by Bax and caspase 9 (peak at ~40hrs). Furthermore, the images of retinal cross sections have clearly demonstrated that thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) was significantly recovered at 40 hours after receiving intravitreal injection with NMDA80 and 50ng EPO. Exogenous EPO may protect RGCs and bipolar cell axon terminals in IPL by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate NMDA-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Eritropoetina/farmacologia , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 9/genética , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/agonistas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
12.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(9): 930-941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309901

RESUMO

Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) attract much attention due to their excellent biocompatibility and catalytic properties, but their toxic effects on normal (CHANG) and cancerous (HuH-7) human liver cells are meagre. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PtNPs (average size, 3 nm) were determined in CHANG and HuH-7 cells. After treating these cells were with PtNPs (10, 50, 100, 200, and 300 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 hours, we observed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, as evaluated by using (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole) (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in both cells after treatment with the above dose of PtNPs for 24 and 48 hours. Determination of morphological changes of cells, chromosome condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-3 assays showed that PtNPs induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in CHANG and HuH-7 cells by altering the cell morphology and density, increasing cell population in apoptosis, and causing chromosome condensation. Furthermore, we have studied fragmentation of DNA using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis and expression of apoptotic genes by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The percentage of DNA fragmentation was more at 300 µg/mL for 48 hours in both cells, but slightly more fragmentation was found in HuH-7 relative to CHANG cells. Considering all of the above parameters, PtNPs elicited cytotoxicity on CHANG and HuH-7 cells by blocking cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Thus this study may be useful in in vitro laboratory studies using cell lines for screening the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Platina/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Platina/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Neoplasma ; 67(3): 547-556, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202904

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide due to the lack of effective therapy methods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies for HCC. CBL0137 is a small molecule that affects p53 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). The expression of p53 was measured by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumor and adjacent tissues. Western blotting (WB) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were employed to detect the level of p-p53, p53, Bax, and PUMA after CBL0137 administration. CCK-8 and immunofluorescence staining (IF) assays were performed to evaluate the proliferation and viability of HCC cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of HCC cells. Xenograft model was established to determine the effect of CBL0137 treatment on HCC tumor growth in vivo. HE staining was used to monitor HCC cell morphology and IHC staining for Ki-67 was performed to determine the tumor cell proliferation following CBL0137 treatment. Results showed that the expression of p-p53, p53, Bax, and PUMA was upregulated after CBL0137 administration. The viability, growth, and colony formation of HCC cells were significantly inhibited by CBL0137 in the CBL group compared with the NC group (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the results revealed that the proportions of apoptotic and necrotic cells were significantly elevated in the CBL group compared to the NC group (p<0.05). And the apoptosis-related proteins including PARP, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were increased in the CBL group compared with the NC group (p<0.05), while the NF-κB, p-NF-κB and p-AKT expression levels were significantly downregulated following CBL0137 treatment (p<0.05). Additionally, the tumor volume and weight were significantly reduced in the CBL group compared with the NC group (p<0.05). Moreover, HE staining and IHC staining for Ki-67 indicated that CBL0137 treatment could obviously induce cell apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation. CBL0137 treatment could effectively inhibit HCC cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis associated with multiple factors expression.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(8): 183241, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126227

RESUMO

The presence of an asymmetric distribution of lipids in biological membranes was first described ca. 50 years ago. While various studies had reported the role of loss of lipid asymmetry on signaling processes, its effect on membrane physical properties and membrane-protein interactions lacks further understanding. The recent description of new technologies for the preparation of asymmetric model membranes has helped to fill part of this gap. However, the major effort so far has been on plasma membrane models. Here we describe the preparation of liposomes mimicking the mitochondria outer membrane (MOM) in regard to its lipid composition and asymmetry. By employing the methyl-ß-cyclodextrin-catalyzed lipid exchange technology and accurate quantification of lipid asymmetry with head group-specific probes we showed the successful preparation of a MOM model bearing a physiologically relevant lipid composition and asymmetry. In addition, by a direct comparison with its lipid symmetrical counterpart it is shown that asymmetric models were more resistant to tBid-promoted Bax-permeabilization, suggesting a role played by MOM lipid asymmetry on the mitochondria pathway of apoptosis. The barrier imposed by lipid asymmetry on membrane permeabilization was in part due to a decrease in the concentration of membrane-bound proteins, which was likely a consequence of the two mutually-dependent properties; i.e., the lower electrostatic surface potential and the higher molecular packing imposed by lipid asymmetry. It is proposed that MOM lipid asymmetry imparts different physical properties on the membrane and might add an additional component of regulation in intricate mitochondrial processes.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Mitocôndrias/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/genética
15.
Life Sci ; 248: 117452, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088214

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the signaling pathway involved in the anti-aging effect of tropisetron and to clarify whether it affects mitochondrial oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging mouse brain by upregulating Sirtuin 1 or silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aging was induced by d-galactose (DG) at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/day subcutaneously injected to male mice for six weeks. Tropisetron was simultaneously administered intraperitoneally once a day at three various doses (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg body weight). Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied. Besides, the expressions of apoptosis-associated genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and the aging-related gene (SIRT1) were determined by the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, histopathological alterations were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Tropisetron reversed the induction of oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and overproduction of inflammatory mediators induced by DG in the brain tissue. In addition, tropisetron suppressed DG-induced apoptosis and found to significantly elevate SIRT1 gene expression. Besides, tropisetron could markedly alleviate DG-induced abnormal changes in the brain morphology. SIGNIFICANCE: Tropisetron exhibited anti-aging effects in the context of DG-induced senescence in mouse brain through various pathways. Our results suggest that tropisetron may attenuate DG-induced brain aging via SIRT1 signaling activation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/genética , Tropizetrona/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 248: 117466, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101760

RESUMO

AIMS: Nanoparticles (NPs)-based drugs have been recently introduced to improve the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms by which a NP interacts with cellular systems still need to be delineated. Here, we utilize the autophagic potential of TiO2 NPs for improving chemotherapeutic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human AGS gastric cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth and viability were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and MTT assay, respectively. Vesicular organelles formation was evaluated by acridine orange staining of cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis were monitored by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were measured by DCHF-DA staining. Autophagy was examined by q-PCR and western blotting. Molecular docking was used for studying NP interaction with autophagic proteins. KEY FINDINGS: TiO2 NPs increase ROS production, impair lysosomal function and subsequently block autophagy flux in AGS cells. In addition, the autophagy blockade induced by non-toxic concentrations of TiO2 NPs (1 µg/ml) can promote cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of 5-FU in AGS cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the beneficial effects of TiO2 NPs in combination with chemotherapy in in vitro model of gastric cancer, which may pave the way to develop a possible solution to circumvent chemoresistance in cancer.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fluoruracila/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/química , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Titânio/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(2): e1008297, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032391

RESUMO

Hantaviruses, zoonotic RNA viruses belonging to the order Bunyavirales, cause two severe acute diseases in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Hantavirus-infected patients show strong cytotoxic lymphocyte responses and hyperinflammation; however, infected cells remain mostly intact. Hantaviruses were recently shown to inhibit apoptosis in infected cells. By inhibiting granzyme B- and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, hantaviruses specifically and efficiently inhibit cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing of infected cells. Hantaviruses also strongly inhibit apoptosis triggered intrinsically; i.e., initiated through intracellular activation pathways different from those used by cytotoxic lymphocytes. However, insights into the latter mechanisms are currently largely unknown. Here, we dissected the mechanism behind how hantavirus infection, represented by the HFRS-causing Hantaan virus and the HPS-causing Andes virus, results in resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Less active caspase-8 and caspase-9, and consequently less active caspase-3, was observed in infected compared to uninfected staurosporine-exposed cells. While staurosporine-exposed uninfected cells showed massive release of pro-apoptotic cytochrome C into the cytosol, this was not observed in infected cells. Further, hantaviruses prevented activation of BAX and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). In parallel, a significant increase in levels of the pro-survival factor BCL-2 was observed in hantavirus-infected cells. Importantly, direct inhibition of BCL-2 by the inhibitor ABT-737, as well as silencing of BCL-2 by siRNA, resulted in apoptosis in staurosporine-exposed hantavirus-infected cells. Overall, we here provide a tentative mechanism by which hantaviruses protect infected cells from intrinsic apoptosis at the mitochondrial level by inducing an increased expression of the pro-survival factor BCL-2, thereby preventing MOMPs and subsequent activation of caspases. The variety of mechanisms used by hantaviruses to ensure survival of infected cells likely contribute to the persistent infection in natural hosts and may play a role in immunopathogenesis of HFRS and HPS in humans.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima , Células A549 , Caspases/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Citocromos c/genética , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/patologia , Humanos , Membranas Mitocondriais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(3): 1895-1904, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026321

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth common cause of cancer death. Surgery and chemotherapy are the common treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer patients; however, the response rate is less than 20% at advanced stages. In recent years, growing interest has been dedicated to natural products. Bitter apricot seeds possess a number of pharmacological properties including antitumor activity and amygdalin from bitter apricot seeds can induce apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the cyto/genotoxic effects of bitter apricot ethanolic extract (BAEE) and amygdalin on human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and normal epithelial 293/KDR cells. BAEE was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the confirmation of the structure. The biological impacts of BAEE and amygdalin on PANC-1 and 293/KDR cells were evaluated by MTT assay, DAPI staining, AnnexinV/PI and Real-time qPCR analysis. BAEE and amygdalin inhibited cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and flow cytometric analysis revealed fragmented nuclei and elevated numbers of early and late apoptotic cells, respectively. Also, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and upregulation of caspase-3 further confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in PANC-1 cells, but not in non-cancerous 293/KDR cells. These results indicate that BAEE could mediate apoptosis induction in cancer cells through a mitochondria dependent pathway. These findings suggest that BAEE functions as a potent pro-apoptotic factor for human pancreatic cancer cells without a significant effect on 293/KDR cells. Though, the potent anti-cancer components of BAEE should be further identified. Moreover, in vivo investigations are required to confirm bitter apricot ethanolic extract's clinical value as an anti-tumor drug.


Assuntos
Amigdalina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Prunus armeniaca/química , Amigdalina/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(4): 832-838, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037087

RESUMO

Apoptosis of osteoblasts plays a crucial role in osteomyelitis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels are increased in the pathophysiological processes of osteomyelitis. However, the effect of H2S on the apoptosis of osteoblasts remains unclear. To investigate the specific role of H2S in osteoblast apoptosis, MC3T3-E1 and hFOB cells were treated with NaHS or Na2S, a donor of H2S, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during osteomyelitis. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, flow cytometry analysis, western blotting, immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, and Alizarin red staining were performed to examine the effects of H2S on osteoblast cell apoptosis, cell osteogenic differentiation, and AKT kinase (AKT)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Hydrogen sulfide increased cell apoptosis, and inhibited the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast cells impaired by LPS. H2S increased apoptosis through upregulation of the FAS ligand (FASL) signaling pathway. H2S-induced apoptosis was alleviated using a FAS/FASL signaling pathway inhibitor. Treatment with NaHS also increased cell apoptosis by downregulating AKT/NF-κB signaling. In addition, treatment with an AKT signaling pathway activator decreased apoptosis and reversed the inhibitory effects of H2S on osteogenic differentiation. Hydrogen sulfide promotes LPS-induced apoptosis of osteoblast cells by inhibiting AKT/NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteomielite/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Proteína Ligante Fas/genética , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Osteomielite/metabolismo , Osteomielite/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfetos/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2477, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051471

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been associated with the etipathogenesis of Diabetic retinopathy (DR). Studies have shown that DJ-1 plays an important role in regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether DJ-1 upregulates oxidative stress and prevents damage to retinal capillary pericytes by increasing antioxidant capacity through the Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that encode antioxidant enzymes and phase II metabolic enzymes, activation of Nrf2 functions is one of the critical defensive mechanisms against oxidative stress in many tissues. Our results showed after DJ-1 overexpression, apoptosis of rat retinal pericytes (RRPs) decreased, the ratio of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) to BCL2-Associated X Protein (BAX) increased, the production of ROS decreased, and the protein expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, also called SOD2) and catalase (CAT) increased. DJ-1 overexpression activated Nrf2 expression, however, after Nrf2 silencing, apoptosis of RRPs increased, the ratio of Bcl-2 to BAX decreased, the production of ROS increased, the protein expression of MnSOD and CAT decreased, and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) decreased. These data suggest that enhancement of the Nrf2 pathway is a potential protective strategy for the treatment of DR. Therefore, DJ-1 may prevent high glucose-induced oxidative stress and RRPs apoptosis through the Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby preventing the early onset and progression of DR.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pericitos/metabolismo , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , NADP/genética , NADP/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Pericitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
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