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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111049, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758698

RESUMO

Recent studies identified a novel programmed and regulated cell death that was characterized by a necrotic cell death morphology, termed necroptosis. Lead (Pb) is known as a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects the health of humans and animals worldwide. However, there are no detailed reports of Pb-induced necroptosis of immune tissue. Selenium (Se) is a trace element that antagonizes the toxicity of heavy metals. Here, chickens were randomly divided into four groups, treated with Pb ((CH3OO)2Pb, 150 mg/kg) and/or Se (Na2SeO3, 2 mg/kg), aim to study the effect and mechanism of necroptosis in Pb-induced spleen injury and the antagonistic effects of Se on Pb toxicity. Our results showed that Pb exposure evidently increased the accumulation of Pb in spleen and caused necroptosis by upregulating the expression of RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, and decreasing Caspase8 expression. Meanwhile, Pb treatment inhibited the activities of SOD, GPX, and CAT, caused the accumulation of NO and MDA, and induced oxidative stress, which promoted the expression of MAPK/NF-κB pathway genes (ERK, JNK, P38, NF-κB and TNF-α) and activated HSPs (HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90). However, the increased content of Pb in spleen and Pb-caused necroptosis were inhibited by Se cotreatment. Overall, we conclude that Se can prevent Pb-induced necroptosis by restoring antioxidant functions and blocking the MAPK/NF-κB pathway and HSPs activation in chicken spleen.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/fisiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3656, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694517

RESUMO

Avian influenza polymerase undergoes host adaptation in order to efficiently replicate in human cells. Adaptive mutants are localised on the C-terminal (627-NLS) domains of the PB2 subunit. In particular, mutation of PB2 residue 627 from E to K rescues polymerase activity in mammalian cells. A host transcription regulator ANP32A, comprising a long C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain (IDD), is responsible for this adaptation. Human ANP32A IDD lacks a 33 residue insertion compared to avian ANP32A, and this deletion restricts avian influenza polymerase activity. We used NMR to determine conformational ensembles of E627 and K627 forms of 627-NLS of PB2 in complex with avian and human ANP32A. Human ANP32A IDD transiently binds to the 627 domain, exploiting multivalency to maximise affinity. E627 interrupts the polyvalency of the interaction, an effect compensated by an avian-unique motif in the IDD. The observed binding mode is maintained in the context of heterotrimeric influenza polymerase, placing ANP32A in the immediate vicinity of known host-adaptive PB2 mutants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/ultraestrutura , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Proteínas Nucleares/ultraestrutura , Domínios Proteicos/genética , RNA Replicase/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Virais/ultraestrutura , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Aves/virologia , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/metabolismo , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Mutação , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008610, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603377

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, can activate PKR/eIF2α signaling cascade to shutoff host and facilitate viral mRNA translation during infection, however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that NDV infection up-regulated host cap-dependent translation machinery by activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p38 MAPK/Mnk1 pathways. In addition, NDV infection induced p38 MAPK/Mnk1 signaling participated 4E-BP1 hyperphosphorylation for efficient viral protein synthesis when mTOR signaling is inhibited. Furthermore, NDV NP protein was found to be important for selective cap-dependent translation of viral mRNAs through binding to eIF4E during NDV infection. Taken together, NDV infection activated multiple signaling pathways for selective viral protein synthesis in infected cells, via interaction between viral NP protein and host translation machinery. Our results may help to design novel targets for therapeutic intervention against NDV infection and to understand the NDV anti-oncolytic mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Nucleoproteínas , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/metabolismo , Nucleoproteínas/biossíntese , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Nucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559224

RESUMO

Sanguinarine is a bioactive compound as a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid from plant of the Macleaya cordata, Papaveraceae family. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sanguinarine supplementation on growth performance, serum biochemistry parameters, intestinal mucosal morphology and gut microbiome in yellow feathered broilers. Two hundred and seventy 1-d-old female broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments ① Basal diet (NG); ② Basal diet containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (50mg/Kg diet) (ANT); ③ Basal diet containing sanguinarine (0.7 mg/ kg of feed) (SAG). The statistical results showed that dietary sanguinarine supplementation enhanced growth performance and decreased glucose, uric acid as well as urea nitrogen levels of broilers at 28d of age (P<0.05). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that sanguinarine significantly decreased the species from the phyla Bacteroidetes, and increased the species from phyla Firmicutes. Moreover, dietary sanguinarine supplementation improved mucosal morphology to achieve higher ratio of intestinal villus height to crypt depth (P < 0.05), and decreased the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-4 in jejunum mucosal. This study demonstrated that sanguinarine supplementation in the diet of yellow feathered broilers improved intestinal morphology and microbiota community structure to promote growth performance on 1-28d.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/patogenicidade , Benzofenantridinas/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Firmicutes/patogenicidade , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Jejuno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0219721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531778

RESUMO

Wnt/FZD signalling activity is required for spinal cord development, including the dorsal-ventral patterning of the neural tube, where it affects proliferation and specification of neurons. Wnt ligands initiate canonical, ß -catenin-dependent, signaling by binding to Frizzled receptors. However, in many developmental contexts the cognate FZD receptor for a particular Wnt ligand remains to be identified. Here, we characterized FZD10 expression in the dorsal neural tube where it overlaps with both Wnt1 and Wnt3a, as well as markers of dorsal progenitors and interneurons. We show FZD10 expression is sensitive to Wnt1, but not Wnt3a expression, and FZD10 plays a role in neural tube patterning. Knockdown approaches show that Wnt1 induced ventral expansion of dorsal neural markes, Pax6 and Pax7, requires FZD10. In contrast, Wnt3a induced dorsalization of the neural tube is not affected by FZD10 knockdown. Gain of function experiments show that FZD10 is not sufficient on its own to mediate Wnt1 activity in vivo. Indeed excess FZD10 inhibits the dorsalizing activity of Wnt1. However, addition of the Lrp6 co-receptor dramatically enhances the Wnt1/FZD10 mediated activation of dorsal markers. This suggests that the mechanism by which Wnt1 regulates proliferation and patterning in the neural tube requires both FZD10 and Lrp6.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Wnt1/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/deficiência , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proliferação de Células , Galinhas , Receptores Frizzled/deficiência , Receptores Frizzled/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e49, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coinfection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is common in chickens, and the molecular mechanism of the synergistic pathogenic effects of the coinfection is not clear. Exosomes have been identified as new players in the pathogenesis of retroviruses. The different functions of exosomes depend on their cargo components. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the function of co-regulation differentially expressed proteins in exosomes on coinfection of ALV-J and REV. METHODS: Here, viral replication in CEF cells infected with ALV-J, REV or both was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Then, we analyzed the exosomes isolated from supernatants of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells single infected and coinfected with ALV-J and REV by mass spectrometry. KEGG pathway enrichment analyzed the co-regulation differentially expressed proteins in exosomes. Next, we silenced and overexpressed tripartite motif containing 62 (TRIM62) to evaluate the effects of TRIM62 on viral replication and the expression levels of NCK-association proteins 1 (NCKAP1) and actin-related 2/3 complex subunit 5 (ARPC5) determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The results showed that coinfection of ALV-J and REV promoted the replication of each other. Thirty proteins, including TRIM62, NCK-association proteins 1 (NCKAP1, also known as Nap125), and Arp2/3-5, ARPC5, were identified. NCKAP1 and ARPC5 were involved in the actin cytoskeleton pathway. TRIM62 negatively regulated viral replication and that the inhibition of REV was more significant than that on ALV-J in CEF cells coinfected with TRIM62. In addition, TRIM62 decreased the expression of NCKAP1 and increased the expression of ARPC5 in coinfected CEF cells. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicated that coinfection with ALV-J and REV competitively promoted each other's replication, the actin cytoskeleton played an important role in the coinfection mechanism, and TRIM62 regulated the actin cytoskeleton.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Coinfecção/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Animais , Leucose Aviária/fisiopatologia , Leucose Aviária/virologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/fisiologia , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Coinfecção/fisiopatologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose/fisiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo
7.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1822-1831, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241462

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of 2 phosphorus (P) sources on broiler performance to day 14. The P bioavailability was estimated using bird performance and tibia ash measurements, whereas P digestibility, intestinal P transporter, kidney vitamin D-1α-hydroxylase, and vitamin D-24-hydroxylase mRNA abundances were also determined. Slope regression analysis was used to determine the bioavailability of dicalcium phosphate (Dical P) and nanocalcium phosphate (Nano P) with dietary available P (AvP) set to 0.20% P (control) using AvP from the major ingredients and Dical P. The experimental treatments were achieved by supplementation with either Dical P or Nano P to generate 0.24, 0.28, 0.32, and 0.36% AvP. A total of 648-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were divided into 72 birds per treatment (8 replicate cages of 9 birds). Slope regression analysis showed positive linear relationships between BW, feed intake (FI), tibia ash weight (TAW), and tibia ash percentage (TAP) with dietary Dical P and Nano P levels. Comparisons between regression slopes for Dical P and Nano P fed birds were not significantly different for BW, feed intake, tibia ash weight, and tibia ash percentage, indicating similar P bioavailability from Dical P and Nano P. There were interactions between P source and AvP for feed efficiency (FE) and apparent ileal P digestibility (AIPD). Dicalcium phosphate had greater FE than Nano P at 0.28% AvP and greater AIPD than Nano P at 0.24% AvP. The addition of AvP from Dical P and Nano P resulted in reduced sodium phosphate cotransporter mRNA abundance in the duodenum in a dose-dependent response. In the kidney, vitamin D-1α-hydroxylase mRNA abundance was greater at 0.36% Nano P compared with control, but there was no difference with Dical P. There was no difference in vitamin D-24-hydroxylase mRNA abundance between control and supplementation with Nano P or Dical P. In conclusion, Nano P and Dical P had the same bioavailability but had different effects on gene expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas/genética , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/genética , Esteroide Hidroxilases/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fosfatos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacocinética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Duodeno/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/farmacocinética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/metabolismo , Esteroide Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/metabolismo
8.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1832-1837, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241463

RESUMO

Forty broilers maintained under natural hypobaric hypoxia (2,638 m above sea level) and 20 maintained under relative normoxia (460 m above sea level) were selected as pulmonary hypertensive (PHB) and nonpulmonary hypertensive (NPHB), to estimate the degree of the adventitial vascular thickness in lung arterioles and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in lung. In each group, the adventitial thickness (%AT) of 20 arterioles with 100 to 250 µm of external diameter was measured in lung samples of 24 and 42-day-old broilers. Also, mRNA extraction and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis were used to measure lung CTGF expression. The %AT was higher in PHB at 42 D as compared to NPHB at both ages and PHB at 24 D; however, the same differences were not evidenced at 24 D. In the 2 ages evaluated, differences were observed in the %AT between broilers under hypobaric hypoxia (PHB and NPHB) and under relative normoxia (P < 0.01). In broilers subjected to relative normoxia, no significant differences were found at any of the 2 ages. The expression levels of CTGF mRNA were higher in PHB compared to NPHB at the 2 ages. The %AT was higher in PHB with high levels of expression of CTGF mRNA than those NPHB with low expression of CTGF mRNA. This study showed that adventitial thickening is part of the pulmonary hypertension (PH) physiopathology in broilers exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, in which CTGF appears to be a fibrosis enhancer. Although present data suggest that adventitial engrossment could be a time-dependent process, individual susceptibility and the variable time-course of PH pathophysiology have to be considered.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Expressão Gênica , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Arteríolas/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/veterinária , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética
9.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1847-1861, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241465

RESUMO

The dynamic development of the animal intestine with a concurrent succession of microbiota and changes in microbial community and metabolite spectrum can exert far-reaching effects on host physiology. However, the precise mechanism of mutual response between microbiota and the gut is yet to be fully elucidated. Broilers with varying developmental degrees of intestinal wall thickness were selected, and they were divided into the thick group (H type) and the thin group (B type), using multiomics data integration analysis to reveal the fundamental regulatory mechanisms of gut-microbiota interplay. Our data showed, in broilers with similar body weight, the intestinal morphological parameters were improved in H type and the diversity of microbial communities is distinguishable from each other. The beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve was increased whereas avian endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP was decreased in the H type compared with the B type. Furthermore, microbial metabolic potentials were more active, especially the biosynthesis of folate was improved in the H type. Similarly, the consolidation of absorption, immunity, metabolism, and development was noticed in the thick group. Correlation analysis indicated that the expression levels of material transport and immunomodulatory-related genes were positively correlated with the relative abundance of several probiotics such as B. breve, Lactobacillus saerimneri, and Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum. Our findings suggest that the chickens with well-developed ileal thickness own exclusive microbial composition and metabolic potential, which is closely related to small intestinal morphogenesis and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Microbiota , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Íleo/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1914-1920, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241471

RESUMO

In avian species, maternal immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred from the blood to the yolks of maturing oocytes; however, the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms of maternal IgY transfer into egg yolks, IgY-depleted chickens were generated by removing the bursa of Fabricius (bursectomy) during egg incubation, and their egg production and IgY transport ability into egg yolks were determined. After hatching, blood IgY concentrations of the bursectomized chickens decreased gradually until sexual maturity, whereas those of IgA remained low from an early stage of growth (from at least 2 wk of age). Chickens identified as depleted in IgY through screening of blood IgY and IgA concentrations were raised to sexual maturity. At 20 wk of age, both blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in the IgY-depleted group were 600-fold lower than those of the control group, whereas egg production did not differ between the groups. Intravenously injected, digoxigenin-labeled IgY uptake into the egg yolk was approximately 2-fold higher in the IgY-depleted chickens than in the controls, suggesting that IgY depletion may enhance IgY uptake in maturing oocytes. DNA microarray analysis of the germinal disc, including the oocyte nucleus, revealed that the expression levels of 73 genes were upregulated more than 1.5-fold in the IgY-depleted group, although we could not identify a convincing candidate gene for the IgY receptor. In conclusion, we successfully raised IgY-depleted chickens presenting a marked reduction in egg yolk IgY. The enhanced uptake of injected IgY into the egg yolks of the IgY-depleted chickens supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in maturing oocytes and ovarian follicles in avian species.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/deficiência , Bolsa de Fabricius/cirurgia , Galinhas/cirurgia , Feminino , Imunoglobulinas/deficiência
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1967-1974, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241477

RESUMO

In 2018, a new goose astrovirus (GAstrV) was reported in China, which causes 2 to 20% deaths in 4- to 16-day-old goslings causing great damages to the livestock industry. Gout is the typical feature of GAstrV infection in goslings. However, the mechanism of gout formation remains unclear. In the present study, 2-day-old goslings were infected intramuscularly with GAstrV for 14 D. One quarter of the infected goslings died, and typical gout pathological changes were found in the dead infected goslings. Pathological changes were observed in the morphology of the kidney and liver, such as degeneration, necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Accordingly, a high virus load was found in both organs. The serum level of uric acid in the inoculated goslings was higher, whereas no differences were found in levels of creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus. Moreover, the xanthine dehydrogenase (XOD) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities and the mRNA levels of xanthine dehydrogenase, adenosine deaminase, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase, and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 in livers increased, wheres the multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 mRNA level and Na-K-ATPase activity in the kidneys decreased. These results showed that GAstrV infection could cause lesions on the liver and kidney and then increase the expression or activity of enzymes related to uric acid production in the liver and decrease renal excretion function, which contribute to hyperuricemia and gout formation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Gansos , Gota/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Astroviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Avastrovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Gota/metabolismo , Gota/virologia , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Purinas/metabolismo
12.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 50, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264939

RESUMO

Two experiments were performed to investigate the effect of different ratios of arginine (Arg) to lysine (Lys) in diets with low (30% Lys; Experiment 1) and high (45% Lys; Experiment 2) methionine (Met) levels on selected metabolic parameters, oxidative and epigenetic DNA damage, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal barrier integrity in turkeys challenged with Clostridium perfringens. In each experiment, 108 one-day-old Hybrid Converter female turkeys were placed in 6 pens (18 birds per pen) and reared for 42 days. At 34, 36 and 37 days of age, half of the birds were subjected to C. perfringens challenge. A 3 × 2 factorial design with three levels of Arg relative to Lys (90, 100 and 110%; Arg90, Arg100 and Arg110, respectively) and C. perfringens infection (-, +) was employed. Challenging birds with C. perfringens increased lipid oxidation and the oxidation and methylation of DNA of intestinal mucosa, and down-regulated the activities of DNA-repairing enzymes. Neither the dietary treatment nor the challenge affected the markers of liver function or metabolism. Arg110 diets with the high Met level induced DNA oxidation and methylation whereas these processes were downregulated in birds fed Arg90 diets. The results indicate that Arg90 diets with high Met levels have a beneficial influence on the indicators of intestinal barrier integrity in turkeys with necrotic enteritis (NE). Despite the analyzed amino acid ratios interacted with the systems responsible for the maintenance of gut integrity in the host organism, this dietary intervention probably enabled birds to cope with NE.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/fisiopatologia , Dano ao DNA , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Epigênese Genética , Expressão Gênica , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1628-1642, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115035

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to investigate the changes in amino acid (AA) contents of crop milk and plasma and mRNA abundance of AA transporters and AA synthesis-related enzymes in the crop tissue of male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods. Forty-two pairs of adult White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 7 groups by different breeding stages. The AA content of crop milk decreased from day 1 (R1) to day 25 (R25) of chick rearing (P < 0.05). In both male and female adult pigeons, the contents of Thr, Leu, Val, His, Asp, and Pro in plasma increased to maximum levels on R25. Parental sex effect and interaction between stage and sex were observed in the AA contents of pigeon plasma (P < 0.05). For AA transporters, the mRNA abundances of SNAT2, ASCT1, LAT1, and y+LAT2 in the male crops reached the highest value on day 17 of incubation (I17), and the peak mRNA levels of PAT-1, xCT, b0,+AT, and CAT1 were found on R7 (P < 0.05). In females, the abundances of ASCT1, B0AT1, asc-1, and CAT1 mRNA peaked on R1, whereas the maximum levels of LAT1, PAT-1, b0,+AT, and y+LAT2 were observed on R7. For enzymes involved in AA synthesis, the highest gene expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase 1, acetolactate synthase in both parent pigeons, and L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase in female pigeon crops were attained on I17. The expressions of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase, glutamic-oxal(o)acetic transaminase 1, glutamic-oxal(o)acetic transaminase 2, asparagine synthetase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2, and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase 2 in both sexes and argininosuccinate lyase and L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase in males were the highest on R1. In conclusion, AA used for pigeon crop milk formation may originate from plasma and intracellular synthesis. The genes involved in AA transport and synthesis varied significantly with sexual effects, indicating that other factors should be considered in future explorations of the mechanism of protein formation in crop milk.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Columbidae/fisiologia , Papo das Aves/fisiologia , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/deficiência , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Columbidae/sangue , Columbidae/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Comportamento Paterno , RNA Mensageiro/análise
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1471-1482, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111316

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary linoleic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and lipid metabolism in pigeon squabs by supplementing LA in their parental diets. A completely randomized design that consisted of a control group, 1% dietary LA addition group (LA1%), 2% dietary LA addition group (LA2%), and 4% dietary LA addition group (LA4%) was used. Six squabs from each treatment were randomly sampled at the day of hatch and days 7, 14, and 21 after hatch. The results showed that parental dietary LA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) on body weight (BW) gain or relative organ weights (% of BW) in squabs. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the LA1% were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with those in the control group. The malondialdehyde content in the LA1% was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. The levels of serum triglyceride in the LA1% and LA2% were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with those in the control group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the LA1% and LA2% and the free fatty acid level in the LA4% were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase in the LA1% were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the control group. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in the LA1% and the hormone-sensitive lipase activity in the LA4% were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with those in the control group. The mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, acyl-CoA 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α was significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) in the LA1% compared with that in the control group. The Oil Red O staining area in the LA1% and LA2% was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group. The results indicated that although supplemental LA had negligible effects on growth and development in pigeon squabs, parental dietary LA at a concentration of 1% could have beneficial effects on maintaining squabs healthy as reflected by improved antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Columbidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Columbidae/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1454-1461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115031

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of glutamine (Gln) on modulating heat stress-induced oxidative damage in the broiler thigh muscle through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) pathway. Three-hundred 22-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were reallocated into 5 groups: a control group (24 °C) fed with basal diet and 4 heat stress (HS) groups (34 °C for 8 h/D) fed with basal diet containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% Gln. This experiment lasted 21 D. Heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) pH, redness, and Gln levels, and increased (P < 0.05) luminance, water loss rate, and cooking loss (CL) values of the thigh meat. Compared with the HS group, supplementation with 1.5% Gln increased (P < 0.05) pH, redness, and Gln levels, but decreased (P < 0.05) luminance and CL values in the thigh meat. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and Nrf2 levels, but significant increases (P < 0.05) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) and Keap1 levels of the thigh muscle after HS treatment. Compared with the HS group, supplementation with 1.0, and 1.5% Gln decreased (P < 0.05) MDA and Keap1 levels; supplementation with 1.5% Gln increased (P < 0.05) GSH, GSH-Px, T-AOC, CAT, SOD, and Nrf2 levels in the thigh muscle of heat-stressed broilers. Furthermore, HS decreased (P < 0.05) Nrf2, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px mRNA expression levels, but increased (P < 0.05) Keap1 mRNA level in the thigh muscle of broiler. Dietary supplementation with 1.5% Gln increased (P < 0.05) Nrf2, GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD mRNA expression levels, but decreased (P < 0.05) Keap1 mRNA level in the thigh muscle of heat-stressed broilers. In conclusion, dietary Gln improved the resistance of heat-stressed broiler muscles to oxidative damage possibly through reversing the muscle Gln level and inducing the expression of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Glutamina/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glutamina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Coxa da Perna
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1462-1470, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115032

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation with nicotinamide (NAM) and sodium butyrate (BA) on meat quality and expression of muscle development genes in broilers reared at a high stocking density. A total of 567, 21-day-old AA broilers were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups and 2 control groups, with 7 replicates of each group. The control groups included a low stocking density (LD; 12.9 birds/m2) and were fed a basal diet. The treatment groups were kept at a high stocking density (HD; 18.6 birds/m2) and received either a low dose of NAM (50 mg/kg; treatment LN), a high dose of NAM (100 mg/kg; treatment HN), a low dose of BA (500 mg/kg; treatment LB), a high dose of BA (1,000 mg/kg; treatment HB), or a compound supplement (50 mg/kg NAM+500 mg/kg BA; treatment COMB); broilers were reared till 42 D of age. The control groups were kept at HD or at LD (12.9 birds/m2) and were fed a basal diet. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the HD control group than that in the LD group; this ratio was significantly lower in treatments LN, HN, HB, and COMB than that in the HD control group. The lightness of breast muscles at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter was significantly higher in the HD group than that in the LD group, and the HD group showed the highest drip loss at 24 h and 48 h. Lightness and drip loss were lower in the HN, LB, and COMB treatments than those in the HD group. HD rearing significantly reduced gene expression of myogenic regulatory factor 5 (MYF5) while significantly increased expression of the protein ubiquitin degradation genes FBXO9, FBXO22, and FBXO32. All treatments significantly reduced FBXO9 and FBXO32 expression. Our results suggest dietary supplementation with NAM and BA can improve meat quality of broilers under high stocking density by upregulating the expression of myogenic genes, and inhibiting protein ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Carne/análise , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ubiquitinação
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1326-1331, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115023

RESUMO

IL-6, IL-8, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCLi2) are important factors in inflammatory and immune responses. To investigate their relationships in the spleen and cecum and between coccidiosis-infected and uninfected states, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to compare the relative expression difference of IL-6, IL-8, and CCLi2 in the same tissues between the infection and control groups. In addition, the correlations of the relative expression levels of these 3 genes were determined in the same and different tissues within the same group. The results showed that the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CCLi2 in the spleen and cecum of the infected group were all higher than those of the uninfected group (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficients among the IL-6, IL-8, and CCLi2 expression levels in the spleen or cecum were all positive in both the infection and control groups. In the spleen tissues, CCLi2 expression was strongly correlated with IL-6 and IL-8 in the uninfected group (P < 0.01), and the correlation coefficients reached 0.853 (R2 = 0.728) and 0.996 (R2 = 0.992), respectively. The expression of CCLi2 was also strongly correlated with IL-8 (R reached 0.890, R2 = 0.792) in the infected group. In the cecal tissues, the expression levels of the 3 genes were all extremely significantly correlated in the uninfected group (P < 0.01), and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.498 to 0.765, indicating moderate correlations. The expression of IL-6 was extremely significantly positively correlated with IL-8 and CCLi2 in the infected group (P < 0.01), with moderate correlations (R ranged from 0.469-0.639). In addition, the expression levels of the 3 genes were not significantly correlated (P > 0.05) between the spleen and cecum tissues in either the infection group or the control group. These results indicate that IL-6, IL-8, and CCLi2 were correlated and play an important role in coccidiosis infection of Jinghai yellow chicken. Our data also provide a basis for further exploring the role of these 3 genes in genetic breeding for coccidiosis resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/parasitologia , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Coccidiose/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Ligantes , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/parasitologia
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 87-92, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155471

RESUMO

Zinc plays an important role in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). IGF system, in turn, has a key role in the development and functions of the reproductive organs. This research was performed to investigate the effects of different sources of zinc on IGF-I gene expression and testicular development in pre-pubertal male Japanese quail. A total of 512 unsexed day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into 16 groups (4 dietary treatments × 4 replicates) and kept for 35 days. The control group diet was not supplemented with zinc whereas the diets of three groups were supplemented with 25 mg kg-1 zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnON), and zinc-methionine (Zn-Met). On days 28 and 35, one birds from each subgroup were weighed, bled, and euthanized to evaluate gonado-somatic index (GSI), testicular histology, serum testosterone concentration, cloacal gland index (CGI), and the testicular IGF family gene expression. The results showed that GSI was higher in ZnON (2.307) than control (1.619) on day 35 (P < .05). Germinal epithelium thickness was higher in ZnON (78.88 µm) and Zn-Met (79.73 µm) than control (67.73 µm) on day 35 (P < .05). On day 35, the testosterone concentration was lowest in the control (5.830 ng/ml, P < .05). The CGI of 35-day-old birds was higher in Zn-Met (411.28) than the control (307.59, P < .05). IGF-IR mRNA expression was highest in Zn-Met group on day 28. Therefore, supplementation of diet with Zn-methionine is superior to other sources of zinc for diet supplementation in immature Japanese quail.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Coturnix/genética , Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Coturnix/anatomia & histologia , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Distribuição Aleatória , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Zinco/administração & dosagem
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 144-152, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179292

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can lead to extraintestinal disease in avian species via respiratory tract infection. However, the regulatory mechanism of APEC on the pathogenicity of chicken trachea epithelium remains unknown. In this study, we examined pathological changes in chicken trachea at different infection times (4, 8, 12 and 24 h). The RNA sequencing of APEC infection group and the PBS group (negative control) of chicken trachea epithelium were analysed. Our studies revealed that the oedema, heterophil infiltration and hyperaemia appeared at 8 and 12 h post APEC infection. And the hyperaemia phenomenon and heterophilic granulocyte infiltration disappeared at 24 h post infection. Then RNA sequencing showed many genes were dynamically expressed in the APEC infection group. At 4, 8 and 12 h post infection, the mRNA of differentially expressed genes were enriched by cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and the toll-like receptor signalling pathway. The cell cycle pathway was enriched at 24 h post infection. Altogether, these findings suggest that APEC infection induces pathological change in the chicken trachea, the mRNA of differentially expressed genes participating in inflammation and hyperplasia signalling pathways. Which not only provide more evidence for regulatory mechanism of APEC on the pathogenicity of chicken trachea epithelium, but also facilitate the effective management of APEC infections in poultry through trachea.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças da Traqueia/veterinária , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Traqueia/patologia , Traqueia/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Traqueia/microbiologia , Doenças da Traqueia/patologia , Doenças da Traqueia/fisiopatologia
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1163-1173, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029148

RESUMO

Variation in egg production exists in commercial turkey hens, with low egg producing hens (LEPH) costing more per egg produced than high egg producing hens (HEPH). Egg production correlates with ovulation frequency, which is governed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Ovulation is stimulated by a preovulatory surge (PS) of progesterone and luteinizing hormone, triggered by gonadotropin releasing hormone release and inhibited by gonadotropin inhibiting hormone. Differences between LEPH and HEPH were characterized by determining HPG axis plasma hormone profiles and mRNA levels for key genes, both outside and inside of the PS (n = 3 per group). Data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA using the mixed models procedure of SAS. In the HPG axis, plasma progesterone levels were not affected by egg production level but were elevated during the PS. In contrast, plasma estradiol levels were higher in HEPH than in LEPH but were not associated with the PS. LEPH exhibited decreased gene expression associated with ovulation stimulation and increased gene expression associated with ovulation inhibition in the hypothalamus and pituitary. In ovarian follicle cells, LEPH displayed decreased gene expression associated with progesterone, androgen, and estradiol production in the F1 follicle granulosa cells, F5 theca interna cells, and small white follicle cells, respectively. Different degrees of stimulation and inhibition within all tissues of the HPG axis were noted between LEPH and HEPH turkey hens, with HEPH showing higher expression of genes related to ovulation and steroidogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Reprodução/fisiologia , Perus/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Feminino
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