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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4782, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963223

RESUMO

Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins maintain stable epigenetic memory of gene expression states for some genes, but many targets show highly dynamic regulation. Here we combine experiment and theory to examine the mechanistic basis of these different modes of regulation. We present a mathematical model comprising a Polycomb/Trithorax response element (PRE/TRE) coupled to a promoter and including Drosophila developmental timing. The model accurately recapitulates published studies of PRE/TRE mediated epigenetic memory of both silencing and activation. With minimal parameter changes, the same model can also recapitulate experimental data for a different PRE/TRE that allows dynamic regulation of its target gene. The model predicts that both cell cycle length and PRE/TRE identity are critical for determining whether the system gives stable memory or dynamic regulation. Our work provides a simple unifying framework for a rich repertoire of PRE/TRE functions, and thus provides insights into  genome-wide Polycomb/Trithorax regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Epigenômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Modelos Teóricos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Animais , Divisão Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Elementos de Resposta
2.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 371-375, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763226

RESUMO

Whereas the core nucleosome is thought to serve as a packaging device for the coiling and contraction in length of genomic DNA, we suggest that it serves primarily in the regulation of transcription. A nucleosome on a promoter prevents the initiation of transcription. The association of nucleosomes with most genomic DNA prevents initiation from cryptic promoters. The nucleosome thus serves not only as a general gene repressor, but also as a repressor of all transcription (genic, intragenic, and intergenic). The core nucleosome performs a fundamental regulatory role, apart from the histone "tails," which modulate gene activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Nucleossomos/ultraestrutura , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3796, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732900

RESUMO

The ter region of the bacterial chromosome, where replication terminates, is the last to be segregated before cell division in Escherichia coli. Delayed segregation is controlled by the MatP protein, which binds to specific sites (matS) within ter, and interacts with other proteins such as ZapB. Here, we investigate the role of MatP by combining short-time mobility analyses of the ter locus with biochemical approaches. We find that ter mobility is similar to that of a non ter locus, except when sister ter loci are paired after replication. This effect depends on MatP, the persistence of catenanes, and ZapB. We characterise MatP/DNA complexes and conclude that MatP binds DNA as a tetramer, but bridging matS sites in a DNA-rich environment remains infrequent. We propose that tetramerisation of MatP links matS sites with ZapB and/or with non-specific DNA to promote optimal pairing of sister ter regions until cell division.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000817, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813728

RESUMO

During meiosis, chromosomes adopt a specialized organization involving assembly of a cohesin-based axis along their lengths, with DNA loops emanating from this axis. We applied novel, quantitative, and widely applicable cytogenetic strategies to elucidate the molecular bases of this organization using Caenorhabditis elegans. Analyses of wild-type (WT) chromosomes and de novo circular minichromosomes revealed that meiosis-specific HORMA-domain proteins assemble into cohorts in defined numbers and co-organize the axis together with 2 functionally distinct cohesin complexes (REC-8 and COH-3/4) in defined stoichiometry. We further found that REC-8 cohesins, which load during S phase and mediate sister-chromatid cohesion, usually occur as individual complexes, supporting a model wherein sister cohesion is mediated locally by a single cohesin ring. REC-8 complexes are interspersed in an alternating pattern with cohorts of axis-organizing COH-3/4 complexes (averaging 3 per cohort), which are insufficient to confer cohesion but can bind to individual chromatids, suggesting a mechanism to enable formation of asymmetric sister-chromatid loops. Indeed, immunofluorescence/fluorescence in situ hybridization (immuno-FISH) assays demonstrate frequent asymmetry in genomic content between the loops formed on sister chromatids. We discuss how features of chromosome axis/loop architecture inferred from our data can help to explain enigmatic, yet essential, aspects of the meiotic program.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromátides/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Meiose , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/ultraestrutura , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromátides/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Análise Citogenética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Fase S/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4316, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859932

RESUMO

Plants utilize a UV-B (280 to 315 nm) photoreceptor UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8) to sense environmental UV levels and regulate gene expression to avoid harmful UV effects. Uniquely, UVR8 uses intrinsic tryptophan for UV-B perception with a homodimer structure containing 26 structural tryptophan residues. However, besides 8 tryptophans at the dimer interface to form two critical pyramid perception centers, the other 18 tryptophans' functional role is unknown. Here, using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy, computational methods and extensive mutations, we find that all 18 tryptophans form light-harvesting networks and funnel their excitation energy to the pyramid centers to enhance light-perception efficiency. We determine the timescales of all elementary tryptophan-to-tryptophan energy-transfer steps in picoseconds to nanoseconds, in excellent agreement with quantum computational calculations, and finally reveal a significant leap in light-perception quantum efficiency from 35% to 73%. This photoreceptor is the first system discovered so far, to be best of our knowledge, using natural amino-acid tryptophans to form networks for both light harvesting and light perception.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Fotorreceptores de Plantas/química , Fotorreceptores de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Transferência de Energia , Fluorescência , Cinética , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Triptofano/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4345, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859945

RESUMO

Chromosome movements and programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) promote homologue pairing and initiate recombination at meiosis onset. Meiotic progression involves checkpoint-controlled termination of these events when all homologue pairs achieve synapsis and form crossover precursors. Exploiting the temporo-spatial organisation of the C. elegans germline and time-resolved methods of protein removal, we show that surveillance of the synaptonemal complex (SC) controls meiotic progression. In nuclei with fully synapsed homologues and crossover precursors, removing different meiosis-specific cohesin complexes, which are individually required for SC stability, or a SC central region component causes functional redeployment of the chromosome movement and DSB machinery, triggering whole-nucleus reorganisation. This apparent reversal of the meiotic programme requires CHK-2 kinase reactivation via signalling from chromosome axes containing HORMA proteins, but occurs in the absence of transcriptional changes. Our results uncover an unexpected plasticity of the meiotic programme and show how chromosome signalling orchestrates nuclear organisation and meiotic progression.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Estruturas Cromossômicas/metabolismo , Meiose/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Pareamento Cromossômico , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3289, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620890

RESUMO

The spatial organization of chromosomes has key functional roles, yet how chromosomes fold remains poorly understood at the single-molecule level. Here, we employ models of polymer physics to investigate DNA loci in human HCT116 and IMR90 wild-type and cohesin depleted cells. Model predictions on single-molecule structures are validated against single-cell imaging data, providing evidence that chromosomal architecture is controlled by a thermodynamics mechanism of polymer phase separation whereby chromatin self-assembles in segregated globules by combinatorial interactions of chromatin factors that include CTCF and cohesin. The thermodynamics degeneracy of single-molecule conformations results in broad structural and temporal variability of TAD-like contact patterns. Globules establish stable environments where specific contacts are highly favored over stochastic encounters. Cohesin depletion reverses phase separation into randomly folded states, erasing average interaction patterns. Overall, globule phase separation appears to be a robust yet reversible mechanism of chromatin organization where stochasticity and specificity coexist.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Conformação Molecular , Fenômenos Físicos , Polímeros/química , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/química , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Processos Estocásticos , Termodinâmica
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3419, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647123

RESUMO

The development and function of the brain require tight control of gene expression. Genome architecture is thought to play a critical regulatory role in gene expression, but the mechanisms governing genome architecture in the brain in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we report that conditional knockout of the chromatin remodeling enzyme Chd4 in granule neurons of the mouse cerebellum increases accessibility of gene regulatory sites genome-wide in vivo. Conditional knockout of Chd4 promotes recruitment of the architectural protein complex cohesin preferentially to gene enhancers in granule neurons in vivo. Importantly, in vivo profiling of genome architecture reveals that conditional knockout of Chd4 strengthens interactions among developmentally repressed contact domains as well as genomic loops in a manner that tightly correlates with increased accessibility, enhancer activity, and cohesin occupancy at these sites. Collectively, our findings define a role for chromatin remodeling in the control of genome architecture organization in the mammalian brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Genoma , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Genéticos , Ligação Proteica
9.
Nature ; 584(7819): 142-147, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612238

RESUMO

Nuclear processes, such as V(D)J recombination, are orchestrated by the three-dimensional organization of chromosomes at multiple levels, including compartments1 and topologically associated domains (TADs)2,3 consisting of chromatin loops4. TADs are formed by chromatin-loop extrusion5-7, which depends on the loop-extrusion function of the ring-shaped cohesin complex8-12. Conversely, the cohesin-release factor Wapl13,14 restricts loop extension10,15. The generation of a diverse antibody repertoire, providing humoral immunity to pathogens, requires the participation of all V genes in V(D)J recombination16, which depends on contraction of the 2.8-Mb-long immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus by Pax517,18. However, how Pax5 controls Igh contraction in pro-B cells remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that locus contraction is caused by loop extrusion across the entire Igh locus. Notably, the expression of Wapl is repressed by Pax5 specifically in pro-B and pre-B cells, facilitating extended loop extrusion by increasing the residence time of cohesin on chromatin. Pax5 mediates the transcriptional repression of Wapl through a single Pax5-binding site by recruiting the polycomb repressive complex 2 to induce bivalent chromatin at the Wapl promoter. Reduced Wapl expression causes global alterations in the chromosome architecture, indicating that the potential to recombine all V genes entails structural changes of the entire genome in pro-B cells.


Assuntos
Genes de Cadeia Pesada de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Recombinação V(D)J/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/química , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/química , Camundongos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/citologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2725, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483152

RESUMO

The functional study of lncRNAs in skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) remains at the infancy stage. Here we identify SAM (Sugt1 asssociated muscle) lncRNA that is enriched in the proliferating myoblasts. Global deletion of SAM has no overt effect on mice but impairs adult muscle regeneration following acute damage; it also exacerbates the chronic injury-induced dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. Consistently, inducible deletion of SAM in SCs leads to deficiency in muscle regeneration. Further examination reveals that SAM loss results in a cell-autonomous defect in the proliferative expansion of myoblasts. Mechanistically, we find SAM interacts and stabilizes Sugt1, a co-chaperon protein key to kinetochore assembly during cell division. Loss of SAM or Sugt1 both disrupts kinetochore assembly in mitotic cells due to the mislocalization of two components: Dsn1 and Hec1. Altogether, our findings identify SAM as a regulator of SC proliferation through facilitating Sugt1 mediated kinetochore assembly during cell division.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/citologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008799, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502208

RESUMO

TRF2 and TRF1 are a key component in shelterin complex that associates with telomeric DNA and protects chromosome ends. BRM is a core ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Whether and how BRM-SWI/SNF complex is engaged in chromatin end protection by telomeres is unknown. Here, we report that depletion of BRM does not affect heterochromatin state of telomeres, but results in telomere dysfunctional phenomena including telomere uncapping and replication defect. Mechanistically, expression of TRF2 and TRF1 is jointly regulated by BRM-SWI/SNF complex, which is localized to promoter region of both genes and facilitates their transcription. BRM-deficient cells bear increased TRF2-free or TRF1-free telomeres due to insufficient expression. Importantly, BRM depletion-induced telomere uncapping or replication defect can be rescued by compensatory expression of exogenous TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. Together, these results identify a new function of BRM-SWI/SNF complex in enabling functional telomeres for maintaining genome stability.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Telômero/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Instabilidade Genômica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Science ; 368(6497): 1386-1392, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554597

RESUMO

The nucleus contains diverse phase-separated condensates that compartmentalize and concentrate biomolecules with distinct physicochemical properties. Here, we investigated whether condensates concentrate small-molecule cancer therapeutics such that their pharmacodynamic properties are altered. We found that antineoplastic drugs become concentrated in specific protein condensates in vitro and that this occurs through physicochemical properties independent of the drug target. This behavior was also observed in tumor cells, where drug partitioning influenced drug activity. Altering the properties of the condensate was found to affect the concentration and activity of drugs. These results suggest that selective partitioning and concentration of small molecules within condensates contributes to drug pharmacodynamics and that further understanding of this phenomenon may facilitate advances in disease therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/genética , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Nature ; 582(7810): 119-123, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494069

RESUMO

The three-dimensional architecture of the genome governs its maintenance, expression and transmission. The cohesin protein complex organizes the genome by topologically linking distant loci, and is highly enriched in specialized chromosomal domains surrounding centromeres, called pericentromeres1-6. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of pericentromeres in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and establish the relationship between genome organization and function. We find that convergent genes mark pericentromere borders and, together with core centromeres, define their structure and function by positioning cohesin. Centromeres load cohesin, and convergent genes at pericentromere borders trap it. Each side of the pericentromere is organized into a looped conformation, with border convergent genes at the base. Microtubule attachment extends a single pericentromere loop, size-limited by convergent genes at its borders. Reorienting genes at borders into a tandem configuration repositions cohesin, enlarges the pericentromere and impairs chromosome biorientation during mitosis. Thus, the linear arrangement of transcriptional units together with targeted cohesin loading shapes pericentromeres into a structure that is competent for chromosome segregation. Our results reveal the architecture of the chromosomal region within which kinetochores are embedded, as well as the restructuring caused by microtubule attachment. Furthermore, we establish a direct, causal relationship between the three-dimensional genome organization of a specific chromosomal domain and cellular function.


Assuntos
Centrômero/genética , Centrômero/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Centrômero/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Mitose/genética , Conformação Molecular
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008849, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516352

RESUMO

Cohesin, a multisubunit protein complex, is required for holding sister chromatids together during mitosis and meiosis. The recruitment of cohesin by the sister chromatid cohesion 2/4 (SCC2/4) complex has been extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitosis, but its role in mitosis and meiosis remains poorly understood in multicellular organisms, because complete loss-of-function of either gene causes embryonic lethality. Here, we identified a weak allele of Atscc2 (Atscc2-5) that has only minor defects in vegetative development but exhibits a significant reduction in fertility. Cytological analyses of Atscc2-5 reveal multiple meiotic phenotypes including defects in chromosomal axis formation, meiosis-specific cohesin loading, homolog pairing and synapsis, and AtSPO11-1-dependent double strand break repair. Surprisingly, even though AtSCC2 interacts with AtSCC4 in vitro and in vivo, meiosis-specific knockdown of AtSCC4 expression does not cause any meiotic defect, suggesting that the SCC2-SCC4 complex has divergent roles in mitosis and meiosis. SCC2 homologs from land plants have a unique plant homeodomain (PHD) motif not found in other species. We show that the AtSCC2 PHD domain can bind to the N terminus of histones and is required for meiosis but not mitosis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that unlike SCC2 in other organisms, SCC2 requires a functional PHD domain during meiosis in land plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Meiose/genética , Dedos de Zinco PHD/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genoma de Planta/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mitose/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Mutagênese , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polinização/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1457-1472, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514535

RESUMO

The chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF regulates the accessibility of target genes to transcription factors and plays a critical role in the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The SWI/SNF complex is assembled from approximately 15 subunits, and most of these subunits have distinct roles and are often aberrantly expressed in HCC. A comprehensive exploration of the expression and clinical significance of these subunits would be of great value. In the present study, we obtained the gene expression profile of each SWI/SNF subunit and the corresponding clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We found that 14 out of the 15 SWI/SNF subunits were significantly increased in HCC tissues compared with paired normal liver tissues, and 11 subunits were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). We identified a four-gene prognostic signature including actin-like 6A (ACTL6A), AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A), SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily C member 1 (SMARCC1) and SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily D, member 1 (SMARCD1) that could effectively predict OS in HCC patients. Among the genes, SMARCD1 has the most prognostic value. We further conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments and revealed that SMARCD1 promotes liver cancer growth by activating the mTOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, our study has revealed that the expression of SWI/SNF complex subunits, especially SMARCD1, is highly associated with HCC development and acts as a promising prognostic predictor.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7483-7501, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510132

RESUMO

The MLE DExH helicase and the roX lncRNAs are essential components of the chromatin modifying Dosage Compensation Complex (DCC) in Drosophila. To explore the mechanism of ribonucleoprotein complex assembly, we developed vitRIP, an unbiased, transcriptome-wide in vitro assay that reveals RNA binding specificity. We found that MLE has intrinsic specificity for U-/A-rich sequences and tandem stem-loop structures and binds many RNAs beyond roX in vitro. The selectivity of the helicase for physiological substrates is further enhanced by the core DCC. Unwinding of roX2 by MLE induces a highly selective RNA binding surface in the unstructured C-terminus of the MSL2 subunit and triggers-specific association of MLE and roX2 with the core DCC. The exquisite selectivity of roX2 incorporation into the DCC thus originates from intimate cooperation between the helicase and the core DCC involving two distinct RNA selection principles and their mutual refinement.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Ligação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(15)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366382

RESUMO

Rtf1 is a conserved RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation factor that promotes cotranscriptional histone modification, RNAPII transcript elongation, and mRNA processing. Rtf1 function requires the phosphorylation of Spt5, an essential RNAPII processivity factor. Spt5 is phosphorylated within its C-terminal domain (CTD) by cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9), the catalytic component of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Rtf1 recognizes phosphorylated Spt5 (pSpt5) through its Plus3 domain. Since Spt5 is a unique target of Cdk9 and Rtf1 is the only known pSpt5-binding factor, the Plus3/pSpt5 interaction is thought to be a key Cdk9-dependent event regulating RNAPII elongation. Here, we dissect Rtf1 regulation by pSpt5 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe We demonstrate that the Plus3 domain of Rtf1 (Prf1 in S. pombe) and pSpt5 are functionally distinct and that they act in parallel to promote Prf1 function. This alternate Plus3 domain function involves an interface that overlaps the pSpt5-binding site and that can interact with single-stranded nucleic acid or with the polymerase-associated factor (PAF) complex in vitro We further show that the C-terminal region of Prf1, which also interacts with PAF, has a similar parallel function with pSpt5. Our results elucidate unexpected complexity underlying Cdk9-dependent pathways that regulate transcription elongation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Fosforilação , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(10): 5639-5655, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352519

RESUMO

Cohesin SA1 (STAG1) and SA2 (STAG2) are key components of the cohesin complex. Previous studies have highlighted the unique contributions by SA1 and SA2 to 3D chromatin organization, DNA replication fork progression, and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Recently, we discovered that cohesin SA1 and SA2 are DNA binding proteins. Given the recently discovered link between SA2 and RNA-mediated biological pathways, we investigated whether or not SA1 and SA2 directly bind to RNA using a combination of bulk biochemical assays and single-molecule techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the DNA tightrope assay. We discovered that both SA1 and SA2 bind to various RNA containing substrates, including ssRNA, dsRNA, RNA:DNA hybrids, and R-loops. Importantly, both SA1 and SA2 localize to regions on dsDNA that contain RNA. We directly compared the SA1/SA2 binding and R-loops sites extracted from Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and DNA-RNA Immunoprecipitation sequencing (DRIP-Seq) data sets, respectively. This analysis revealed that SA1 and SA2 binding sites overlap significantly with R-loops. The majority of R-loop-localized SA1 and SA2 are also sites where other subunits of the cohesin complex bind. These results provide a new direction for future investigation of the diverse biological functions of SA1 and SA2.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Estruturas R-Loop , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , DNA/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo
19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008797, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392219

RESUMO

Sun-loving plants perceive the proximity of potential light-competing neighboring plants as a reduction in the red:far-red ratio (R:FR), which elicits a suite of responses called the "shade avoidance syndrome" (SAS). Changes in R:FR are primarily perceived by phytochrome B (phyB), whereas UV-B perceived by UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) elicits opposing responses to provide a counterbalance to SAS, including reduced shade-induced hypocotyl and petiole elongation. Here we show at the genome-wide level that UVR8 broadly suppresses shade-induced gene expression. A subset of this gene regulation is dependent on the UVR8-stabilized atypical bHLH transcription regulator LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED 1 (HFR1), which functions in part redundantly with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE 1 (PIL1). In parallel, UVR8 signaling decreases protein levels of the key positive regulators of SAS, namely the bHLH transcription factors PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5, in a COP1-dependent but HFR1-independent manner. We propose that UV-B antagonizes SAS via two mechanisms: degradation of PIF4 and PIF5, and HFR1- and PIL1-mediated inhibition of PIF4 and PIF5 function. This work highlights the importance of typical and atypical bHLH transcription regulators for the integration of light signals from different photoreceptors and provides further mechanistic insight into the crosstalk of UVR8 signaling and SAS.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11459-11470, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385148

RESUMO

Genomic regions preferentially associate with regions of similar transcriptional activity, partitioning genomes into active and inactive compartments within the nucleus. Here we explore mechanisms controlling genome compartment organization in Caenorhabditis elegans and investigate roles for compartments in regulating gene expression. Distal arms of C. elegans chromosomes, which are enriched for heterochromatic histone modifications H3K9me1/me2/me3, interact with each other both in cis and in trans, while interacting less frequently with central regions, leading to genome compartmentalization. Arms are anchored to the nuclear periphery via the nuclear envelope protein CEC-4, which binds to H3K9me. By performing genome-wide chromosome conformation capture experiments (Hi-C), we showed that eliminating H3K9me1/me2/me3 through mutations in the methyltransferase genes met-2 and set-25 significantly impaired formation of inactive Arm and active Center compartments. cec-4 mutations also impaired compartmentalization, but to a lesser extent. We found that H3K9me promotes compartmentalization through two distinct mechanisms: Perinuclear anchoring of chromosome arms via CEC-4 to promote their cis association, and an anchoring-independent mechanism that compacts individual chromosome arms. In both met-2 set-25 and cec-4 mutants, no dramatic changes in gene expression were found for genes that switched compartments or for genes that remained in their original compartment, suggesting that compartment strength does not dictate gene-expression levels. Furthermore, H3K9me, but not perinuclear anchoring, also contributes to formation of another prominent feature of chromosome organization, megabase-scale topologically associating domains on X established by the dosage compensation condensin complex. Our results demonstrate that H3K9me plays crucial roles in regulating genome organization at multiple levels.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Cromossomos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Heterocromatina/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Lisina/genética , Metilação , Mutação , Cromossomo X/genética , Cromossomo X/metabolismo
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