Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 109
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 339-345, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291435

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode infection is an important cause of high economic losses in livestock production. Nematode control based on a synthetic chemical approach is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. Control alternatives such as the use of natural products are therefore becoming relevant from an environmental and economic point of view. Proteins are macromolecules with various properties that can be obtained from a wide range of organisms, including plants and fungi. Proteins belonging to different classes have shown great potential for the control of nematodes. The action of proteins can occur at specific stages of the nematode life cycle, depending on the composition of the external layers of the nematode body and the active site of the protein. Advances in biotechnology have resulted in the emergence of numerous protein and peptide therapeutics; however, few have been discussed with a focus on the control of animal nematodes. Here, we discuss the use of exogenous proteins and peptides in the control of gastrointestinal.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Biotecnologia , Quitinases/administração & dosagem , Quitinases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6959-6970, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255265

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk supplemented with a powder of microencapsulated lactase. The core material was lactase (ß-galactosidase), the primary coating material was medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and the secondary (enteric) coating material was either hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) or shellac, comparing both against market milk as a control. The physicochemical properties of both types of microcapsules were analyzed, including the particle size, zeta potential, and in vitro release behavior. To survey the stability of the microcapsules in milk during storage, we studied the residual lactose content and pH. Furthermore, to determine the properties of milk supplemented with the microcapsules, changes in color and sensory properties were evaluated during storage. The particle sizes (volume-weighted mean; D[4,3]) of the microcapsules coated with HPMCP or shellac were 2,836 and 7,834 nm, respectively, and the zeta potential of the capsules coated with shellac was higher than the zeta potential of those coated with HPMCP. The pH levels of milk supplemented with the lactase microcapsules were similar to those of the control (unsupplemented market milk); however, for milk supplemented with HPMCP-coated microcapsules, the pH was slightly lower. The core material, lactase, was released from the microcapsules during 12-d storage, and 18.82 and 35.09% of lactose was hydrolyzed in the samples for HPMCP- and shellac-coated microcapsules, respectively. The sensory characteristics of milk containing microcapsules coated with HPMCP did not show significant differences from the control, in terms of sweetness or off-taste, until 8 d of storage. However, shellac-coated microcapsules showed significant difference in sweetness and off-taste at d 8 and 6 of storage, respectively. The color of milk containing HPMCP-coated microcapsules did not show a significant difference during storage. However, that containing shellac-coated microcapsules was somewhat higher in color values than others. In particular, it showed significance from 0 to 4 d storage in L* and C* values. In conclusion, a powder of lactase microcapsules coated with HPMCP can be suitable as a supplement for milk.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Kluyveromyces/enzimologia , Lactase/administração & dosagem , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Leite/química , Animais , Cápsulas , Fenômenos Químicos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Hidrólise , Lactose/metabolismo , Metilcelulose/química , Leite/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Resinas Vegetais/química , Paladar , Triglicerídeos/química
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3139689, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198490

RESUMO

Fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) are a class of small proteins that have been extensively studied for their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, two novel FIPs from Lentinus tigrinus were identified and named Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2. The bioactive characteristics of Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 were compared to a well-known FIP (LZ-8 from Ganoderma lucidum) to investigate the effect of Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 expression on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced liver oxidative injury. Both Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 protected the livers from Con A-induced necrosis, as evidenced by decreased serum aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT) and relieved liver histology. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and oxidative stress (SOD, MDA) were shown to be reduced by expressing Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of Fip-lti1, Fip-lti2, and LZ-8 correlated with ameliorating the imbalance of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4). The observed liver protection of Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 was mechanistically explored. Treatments with Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 regulated GATA3/T-bet expression, activated the decreased Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway, and countered the upregulated NLRP3/ASC/NF-κBp65 signaling in Con A-stimulated liver injury. Nrf2 activation was shown to be involved in the mechanisms underlying the protection of Fip-lti by RNA interference. In conclusion, we identified two new fungal proteins (Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2) that can protect the liver from Con A-induced liver oxidative injury through the Nrf2/NF-κB/NLRP3/IL-1ß pathway.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Concanavalina A/toxicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Lentinula/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/toxicidade
4.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(10): 1901-1911, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181987

RESUMO

Our recent study indicated that dietary Aspergillus oryzae-derived protease preparation (AP), through its enzymatic activity, exerted a bifidogenic effect in rats. We hypothesized that dietary AP links to protein degradation and subsequently elevates gut-protective amino acids (AAs) in rats fed adequate protein diet. In this study, dietary AP markedly increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and the levels of free threonine, alanine, proline, taurine, ornithine, phenylalanine, cystine, and γ-aminobutyric acid in the cecum contents of rats fed with an adequate protein diet, but not in those fed with a low-protein diet. The elevated AAs, except ornithine and phenylalanine, potentially have gut-related health benefits. Some of the AP-modulated free AAs appeared to be associated with the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Thus, AP combined with adequate protein diet is likely to increase the levels of cecum beneficial free AAs, which is partially associated with the relative abundance of the probiotics.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ceco/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Probióticos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 704-710, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359751

RESUMO

Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) has become a commercially important fish species all over the world. High-density aquaculture has led to congestion and contributed to bacterial infection outbreaks that have caused high mortality. Therefore a 56-days feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB-9) and Yarrowia lipolytica lipase2 (YLL2) on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, innate immunity and resistance to pathogens of A. japonica. Fish growth performance was significantly affected by dietary YLL2 supplementation but not by GB-9. Fish fed diets with YLL2 at 2.0 g/kg diet in combination of high and low levels of GB-9 (5.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg) produced the highest growth. For digestive enzyme, lipase and trypsin activities was promoted by dietary containing YLL2, while amylase activities was increased by dietary containing YLL2, GB-9 single or combination. For innate immunity, the mucus lysozyme activity, leukocytes phagocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species level of skin, peroxidase and lysozyme activity of serum were enhanced in fish fed with GB-9 compared to those in control group (p < 0.05). The highest resistance to Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila was determined in fish fed with 5.0 g kg-1 GB-9 + 2.0 g/kg YLL2. This study demonstrated that GB-9 and YLL2 enhanced non-specific immune defense system of A. japonica, providing them with higher resistance to pathogens. The present results suggested that the combination of these supplements could be considered as potential biological additives for aquaculture farmed fish.


Assuntos
Anguilla/imunologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Anguilla/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anguilla/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16455, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405193

RESUMO

The phylloplane yeast Pseudozyma antarctica secretes an esterase, named PaE, and xylanase when cultivated with xylose. We previously observed that the lipophilic layer of Micro-Tom tomato leaves became thinner after the culture filtrate treatment. The leaves developed reduced water-holding ability and became wilted. In this study, the purified enzymes were spotted on Micro-Tom leaves. PaE, but not xylanase, thinned the lipophilic layer of leaves and decreased leaf resistance to the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Disease severity increased significantly in detached leaves and potted plants treated with the culture filtrate and B. cinerea spores compared with those treated with inactivated enzyme and B. cinerea alone. Spore germination ratios, numbers of penetrating fungal hyphae in the leaves, and fungal DNA contents also increased significantly on the detached leaves. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica), a serious invasive alien weed in Europe and North America, also became susceptible to infection by the rust pathogen Puccinia polygoni-amphibii var. tovariae following the culture filtrate treatment. The culture filtrate treatment increased disease development in plants induced by both phytopathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that P. antarctica culture filtrate could be used as an adjuvant for sustainable biological weed control using phytopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Esterases/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Ustilaginales/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/administração & dosagem , Esterases/administração & dosagem , Esterases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Lycopersicon esculentum , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 82: 250-257, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125703

RESUMO

A 12-weeks feeding trial was performed to investigate the possible effects of supplementation of Hybrid sturgeon diet with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB-9) and Yarrowia lipolytica lipase2 (YLL2) single or combined on immune response and growth performance of Hybrid sturgeon (Acipenser schrenkii ♂and Acipenser baeri ♀). For this aim, Hybrid sturgeons were fed with four experimental diets namely: Diet 1 (0-control), Diet 2 (5.0 g/kg GB-9), Diet 3 (4.0 g/kg YLL2), and Diet 4 (5.0 g/kg GB-9 + 4.0 g/kg YLL2), respectively. After fed with varied diets, growth performance, mucosal immune response, leukocytes immune response and serum immunological response were measured. The results indicated that supplementations of GB-9 + YLL2 resulted in a significant increase in final weight, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) concentration, compared with that of control (p < 0.05). For innate immunity, the results showed that skin mucus lysozyme activity, leukocytes phagocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species level, and serum alternative complement pathway activity, peroxidase and lysozyme activity were significantly higher in supplemented groups compared to the control (p < 0.05). The highest values were recorded in fish fed both YLL2 and GB-9 with respect to the individual application. The present results suggested that the combination of these supplementation could be considered as potential feed-additives for aquaculture farmed fish.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/administração & dosagem , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
Microb Pathog ; 124: 21-29, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118801

RESUMO

In recent years, C. albicans and C. glabrata have been identified as the main cause of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. In order to colonize the human host, these fungi express several virulence factors such as the response to oxidative stress and the formation of biofilms. In the expression of these virulence factors, the cell wall of C. albicans and C. glabrata is of fundamental importance. As the outermost structure of the yeast, the cell wall is the first to come in contact with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during the respiratory outbreak, and in the formation of biofilms, it is the first to adhere to organs or medical devices implanted in the human host. In both processes, several cell wall proteins (CWP) are required, since they promote attachment to human cells or abiotic surfaces, as well as to detoxify ROS. In our working group we have identified moonlighting CWP in response to oxidative stress as well as in the formation of biofilms. Having identified moonlighting CWP in Candida species in response to two virulence factors indicates that these proteins may possibly be immunodominant. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether proteins of this type such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (Fba1), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) and pyruvate kinase (Pk), could confer protection in a mouse model against C. albicans and C. glabrata. For this, recombinant proteins His6-Fba1, His6-Pgk and His6-Pk were constructed and used to immunize several groups of mice. The immunized mice were infected with C. albicans or C. glabrata, and subsequently the liver, spleen and kidney were extracted and the number of CFU was determined. Our results showed that Pk confers immunity to mice against C. albicans, while Fba1 to C. glabrata. This data allows us to conclude that the moonlighting CWP, Fba1 and Pk confer in vivo protection in a specific way against each species of Candida. This makes them promising candidates for developing specific vaccines against these pathogens.


Assuntos
Candidíase/prevenção & controle , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/imunologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Vacinas Fúngicas/imunologia , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/imunologia , Piruvato Quinase/imunologia , Animais , Candida albicans/imunologia , Candida glabrata/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Rim/microbiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Camundongos , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/administração & dosagem , Piruvato Quinase/administração & dosagem , Baço/microbiologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
9.
J Mycol Med ; 28(1): 128-136, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233467

RESUMO

Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells that infiltrate airways during acute exacerbation of asthma. The importance of A. fumigatus sensitization, and IgE response in the airways in patients with acute asthma is unclear. Rockefeller (RK) mice were sensitized with A. fumigatus extract protein. The animals were subsequently challenged with different degrees of A. fumigatus contamination in the cage bedding. All groups of mice were euthanized to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for cytological and Elisa assays, and lung tissue for histological analysis. Moreover, several bioassays were conducted to determine whether BALF IgE antibodies can activate mast cells. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure of sensitized mice to a known concentration of A. fumigatus conidia produces bronchial hyperreactivity with marked neutrophilic bronchial infiltration and increased BALF IgE, capable of triggering mast cell degranulation. This study suggests that IgE may play a role in bronchial hyperreactivity associated to A. fumigatus exposure in mice. Mice sensitized and challenged with this fungus showed characteristics of severe asthma, with an increase of BALF neutrophils, histological changes consistent with severe asthma and an increase of IgE capable of triggering type I hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Aspergillus fumigatus/química , Asma/imunologia , Bioensaio , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/microbiologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/fisiopatologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Inflamação , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia
10.
mBio ; 8(6)2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184017

RESUMO

Development of a vaccine to protect against cryptococcosis is a priority given the enormous global burden of disease in at-risk individuals. Using glucan particles (GPs) as a delivery system, we previously demonstrated that mice vaccinated with crude Cryptococcus-derived alkaline extracts were protected against lethal challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii The goal of the present study was to identify protective protein antigens that could be used in a subunit vaccine. Using biased and unbiased approaches, six candidate antigens (Cda1, Cda2, Cda3, Fpd1, MP88, and Sod1) were selected, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and loaded into GPs. Three mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and DR4) were then vaccinated with the antigen-laden GPs, following which they received a pulmonary challenge with virulent C. neoformans and C. gattii strains. Four candidate vaccines (GP-Cda1, GP-Cda2, GP-Cda3, and GP-Sod1) afforded a significant survival advantage in at least one mouse model; some vaccine combinations provided added protection over that seen with either antigen alone. Vaccine-mediated protection against C. neoformans did not necessarily predict protection against C. gattii Vaccinated mice developed pulmonary inflammatory responses that effectively contained the infection; many surviving mice developed sterilizing immunity. Predicted T helper cell epitopes differed between mouse strains and in the degree to which they matched epitopes predicted in humans. Thus, we have discovered cryptococcal proteins that make promising candidate vaccine antigens. Protection varied depending on the mouse strain and cryptococcal species, suggesting that a successful human subunit vaccine will need to contain multiple antigens, including ones that are species specific.IMPORTANCE The encapsulated fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible for nearly 200,000 deaths annually, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. An effective vaccine could substantially reduce the burden of cryptococcosis. However, a major gap in cryptococcal vaccine development has been the discovery of protective antigens to use in vaccines. Here, six cryptococcal proteins with potential as vaccine antigens were expressed recombinantly and purified. Mice were then vaccinated with glucan particle preparations containing each antigen. Of the six candidate vaccines, four protected mice from a lethal cryptococcal challenge. However, the degree of protection varied as a function of mouse strain and cryptococcal species. These preclinical studies identify cryptococcal proteins that could serve as candidate vaccine antigens and provide a proof of principle regarding the feasibility of protein antigen-based vaccines to protect against cryptococcosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Criptococose/prevenção & controle , Cryptococcus gattii/imunologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Vacinas Fúngicas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Fungos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Fungos/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Criptococose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Vacinas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Fúngicas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 96(11): 3960-3972, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050421

RESUMO

Two broiler chicken experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of canola meal (CM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets supplemented with carbohydrase and protease on performance and partitioning of energy. First, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed to evaluate: protein meals (CM vs. SBM), carbohydrase (none or 300 mg/kg), protease (none or 200 mg/kg), and their interactions. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicated pens of 16 male broilers (Ross 308) from d 10 to 35. In the second experiment, 32 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to investigate CM and carbohydrase effects on energy partitioning. Birds were transferred into 16 closed-circuit calorimeter chambers (4 chambers/diet; 2 birds/chamber) to measure heat production (HP), metabolizable and net energy (NE) by gaseous exchange, and total excreta collection from d 25 to 28. There were no 3-way interactions among experimental factors for any of the performance parameters measured. Birds given CM diets consumed less feed, had lower BW, and exhibited higher FCR compared to the control birds (P < 0.01). Both enzymes, alone or in combination, improved final BW and FCR (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between carbohydrase and protease for FCR over the grower period (P < 0.01), in which the combination of the enzymes resulted in further improvement of FCR. Energy, DM, and crude protein digestibility values were higher in control birds (P < 0.05). There was an interaction of protein meal and carbohydrase for HP, respiratory quotient (P < 0.05), and NE:ME ratio of the diets (P = 0.06). Inclusion of CM without carbohydrase increased HP and decreased NE and NE:ME ratio of the diets (P < 0.05). Carbohydrase decreased HP and increased retained energy (P = 0.06) and NE and NE:ME ratio (P < 0.05). In conclusion, high CM in the diet negatively affects growth performance through reduction in feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, and NE of the diet, which could partly be restored by enzyme supplementation.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Actinomycetales/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Aspergillus/química , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Serina Proteases/administração & dosagem
12.
Br J Nutr ; 118(9): 673-685, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017627

RESUMO

The anabolic potential of a dietary protein is determined by its ability to elicit postprandial rises in circulating essential amino acids and insulin. Minimal data exist regarding the bioavailability and insulinotropic effects of non-animal-derived protein sources. Mycoprotein is a sustainable and rich source of non-animal-derived dietary protein. We investigated the impact of mycoprotein ingestion, in a dose-response manner, on acute postprandial hyperaminoacidaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. In all, twelve healthy young men completed five experimental trials in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design. During each trial, volunteers consumed a test drink containing either 20 g milk protein (MLK20) or a mass matched (not protein matched due to the fibre content) bolus of mycoprotein (20 g; MYC20), a protein matched bolus of mycoprotein (40 g; MYC40), 60 g (MYC60) or 80 g (MYC80) mycoprotein. Circulating amino acid, insulin and uric acid concentrations, and clinical chemistry profiles, were assessed in arterialised venous blood samples during a 4-h postprandial period. Mycoprotein ingestion resulted in slower but more sustained hyperinsulinaemia and hyperaminoacidaemia compared with milk when protein matched, with overall bioavailability equivalent between conditions (P>0·05). Increasing the dose of mycoprotein amplified these effects, with some evidence of a plateau at 60-80 g. Peak postprandial leucine concentrations were 201 (sem 24) (30 min), 118 (sem 10) (90 min), 150 (sem 14) (90 min), 173 (sem 23) (45 min) and 201 (sem 21 (90 min) µmol/l for MLK20, MYC20, MYC40, MYC60 and MYC80, respectively. Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic dietary protein source. Consequently, mycoprotein may be a useful source of dietary protein to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Insulina/sangue , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos Essenciais/sangue , Apetite , Disponibilidade Biológica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Período Pós-Prandial , Método Simples-Cego , Ácido Úrico/sangue
13.
Anticancer Res ; 37(8): 4093-4101, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the relationship between the expression of natural killer group 2, member D ligands (NKG2DLs) and the antitumor effects of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PSK was administered to evaluate its effectiveness against tumor growth. The expression of Rae-1 and H60 were analyzed in multiple cell lines. RESULTS: PSK showed the highest antitumor effects in mice implanted with cells expressing neither Rae-1 nor H60. PSK had little antitumor effect in mice implanted with cells expressing both Rae-1 and H60. A correlation between the expression of NKG2DLs and the antitumor effect of PSK was observed. After PSK administration, INF-γ production in CD8+ T cells increased in mice with cells expressing neither Rae-1 nor H60, but did not change in mice implanted with cells expressing both Rae-1 and H60. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the expression of NKG2DLs affects tumor immunity and the efficacy of immuno therapy in tumor-bearing mouse model.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/biossíntese , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/biossíntese , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/biossíntese , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Oncol Rep ; 37(5): 2803-2810, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394001

RESUMO

Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is a lectin isolated from the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii and has exquisite binding specificity towards the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag; Galß1-3GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr) and its derivatives. Previous studies have shown that SRL inhibits the proliferation of human colon, breast and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and suppresses tumour growth in mice when introduced intratumourally. The present study assessed the effect of SRL on tumour growth when introduced intraperitoneally in BALB/c nude mice and investigated the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of SRL in Swiss albino mice. When 9 doses of SRL (30 mg/kg body weight/mice) was administered to BALB/c nude mice bearing human colon cancer HT-29 xenografts, a substantial reduction in tumour size was observed. A 35.8% reduction in tumour size was noted in the treated animals after 17 days. SRL treatment also inhibited angiogenesis, and the tumours from the treated animals were observed to carry fewer blood vessels and express less angiogenesis marker protein CD31, than that from the control animals. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution analysis revealed that SRL was detected in the serum after 1 h and its level peaked after 24 h. SRL was not detected in any of the organs apart from the kidney where a trace amount was detected after 24 h of SRL injection. No significant changes were observed in any of the biochemical parameters tested including SGOT, SGPT, LDH, CREAT and BUN in the SRL-treated mice compared to these levels in the controls. This suggests that SRL has good potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for cancer treatment and warrant further investigations in vivo and subsequent clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Lectinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Neoplasias do Colo/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacocinética , Células HT29 , Humanos , Lectinas/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 50(3): 297-306, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26427878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: House dust mite (HDM) is well known as one of the major indoor allergens that trigger allergic inflammation, especially asthma, and accounts for 85% of all cases. So far, asthma has been thought of as a condition of imbalance between T helper (Th)1 and Th2. Fungal immunomodulatory protein-Flammulina velutipes (FIP-fve) has been seemingly demonstrated to modulate the response to Th1 cytokine production. The aim of this study was to investigate if the oral administration of FIP-fve can inhibit HDM-induced asthma inflammation in the mouse model. METHODS: We divided the mice (female BALB/c, 4-6 weeks) into four groups: the prevention group, which consisted of mice sensitized by HDM (intraperitoneally on Day 1, Day 7, and Day 14, and intranasally on Day 14, Day 17, Day 21, Day 24, and Day 27) fed with FIP-fve from Day 1 to Day 14; the treatment group, which comprised mice that received treatment from Day 14 to Day 28; the positive control (PC, sensitized by HDM fed without FIP-fve) group; and the negative control group (NC, nonsensitized). Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine challenge was determined using whole-body barometric plethysmography. In addition, cytokines were analyzed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum. Histopathological studies and Liu's staining method in mice lungs were also performed. RESULTS: The results showed that both pre- and posttreated FIP-fve groups had significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness compared with the PC group after methacholine challenge. In addition, a significantly decreased level of HDM-specific immunoglobulin E in serum and decreased production of Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were observed in these two FIP-fve fed groups. Moreover, more decreased amounts of infiltrating inflammatory cells were present in the lungs of FIP-fve fed groups than those of the PC group. CONCLUSION: Oral FIP-fve had an anti-inflammatory effect on the acute phase of the airway inflammatory process induced by HDM in the mouse model and might have a potentially therapeutic role for allergic airway diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Flammulina/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Histocitoquímica , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pletismografia , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(3): 733-742, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558451

RESUMO

The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high-quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low-value and non-food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein-rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favourable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish, including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream processing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast-derived cell wall fractions. This review summarises current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Aquicultura , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Saúde Global , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Aquicultura/economia , Aquicultura/tendências , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Produção Agrícola/economia , Digestão , Fermentação , Peixes/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/economia , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Lignina/química , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Lignina/metabolismo , Desnutrição/economia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Leveduras/química , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/metabolismo
17.
Infect Immun ; 85(4)2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28031260

RESUMO

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a life-threatening infection that affects immunocompromised individuals. Nearly half of all PcP cases occur in those prescribed effective chemoprophylaxis, suggesting that additional preventive methods are needed. To this end, we have identified a unique mouse Pneumocystis surface protein, designated Pneumocystis cross-reactive antigen 1 (Pca1), as a potential vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with a recombinant fusion protein containing Pca1. Subsequently, CD4+ T cells were depleted, and the mice were exposed to Pneumocystis murina Pca1 immunization completely protected nearly all mice, similar to immunization with whole Pneumocystis organisms. In contrast, all immunized negative-control mice developed PcP. Unexpectedly, Pca1 immunization generated cross-reactive antibody that recognized Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii Potential orthologs of Pca1 have been identified in P. jirovecii Such cross-reactivity is rare, and our findings suggest that Pca1 is a conserved antigen and potential vaccine target. The evaluation of Pca1-elicited antibodies in the prevention of PcP in humans deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Pneumocystis carinii/imunologia , Pneumocystis/imunologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Fungos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Fungos/genética , Reações Cruzadas , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Vacinas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Fúngicas/imunologia , Imunização , Camundongos , Pneumocystis/genética , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle
18.
Phytomedicine ; 23(13): 1566-1573, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, is used for malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus therapy. In our previous study, FIP-gts, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae, inhibited cell viability in lung cancer cells and urothelial cancer cells. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer. Cisplatin resistance is an important issue in urothelial carcinoma therapy. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of combination treatment with FIP-gts and chloroquine on cytotoxicity to resensitize the cisplatin-resistant cells. METHODS: FIP-gts and chloroquine cytotoxicity were determined by evaluating CCK-8 assay. Cell death pathways, ROS and cell cycle arrested were analysed through flow cytometry and Western blot. ShRNA targeting to autophagy-related genes were tested to evaluate their autophagic cell death for resistant urothelial cells. RESULTS: Using CCK-8 assay, chloroquine increased FIP-gts-induced cytotoxicity in parental and cisplatin-resistant urothelial cancer cell lines. On flow cytometry, chloroquine enhanced FIP-gts-mediated sub-G1 accumulation, annexin V positive signal and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Caspase-3/PARP cascade and z-VAD-fmk were performed to prove that FIP-gts and chloroquine induced caspase-independent cell death. Using H2DCFDA staining and flow cytometry, FIP-gts and chloroquine did not induce ROS production. N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, inhibited the cytotoxicity and LC3-II accumulation in FIP-gts and chloroquine-treated N/P cells. To elucidate the role of autophagy in caspase-independent cell death by FIP-gts and chloroquine, LC3 shRNA were used to inhibit autophagy in N/P cells. The capabilities of FIP-gts and chloroquine to induce cytotoxicity and sub-G1 phase accumulation were abolished in autophagy-defective cells. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of FIP-gts in triggering caspase-independent cell death in cisplatin-resistant urothelial cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Chloroquine enhanced FIP-gts-induced autophagy dependent caspase-independent cell death via abundant autophagosome accumulation. Combination treatment with FIP-gts and chloroquine may provide a new strategy for urothelial cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Clorometilcetonas de Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Ganoderma/química , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
19.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162486, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27598463

RESUMO

The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Mice were subcutaneously injected with nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 emulsified in complete's Freund Adjuvant (CFA) at three weeks after intravenous injection of P. brasiliensis yeasts. Infected control mice were injected with CFA or isotonic saline solution alone. Thirty days after the nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 administration, mice showed remarkably increased fungal load, tissue inflammation, and granulomas in the lungs, liver, and spleen compared with control mice. Further, rPbHsp60 treatment (i) decreased the known protective effect of CFA against PCM and (ii) increased the concentrations of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-ß in the lungs. Together, our results indicated that PbHsp60 induced a harmful immune response, exacerbated inflammation, and promoted fungal dissemination. Therefore, we propose that PbHsp60 contributes to the fungal pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Fungos/administração & dosagem , Chaperonina 60/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Paracoccidioides/patogenicidade , Paracoccidioidomicose/patologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paracoccidioides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paracoccidioidomicose/imunologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Anticancer Res ; 36(8): 3945-52, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27466498

RESUMO

Hedgehog signaling is activated in pancreatic cancer and could be a therapeutic target. We previously demonstrated that recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin-kappa-J region (RBPJ) and mastermind-like 3 (MAML3) contribute to the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Smoothened (SMO) transcription. We have also shown that protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) could be effective for refractory pancreatic cancer that down-regulates SMO transcription under hypoxia. In this study, we evaluated whether the anticancer mechanism of PSK involves inhibiting RBPJ and MAML3 expression under hypoxia. PSK reduced SMO, MAML3 and RBPJ expression in pancreatic cancer cells under hypoxia. PSK also blocked RBPJ-induced invasiveness under hypoxia by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase expression. Lastly, we showed that PSK attenuated RBPJ-induced proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that PSK suppresses Hedgehog signaling through down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ transcription under hypoxia, inhibiting the induction of a malignant phenotype in pancreatic cancer. Our results may lead to development of new treatments for refractory pancreatic cancer using PSK as a Hedgehog inhibitor.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/biossíntese , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Animais , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA