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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4914, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004788

RESUMO

Oxepinamides are derivatives of anthranilyl-containing tripeptides and share an oxepin ring and a fused pyrimidinone moiety. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the elucidation of an oxepinamide biosynthetic pathway and conversion of a quinazolinone to a pyrimidinone-fused 1H-oxepin framework by a cytochrome P450 enzyme in fungal natural product biosynthesis. Here we report the isolation of oxepinamide F from Aspergillus ustus and identification of its biosynthetic pathway by gene deletion, heterologous expression, feeding experiments, and enzyme assays. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) OpaA assembles the quinazolinone core with D-Phe incorporation. The cytochrome P450 enzyme OpaB catalyzes alone the oxepin ring formation. The flavoenzyme OpaC installs subsequently one hydroxyl group at the oxepin ring, accompanied by double bond migration. The epimerase OpaE changes the D-Phe residue back to L-form, which is essential for the final methylation by OpaF.


Assuntos
Amidas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oxepinas/metabolismo , Amidas/química , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Hidroxilação , Isomerismo , Metilação , Oxepinas/química , Oxepinas/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/química , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Quinazolinonas/metabolismo , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4667, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938938

RESUMO

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a multienzyme complex central to aerobic respiration, connecting glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate. Similar to the E3-binding protein (E3BP) of mammalian PDC, PX selectively recruits E3 to the fungal PDC, but its divergent sequence suggests a distinct structural mechanism. Here, we report reconstructions of PDC from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa by cryo-electron microscopy, where we find protein X (PX) interior to the PDC core as opposed to substituting E2 core subunits as in mammals. Steric occlusion limits PX binding, resulting in predominantly tetrahedral symmetry, explaining previous observations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PX-binding site is conserved in (and specific to) fungi, and complements possible C-terminal binding motifs in PX that are absent in mammalian E3BP. Consideration of multiple symmetries thus reveals a differential structural basis for E3BP-like function in fungal PDC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Neurospora crassa/química , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/química , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/genética , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1007922, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946455

RESUMO

Prions are self-replicative protein particles lacking nucleic acids. Originally discovered for causing infectious neurodegenerative disorders, they have also been found to play several physiological roles in a variety of species. Functional and pathogenic prions share a common mechanism of replication, characterized by the ability of an amyloid conformer to propagate by inducing the conversion of its physiological, soluble counterpart. Since time-resolved biophysical experiments are currently unable to provide full reconstruction of the physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for prion replication, one must rely on computer simulations. In this work, we show that a recently developed algorithm called Self-Consistent Path Sampling (SCPS) overcomes the computational limitations of plain MD and provides a viable tool to investigate prion replication processes using state-of-the-art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. First, we validate the reliability of SCPS simulations by characterizing the folding of a class of small proteins and comparing against the results of plain MD simulations. Next, we use SCPS to investigate the replication of the prion forming domain of HET-s, a physiological fungal prion for which high-resolution structural data are available. Our atomistic reconstruction shows remarkable similarities with a previously reported mechanism of mammalian PrPSc propagation obtained using a simpler and more approximate path sampling algorithm. Together, these results suggest that the propagation of prions generated by evolutionary distant proteins may share common features. In particular, in both these cases, prions propagate their conformation through a very similar templating mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Príons , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Príons/química , Príons/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008328, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936835

RESUMO

Candida albicans cells depend on the energy derived from amino acid catabolism to induce and sustain hyphal growth inside phagosomes of engulfing macrophages. The concomitant deamination of amino acids is thought to neutralize the acidic microenvironment of phagosomes, a presumed requisite for survival and initiation of hyphal growth. Here, in contrast to an existing model, we show that mitochondrial-localized NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH2) catalyzing the deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and not the cytosolic urea amidolyase (DUR1,2), accounts for the observed alkalization of media when amino acids are the sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. C. albicans strains lacking GDH2 (gdh2-/-) are viable and do not extrude ammonia on amino acid-based media. Environmental alkalization does not occur under conditions of high glucose (2%), a finding attributable to glucose-repression of GDH2 expression and mitochondrial function. Consistently, inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or mitochondrial translation by antimycin A or chloramphenicol, respectively, prevents alkalization. GDH2 expression and mitochondrial function are derepressed as glucose levels are lowered from 2% (~110 mM) to 0.2% (~11 mM), or when glycerol is used as primary carbon source. Using time-lapse microscopy, we document that gdh2-/- cells survive, filament and escape from primary murine macrophages at rates indistinguishable from wildtype. In intact hosts, such as in fly and murine models of systemic candidiasis, gdh2-/- mutants are as virulent as wildtype. Thus, although Gdh2 has a critical role in central nitrogen metabolism, Gdh2-catalyzed deamination of glutamate is surprisingly dispensable for escape from macrophages and virulence. Consistently, using the pH-sensitive dye (pHrodo), we observed no significant difference between wildtype and gdh2-/- mutants in phagosomal pH modulation. Following engulfment of fungal cells, the phagosomal compartment is rapidly acidified and hyphal growth initiates and sustained under consistently acidic conditions within phagosomes. Together, our results demonstrate that amino acid-dependent alkalization is not essential for hyphal growth, survival in macrophages and hosts. An accurate understanding of the microenvironment within macrophage phagosomes and the metabolic events underlying the survival of phagocytized C. albicans cells and their escape are critical to understanding the host-pathogen interactions that ultimately determine the pathogenic outcome.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/metabolismo , Candidíase/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nitrogênio , Fagossomos/imunologia , Fagossomos/metabolismo , Fagossomos/microbiologia , Virulência
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008738, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946515

RESUMO

Microsporidia, a divergent group of single-celled eukaryotic parasites, harness a specialized harpoon-like invasion apparatus called the polar tube (PT) to gain entry into host cells. The PT is tightly coiled within the transmissible extracellular spore, and is about 20 times the length of the spore. Once triggered, the PT is rapidly ejected and is thought to penetrate the host cell, acting as a conduit for the transfer of infectious cargo into the host. The organization of this specialized infection apparatus in the spore, how it is deployed, and how the nucleus and other large cargo are transported through the narrow PT are not well understood. Here we use serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to reveal the 3-dimensional architecture of the PT and its relative spatial orientation to other organelles within the spore. Using high-speed optical microscopy, we also capture and quantify the entire PT germination process of three human-infecting microsporidian species in vitro: Anncaliia algerae, Encephalitozoon hellem and E. intestinalis. Our results show that the emerging PT experiences very high accelerating forces to reach velocities exceeding 300 µm⋅s-1, and that firing kinetics differ markedly between species. Live-cell imaging reveals that the nucleus, which is at least 7 times larger than the diameter of the PT, undergoes extreme deformation to fit through the narrow tube, and moves at speeds comparable to PT extension. Our study sheds new light on the 3-dimensional organization, dynamics, and mechanism of PT extrusion, and shows how infectious cargo moves through the tube to initiate infection.


Assuntos
Microscopia/métodos , Microsporídios/patogenicidade , Organelas/imunologia , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Esporos Fúngicos/imunologia , Esporos Fúngicos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Microsporídios/imunologia , Microsporídios/ultraestrutura , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4393, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879321

RESUMO

Rcr3 is a secreted protease of tomato that is targeted by fungal effector Avr2, a secreted protease inhibitor of the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. The Avr2-Rcr3 complex is recognized by receptor-like protein Cf-2, triggering hypersensitive cell death (HR) and disease resistance. Avr2 also targets Rcr3 paralog Pip1, which is not required for Avr2 recognition but contributes to basal resistance. Thus, Rcr3 acts as a guarded decoy in this interaction, trapping the fungus into a recognition event. Here we show that Rcr3 evolved > 50 million years ago (Mya), whereas Cf-2 evolved <6Mya by co-opting the pre-existing Rcr3 in the Solanum genus. Ancient Rcr3 homologs present in tomato, potato, eggplants, pepper, petunia and tobacco can be inhibited by Avr2 with the exception of tobacco Rcr3. Four variant residues in Rcr3 promote Avr2 inhibition, but the Rcr3 that co-evolved with Cf-2 lacks three of these residues, indicating that the Rcr3 co-receptor is suboptimal for Avr2 binding. Pepper Rcr3 triggers HR with Cf-2 and Avr2 when engineered for enhanced inhibition by Avr2. Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) is a natural null mutant carrying Rcr3 and Pip1 alleles with deleterious frame-shift mutations. Resurrected NbRcr3 and NbPip1 alleles were active proteases and further NbRcr3 engineering facilitated Avr2 inhibition, uncoupled from HR signalling. The evolution of a receptor co-opting a conserved pathogen target contrasts with other indirect pathogen recognition mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Resistência à Doença/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Solanum , Tabaco , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/metabolismo , Cladosporium/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4382, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873802

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a deoxynivalenol (DON) producer. In this study, OSP24 is identified as an important virulence factor in systematic characterization of the 50 orphan secreted protein (OSP) genes of F. graminearum. Although dispensable for growth and initial penetration, OSP24 is important for infectious growth in wheat rachis tissues. OSP24 is specifically expressed during pathogenesis and its transient expression suppresses BAX- or INF1-induced cell death. Osp24 is translocated into plant cells and two of its 8 cysteine-residues are required for its function. Wheat SNF1-related kinase TaSnRK1α is identified as an Osp24-interacting protein and shows to be important for FHB resistance in TaSnRK1α-overexpressing or silencing transgenic plants. Osp24 accelerates the degradation of TaSnRK1α by facilitating its association with the ubiquitin-26S proteasome. Interestingly, TaSnRK1α also interacts with TaFROG, an orphan wheat protein induced by DON. TaFROG competes against Osp24 for binding with the same region of TaSnRKα and protects it from degradation. Overexpression of TaFROG stabilizes TaSnRK1α and increases FHB resistance. Taken together, Osp24 functions as a cytoplasmic effector by competing against TaFROG for binding with TaSnRK1α, demonstrating the counteracting roles of orphan proteins of both host and fungal pathogens during their interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium/imunologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/imunologia , Proteólise , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/imunologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4212, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839469

RESUMO

Phosphatases, together with kinases and transcription factors, are key components in cellular signalling networks. Here, we present a systematic functional analysis of the phosphatases in Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening fungal meningoencephalitis. We analyse 230 signature-tagged mutant strains for 114 putative phosphatases under 30 distinct in vitro growth conditions, revealing at least one function for 60 of these proteins. Large-scale virulence and infectivity assays using insect and mouse models indicate roles in pathogenicity for 31 phosphatases involved in various processes such as thermotolerance, melanin and capsule production, stress responses, O-mannosylation, or retromer function. Notably, phosphatases Xpp1, Ssu72, Siw14, and Sit4 promote blood-brain barrier adhesion and crossing by C. neoformans. Together with our previous systematic studies of transcription factors and kinases, our results provide comprehensive insight into the pathobiological signalling circuitry of C. neoformans.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/classificação , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases/classificação , Fosfotransferases/genética , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
9.
Gene ; 763: 145061, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818595

RESUMO

Chinese cordyceps, the fruiting body of the Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis, syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is among the most valuable traditional Chinese medicine fungi. Transcriptomic analysis of O. sinensis has revealed several aspects of its life cycle and ecological importance. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body initiation remain unclear. The developmental transcriptomes were analyzed from three tissues at the fruiting body initiation stage, namely, the mycelium, sclerotium and primordium. Principal component analysis showed that in the three tissues, the gene expression patterns differed from each other. The functional analysis of differentially expressed genes showed that DNA synthesis and cell division were active in the primordium. In addition, the function of the mycelium was to absorb certain substances from the environment and the sclerotium was the metabolism center of O. sinensis. Genes participating in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway were involved in fruiting body initiation. Two environmental sensing genes, including a pheromone receptor gene (OSIN6252) and an amino acid sensing gene (OSIN6398), were highly expressed in the primordium, suggesting their important roles in initiation. These results provided insights into the orchestrated functions and gene profiles of different O. sinensis tissues at the key stage. These findings will aid in revealing the underlying mechanisms of fruiting body initiation, which will further benefit artificial cultivation.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Carpóforos/genética , Transcriptoma , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Micélio/genética , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feromônios/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817671

RESUMO

The Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Funneliformis mosseae), are the most widely distributed symbiont assisting plants to overcome counteractive environmental conditions. In order to improve the sustainability and the activity of AMF, the use of nanotechnology was important. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) on the activity of AMF in common bean roots as well as its activity under salinity stress using morphological and molecular methods. The activity of AMF colonization has increased in the presence of TiO2NPs especially for arbuscule activity (A%), which increased three times with the presence of TiO2NPs. The improvement rate of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth increased from 180% to 224% of control at the lowest level of salinity and increased from 48% to 130% at higher salinity level, respectively. The AMF dependencies for plant dry biomass increased in the presence of TiO2NPs from 277% in the absence of salinity to 465 and 883% % at low and high salinity levels, respectively. The presence of AMF co-inoculated with TiO2NPs resulted in increasing the salinity tolerance of plants at all levels and reached 110% at salinity level of 100 mM NaCl. Quantitative colonization methods showed that the molecular intensity ratio and the relative density of paired inocula AMF Nest (NS) or chitin synthases gene (Chs) with TiO2NPs were higher significantly P.>0.05 than single inoculants of AMF gene in roots under the presence or the absence of salinity by about two folds and about 40%. Hence, the positive effect of TiO2NPs was confined to its effect on AMF not on bean plants itself.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Tolerância ao Sal , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Quitina Sintase/genética , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/microbiologia , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Simbiose , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008783, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813693

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans are opportunistic pathogens whose interactions involve the secreted products ethanol and phenazines. Here, we describe the role of ethanol in mixed-species co-cultures by dual-seq analyses. P. aeruginosa and C. albicans transcriptomes were assessed after growth in mono-culture or co-culture with either ethanol-producing C. albicans or a C. albicans mutant lacking the primary ethanol dehydrogenase, Adh1. Analysis of the RNA-Seq data using KEGG pathway enrichment and eADAGE methods revealed several P. aeruginosa responses to C. albicans-produced ethanol including the induction of a non-canonical low-phosphate response regulated by PhoB. C. albicans wild type, but not C. albicans adh1Δ/Δ, induces P. aeruginosa production of 5-methyl-phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-MPCA), which forms a red derivative within fungal cells and exhibits antifungal activity. Here, we show that C. albicans adh1Δ/Δ no longer activates P. aeruginosa PhoB and PhoB-regulated phosphatase activity, that exogenous ethanol complements this defect, and that ethanol is sufficient to activate PhoB in single-species P. aeruginosa cultures at permissive phosphate levels. The intersection of ethanol and phosphate in co-culture is inversely reflected in C. albicans; C. albicans adh1Δ/Δ had increased expression of genes regulated by Pho4, the C. albicans transcription factor that responds to low phosphate, and Pho4-dependent phosphatase activity. Together, these results show that C. albicans-produced ethanol stimulates P. aeruginosa PhoB activity and 5-MPCA-mediated antagonism, and that both responses are dependent on local phosphate concentrations. Further, our data suggest that phosphate scavenging by one species improves phosphate access for the other, thus highlighting the complex dynamics at play in microbial communities.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Etanol/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0227529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730337

RESUMO

The pretreatment of biomass remains a critical requirement for bio-renewable fuel production from lignocellulose. Although current processes primarily involve chemical and physical approaches, the biological breakdown of lignin using enzymes and microorganisms is quickly becoming an interesting eco-friendly alternative to classical processes. As a result, bioprospection of wild fungi from naturally occurring lignin-rich sources remains a suitable method to uncover and isolate new species exhibiting ligninolytic activity. In this study, wild species of white rot fungi were collected from Colombian forests based on their natural wood decay ability and high capacity to secrete oxidoreductases with high affinity for phenolic polymers such as lignin. Based on high activity obtained from solid-state fermentation using a lignocellulose source from oil palm as matrix, we describe the isolation and whole-genome sequencing of Dictyopanus pusillus, a wild basidiomycete fungus exhibiting ABTS oxidation as an indication of laccase activity. Functional characterization of a crude enzymatic extract identified laccase activity as the main enzymatic contributor to fungal extracts, an observation supported by the identification of 13 putative genes encoding for homologous laccases in the genome. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of an enzymatic extract exhibiting laccase activity in the Dictyopanus genera, offering means to exploit this species and its enzymes for the delignification process of lignocellulosic by-products from oil palm.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Lignina/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/enzimologia , Biomassa , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lacase/genética , Lacase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Temperatura , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678853

RESUMO

Azole resistant fungal infections remain a health problem for the immune compromised. Current therapies are limited due to rises in new resistance mechanisms. Therefore, it is important to identify new drug targets for drug discovery and novel therapeutics. Arv1 (are1 are2 required for viability 1) function is highly conserved between multiple pathogenic fungal species. Candida albicans (C. albicans) cells lacking CaArv1 are azole hypersusceptible and lack virulence. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) Scarv1 cells are also azole hypersusceptible, a phenotype reversed by expression of CaArv1, indicating conservation in the molecular mechanism for azole susceptibility. To define the relationship between Arv1 function and azole susceptibility, we undertook a structure/function analysis of ScArv1. We identified several conserved amino acids within the ScArv1 homology domain (ScAhd) required for maintaining normal azole susceptibility. Erg11 lanosterol 14-α-demethylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in sterol biosynthesis and is the direct target of azole antifungals, so we used our ScArv1 mutants in order to explore the relationship between ScArv1 and ScErg11. Specific ScArv1 mutants ectopically expressed from a low copy plasmid were unable to restore normal azole susceptibility to Scarv1 cells and had reduced Erg11 protein levels. Erg11 protein stability depended on its ability to form a heterodimeric complex with Arv1. Complex formation was required for maintaining normal azole susceptibility. Scarv1 cells expressing orthologous CaArv1 mutants also had reduced CaErg11 levels, were unable to form a CaArv1-CaErg11 complex, and were azole hypersusceptible. Scarv1 cells expressing CaArv1 mutants unable to interact with CaErg11 could not sustain proper levels of the azole resistant CaErg11Y132F F145L protein. Caarv1/Caarv1 cells expressing CaArv1 mutants unable to interact with CaErg11 were found to lack virulence using a disseminated candidiasis mouse model. Expressing CaErg11Y132F F145L did not reverse the lack of virulence. We hypothesize that the role of Arv1 in Erg11-dependent azole resistance is to stabilize Erg11 protein level. Arv1 inhibition may represent an avenue for treating azole resistance.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo , Virulência , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética
14.
Gene ; 759: 145002, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726608

RESUMO

Recent evidence has shown that microRNAs are transferred from one species to another through cross-species transmission and exhibit biological activities in the receptor. However, the cross-kingdom regulation of pathogen virulence by plant-derived miRNAs is rarely reported. This study investigated the regulatory role of novel tomato miRNA miR1001 in the growth and development of Botrytis cinerea. Results showed that miR1001 inhibited the virulence of B. cinerea-infected plants, and the inhibitory effect of miR1001/miR1001* was stronger than that of miR1001. Moreover, miR1001 exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the conidiospore germination of B. cinerea. Degradome-seq experiment showed that miR1001 can directly target the Bcin03g02170.1 and Bcin10g01400.1 genes, which respectively encode the ATP-dependent metallopeptidase and cysteine-type endopeptidase, in B. cinerea. The interactions of both targets with miR1001 were further confirmed by using transient co-expression in tobacco. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the two target genes were significantly downregulated in B. cinerea with miR1001 treatment. Our findings provide new evidence into the coevolution of pathogens and host plants, as well as new directions for the use of plant-derived miRNAs to control pathogens.


Assuntos
Botrytis/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Botrytis/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3290, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620929

RESUMO

In mitochondria, ß-barrel outer membrane proteins mediate protein import, metabolite transport, lipid transport, and biogenesis. The Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) complex consists of three proteins that assemble as a 1:1:1 complex to fold ß-barrel proteins and insert them into the mitochondrial outer membrane. We report cryoEM structures of the SAM complex from Myceliophthora thermophila, which show that Sam50 forms a 16-stranded transmembrane ß-barrel with a single polypeptide-transport-associated (POTRA) domain extending into the intermembrane space. Sam35 and Sam37 are located on the cytosolic side of the outer membrane, with Sam35 capping Sam50, and Sam37 interacting extensively with Sam35. Sam35 and Sam37 each adopt a GST-like fold, with no functional, structural, or sequence similarity to their bacterial counterparts. Structural analysis shows how the Sam50 ß-barrel opens a lateral gate to accommodate its substrates.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Detergentes/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/química , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sordariales/genética , Sordariales/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640001

RESUMO

Aspergillus tamarii grows abundantly in naturally composting waste fibers of the textile industry and has a great potential in biomass decomposition. Amongst the key (hemi)cellulose-active enzymes in the secretomes of biomass-degrading fungi are the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). By catalyzing oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds, LPMOs promote the activity of other lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. Here, we analyzed the catalytic potential of two of the seven AA9-type LPMOs that were detected in recently published transcriptome data for A. tamarii, namely AtAA9A and AtAA9B. Analysis of products generated from cellulose revealed that AtAA9A is a C4-oxidizing enzyme, whereas AtAA9B yielded a mixture of C1- and C4-oxidized products. AtAA9A was also active on cellopentaose and cellohexaose. Both enzymes also cleaved the ß-(1→4)-glucan backbone of tamarind xyloglucan, but with different cleavage patterns. AtAA9A cleaved the xyloglucan backbone only next to unsubstituted glucosyl units, whereas AtAA9B yielded product profiles indicating that it can cleave the xyloglucan backbone irrespective of substitutions. Building on these new results and on the expanding catalog of xyloglucan- and oligosaccharide-active AA9 LPMOs, we discuss possible structural properties that could underlie the observed functional differences. The results corroborate evidence that filamentous fungi have evolved AA9 LPMOs with distinct substrate specificities and regioselectivities, which likely have complementary functions during biomass degradation.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Clonagem Molecular , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glucanos/análise , Glucanos/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/classificação , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade por Substrato , Xilanos/química
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235855, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658904

RESUMO

This paper represents the first article in a series on Yunnanese microfungi. We herein provide insights into Magnolia species associated with microfungi. All presented data are reported from the Kunming Botanical Gardens. Final conclusions were derived from the morphological examination of specimens coupled with phylogenetic sequence data to better integrate taxa into appropriate taxonomic ranks and infer their relationships. Shearia formosa, the type species of Shearia, lacks type material, and its phylogenetic position accordingly remains unresolved. A fresh collection of Shearia formosa, obtained from Magnolia denudata and M. soulangeana in China, therefore, designated a neotype for stabilizing the application of the species and/or genus name. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined DNA data matrix containing SSU, LSU, RPB2 and TEF loci of representative Pleosporales revealed that the genera Crassiperidium, Longiostiolum and Shearia are a well-defined monophylum. It is recognized as the family Longiostiolaceae and strongly supported by Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. Its members are characterized by immersed to semi-immersed, globose to subglobose ascomata with a central, periphysate ostiole, a peridium composed of rectangular to polygonal cells, cylindrical to clavate asci, broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores, a coelomycetous asexual morph with pycnidial conidiomata, enteroblastic, annellidic, ampulliform, doliiform or cylindrical conidiogenous cells and cylindrical to fusiform, transverse and sometimes laterally distoseptate conidia without a sheath or with a basal lateral sheath. Nigrograna magnoliae sp. nov. is introduced from Magnolia denudata with both asexual and sexual morphs. We observed the asexual morph of Brunneofusispora sinensis from the culture and therefore amended the generic and species descriptions of Brunneofusispora.


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Magnolia/microbiologia , Filogenia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/citologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia
18.
Food Chem ; 332: 127426, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619948

RESUMO

A selected Pichia fermentans strain was simultaneously and sequentially inoculated in synthetic and real juice with S. cerevisiae strains of different antagonistic activities in a ratio 1:1 to observe the correlation between varietal odorants and glycosidase activities. Fermentations using pure S. cerevisiae strains were used for comparison. Yeast biomass and glycosidase activities were monitored, varietal odorants were detected using HS-SPME-GC/MS during fermentation. The final wine aroma attributes were analyzed by trained panelists. Results showed that co-inoculation with high antagonistic S. cerevisiae resulted in higher glycosidase activities than others. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that yeast biomass was positively related to glycosidase activities during fermentation. The increase in glycosidase activities was the main reason for the higher production of terpenes and C13-norisoprenoids, and for the lower C6 compound content, which lead to superior fruity and floral aromas in the final wine samples of the high antagonistic S. cerevisiae group.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Norisoprenoides/análise , Norisoprenoides/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Pichia/enzimologia , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
19.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 15-22, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619930

RESUMO

PIM1 is serine/threonine protein kinase that is involved in numerous biological processes. Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic pathological result of the dysfunctional repair of lung injury without effective therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we investigated whether PIM1 inhibition would improve bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In a BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, PIM1 was persistently upregulated in fibrotic lung tissues. Furthermore, PIM1 inhibition by the PIM1-specific inhibitor SMI-4a showed protective effects against BLM-induced mortality. Furthermore, SMI-4a suppressed hydroxyproline deposition and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) formation, which was characterized by E-cadherin and α-SMA expression in vivo. More importantly, the ZEB1/E-cadherin pathway was found to be closely associated with BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. After the in vitro treatment of A549 cells, PIM1 regulated E-cadherin expression by dependently modulating the activity of the transcription factor ZEB1. These findings were verified in vivo after SMI-4a administration. Finally, an shPIM1-expressing adeno-associated virus was delivered via intratracheal injection to induce a long-term PIM1 deficiency in the alveolar epithelium. AAV-mediated PIM1 knockdown in the lung tissues alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by collagen accumulation reduction, pulmonary histopathological mitigation and EMT reversion. These findings enhance our understanding of the roles of PIM1 in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and suggest PIM1 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy in chronic pulmonary injuries.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1415-1429, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656702

RESUMO

Penicillium expansum is a destructive phytopathogen causing postharvest decay on many stored fruits. To develop effective and safe management strategies, it is important to investigate its pathogenicity-related mechanisms. In this study, a bioinformatic pipeline was constructed and 50 core effector genes were identified in P. expansum using multiple RNA-seq data sets and their putative functions were implicated by comparatively homologous analyses using pathogen-host interaction database. To functionally characterize P. expansum LysM domain proteins during infection, null mutants for the 15 uncharacterized putative LysM effectors were constructed and the fungal growth rate on either PDA or Cazpek medium or lesion expansion rate on the infected apple fruits was evaluated. The results showed the growth rate of knockout mutants from PeLysM5, PeLysM12 and PeLysM15 was retarded on PDA medium. No significant difference in growth rate was observed between wild type and all mutants on solid Cazpek medium. Nevertheless, the hypha of wild type displayed deeper yellow on the back of Cazpek medium than those of knockout mutants. On the infecting apples fruits, the knockout mutants from PeLysM5, PeLysM7, PeLysM8, PeLysM9, PeLysM10, PeLysM11, PeLysM14, PeLysM15, PeLysM16, PeLysM18 and PeLysM19 showed enhanced fungal virulence, with faster decaying on infected fruits than those from wild type. By contrast, the knockout mutation at PeLysM12 locus led to reduced lesion expansion rate on the infected apple fruits. In addition, P. expansum-apple interaction RNA-seq experiment was performed using apple fruit tissues infected by the wild type and knockout mutant ΔPeLysM15, respectively. Transcriptome analyses indicated that deletion of PeLysM15 could activate expression of several core effector genes, such as PEX2_055830, PEX2_036960 and PEX2_108150, and a chitin-binding protein, PEX2_064520. These results suggest PeLysM15 may play pivotal roles in fungal growth and development and involve pathogen-host interaction by modulating other effector genes' expression. Our results could provide solid data reference and good candidates for further pathogen-related studies in P. expansum.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Malus/microbiologia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Frutas/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Malus/genética , Penicillium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Virulência
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