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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 138, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451937

RESUMO

Monascus azaphilone pigments, including red, orange, and yellow, are world-famous food colorants. However, the pigments produced by different Monascus species vary in yields and compositions. The underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, four wild-type Monascus strains, namely M. anka M7, M. purpureus M9, M. ruber C100, and M. aurantiacus M15, were selected as research objects according to the diversification of their pigments fermented in the same mediums and conditions. Twenty-three 3 kbp segments (300 bp overlap with adjacent segments) of the pigment gene cluster were amplified, sequenced, and assembled into the DNA sequences of the clusters. The DNA sequences of pigment biosynthetic gene clusters of the four strains showed 99.94% similarity according to the results of multiple alignment. The expression levels of 17 pigment biosynthetic genes of four strains were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. The transcriptional regulation contributed more than the DNA sequence variation in Monascus pigments metabolism. Our result gives insight into the study of Monascus pigment biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cor , DNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Monascus/química , Monascus/classificação , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 105, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267317

RESUMO

Pseudocercospora fijiensis causes black Sigatoka disease, the most important threat to banana. The cell wall is crucial for fungal biological processes, including pathogenesis. Here, we performed cell wall proteomics analyses of two P. fijiensis strains, the highly virulent Oz2b, and the less virulent C1233 strains. Strains were starved from nitrogen to mimic the host environment. Interestingly, in vitro cultures of the C1233 strain grew faster than Oz2b in PDB medium, suggesting that C1233 survives outside the host better than the highly virulent Oz2b strain. Both strains were submitted to nitrogen starvation and the cell wall proteins were isolated and subjected to nano-HPLC-MS/MS. A total of 2686 proteins were obtained from which only 240 had a known function and thus, bioinformatics analyses were performed on this group. We found that 90 cell wall proteins were shared by both strains, 21 were unique for Oz2b and 39 for C1233. Shared proteins comprised 24 pathogenicity factors, including Avr4 and Ecp6, two effectors from P. fijiensis, while the unique proteins comprised 16 virulence factors in C1233 and 11 in Oz2b. The P. fijiensis cell wall proteome comprised canonical proteins, but thirty percent were atypical, a feature which in other phytopathogens has been interpreted as contamination. However, a comparison with the identities of atypical proteins in other reports suggests that the P. fijiensis proteins we detected were not contaminants. This is the first proteomics analysis of the P. fijiensis cell wall and our results expands the understanding of the fundamental biology of fungal phytopathogens and will help to decipher the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and virulence in P. fijiensis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteoma , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Virulência
3.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(2): 285-300, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although naturally-derived antifungals have been investigated for their ability to inactivate Candida albicans, which is a major cause of candidiasis, they have shown a less than 3 log reduction in C. albicans or required treatment times of longer than 3 h. Thus, the naturally-derived antifungals used in previous studies could not substantially eradicate C. albicans within a short period of time. METHODS: To improve the fungicidal effects of naturallyderived antifungals against C. albicans within short time periods, we developed composites showing antifungal synergism using caprylic acid (CA), carvacrol (CAR) and thymol (THM) for 1-10 min at 22/37°C. Using flow cytometry, we examined the mode of action for the synergism of these compounds on membrane integrity and efflux pump activity. RESULTS: Whereas the maximum reduction by individual treatments was 0.6 log CFU/ml, CA + CAR/THM (all 1.5 mM) eliminated all pathogens (> 6.8 log reduction) after 1 min at 37°C and after 10 min at 22°C. The flow cytometry results showed that exposure to CA damaged the membranes in 15.7-36.5% of cells and inhibited efflux pumps in 15.4-31.3% of cells. Treatments with CAR/THM slightly affected cell membranes (in 1.8-6.9% of cells) but damaged efflux pumps in 14.4-29.6% of cells. However, the combined treatments clearly disrupted membranes (> 83.1% of cells) and pumps (> 95.0% of cells). The mechanism of this synergism may involve membrane damage by CA, which facilitates the entry of antifungals into the cytoplasm, and the inhibition of efflux pumps by CA, CAR or THM, causing their accumulation within cells and, leading to cell death. CONCLUSION: Antifungal composites (CA + CAR/THM) showing synergism (i.e., an additional 6 log reduction) within minutes at room/body temperature can be used to treat candidiasis and improve the microbiological safety of facilities contaminated with fungi as a novel alternative to synthetic antifungals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9335-9343, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343169

RESUMO

The ability of Debaryomyces hansenii to produce volatile sulfur compounds from sulfur amino acids and the metabolic pathway involved have been studied in seven strains from different food origins. Our results proved that l-methionine is the main precursor for sulfur compound generation. Crucial differences in the sulfur compound profile and amino acid consumption among D. hansenii strains isolated from different food sources were observed. Strains isolated from dry pork sausages displayed the most complex sulfur compound profiles. Sulfur compound production, such as that of methional, could result from chemical reactions or yeast metabolism, while according to this study, thioester methyl thioacetate appeared to be generated by yeast metabolism. No relationship between sulfur compounds production by D. hansenii strains and the expression of genes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism was found, except for the ATF2 gene in the L1 strain for production of methyl thioacetate. Our results suggest a complex scenario during sulfur compound production by D. hansenii.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Debaromyces/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Compostos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Animais , Debaromyces/genética , Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Suínos , Volatilização
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8573-8580, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293156

RESUMO

Glycosylation endows both natural and synthetic small molecules with modulated physicochemical and biological properties. Plant and bacterial glycosyltransferases capable of decorating various privileged scaffolds have been extensively studied, but those from kingdom Fungi still remain underexploited. Here, we use a combination of genome mining and heterologous expression techniques to identify four novel glycosyltransferase-methyltransferase (GT-MT) functional modules from Hypocreales fungi. These GT-MT modules display decent substrate promiscuity and regiospecificity, methylglucosylating a panel of natural products such as flavonoids, stilbenoids, anthraquinones, and benzenediol lactones. Native GT-MT modules can be split up and regrouped into hybrid modules with similar or even improved efficacy as compared with native pairs. Methylglucosylation of kaempferol considerably improves its insecticidal activity against the larvae of oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker). Our work provides a set of efficient biocatalysts for the combinatorial biosynthesis of small molecule glycosides that may have significant importance to the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Glicosiltransferases/química , Hypocreales/enzimologia , Metiltransferases/química , Fenóis/química , Animais , Biocatálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Hypocreales/genética , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8617-8625, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293160

RESUMO

Inhibiting starch digestion can effectively control postprandial blood sugar level. In this study, the in vitro digestion differences among the mixtures of five polyphenols (i.e., procyanidins [PAs], catechin [CA], tannic acid [TA], rutin [RU], and quercetin [QU]) and starch were analyzed through an in vitro simulation test of starch digestion. The interaction characteristics of these five polyphenols with α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated in terms of the inhibition effect, dynamics, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism (CD). The results revealed that the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased, while the resistant starch (RS) contents increased. All five polyphenols inhibited the α-amylase activity through the noncompetitive approach but inhibited the α-glucosidase activity through the competitive approach. Five polyphenols combined with α-amylase spontaneously by using the hydrophobic effect. The interaction of PAs and QU with α-glucosidase were recognized as van der Waals forces and H bonding, whereas CA and TA interacted with α-glucosidase through the hydrophobic effect. All five polyphenols can cause conformational changes in enzymes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Animais , Digestão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos , Leveduras/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8536-8547, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310520

RESUMO

Watermelon Fusarium wilt is a common soil-borne disease that has significantly affected its yield. In this study, fusaric acid-deficient mutant designated as ΔFUBT (mutated from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, FON) was obtained. The ΔFUBT mutant showed significant decrease in fusaric acid production but maintained wild-type characteristics, such as in vitro colony morphology, size, and conidiation. A field pot experiment demonstrated that ΔFUBT could successfully colonize the rhizosphere and the roots of watermelon, leading to significant reduction in FON colonization in the watermelon plant. In addition, ΔFUBT inoculation significantly improved the rhizosphere microenvironment and effectively increased the resistance in watermelon. This study demonstrated that a nonpathogenic Fusarium mutant (ΔFUBT) could be developed as an effective microbial control agent to alleviate Fusarium wilt disease in watermelon and increase its yield.


Assuntos
Citrullus/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Micotoxinas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ácido Fusárico/metabolismo , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/fisiologia , Mutação , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 124, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346773

RESUMO

Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast that is considered to be an emergent pathogen since it is the second most prevalent cause of candidiasis. Contrary to most yeasts, this species carries only one plasma membrane potassium transporter named CgTrk1. We show in this work that the activity of this transporter is regulated at the posttranslational level, and thus Trk1 contributes to potassium uptake under very different external cation concentrations. In addition to its function in potassium uptake, we report a diversity of physiological effects related to this transporter. CgTRK1 contributes to proper cell size, intracellular pH and membrane-potential homeostasis when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, lithium influx experiments performed both in C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae indicate that the salt tolerance phenotype linked to CgTrk1 can be related to a high capacity to discriminate between potassium and lithium (or sodium) during the transport process. In summary, we show that CgTRK1 exerts a diversity of pleiotropic physiological roles and we propose that the corresponding protein may be an attractive pharmacological target for the development of new antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Candida glabrata/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8875-8883, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347830

RESUMO

Glucan synthase (GLS) gene is known to be involved in the fungal biosynthesis of cell wall, differentiation, and growth. In the present study, a glucan synthase gene (GFGLS) in the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa with a full sequence of 5927 bp encoding a total of 1781 amino acids was cloned and characterized for the first time. GFGLSp is a membrane protein containing two large transmembrane domains connected with a hydrophilic cytoplasmic domain. With a constructed dual promoter RNA silencing vector pAN7-gfgls-dual, a GFGLS-silencing transformant iGFGLS-3 had the lowest GFGLS transcriptional expression level (26.1%) with a shorter length and thinner appearance of the mycelia, as well as decreased mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide production of 5.02 and 0.38 g/L, respectively. Further analysis indicated that GFGLS silence influenced slightly the monosaccharide compositions and ratios of mycelial and exo-polysaccharide. These findings suggest that GFGLS could affect mycelial growth and polysaccharide production by downregulating the glucan synthesis.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Grifola/enzimologia , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Grifola/genética , Grifola/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grifola/metabolismo , Micélio/enzimologia , Micélio/genética , Micélio/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7266-7273, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244199

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia strain 170, derived from rice fermentation sediment samples, afforded seven radicicol analogues, including two new compounds, monocillin VI (1) and monocillin VII (2), and five known compounds, monocillin II (3), monorden D (4), monocillin IV (5), monocillin V (6), and pochonin M (7). The structures of compounds 1-7 were established primarily by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance data, and the absolute configurations of the secondary alcohol in compounds 1 and 2 were assigned by the modified Mosher method. All seven compounds have modest antibacterial activities, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25.6 µg/mL for compounds 1 and 3-7 and 51.2 µg/mL for compound 2, on inhibition of the growth of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (the positive control ampicillin showed a MIC value of 12.8 µg/mL), indicating that the fungus has the potential to control bacterial disease. The biosynthetic gene cluster and putative biosynthetic pathways of these radicicol analogues in the P. chlamydosporia genome were proposed. These findings increase our knowledge of the chemical potential of P. chlamydosporia and may allow us to better utilize the fungus as a biological control agent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/química , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hypocreales/química , Hypocreales/genética , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Família Multigênica , Xanthomonas campestris/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthomonas campestris/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Food Chem ; 296: 1-8, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202292

RESUMO

Immobilized lipases are excellent biocatalysts for the enzymatic synthesis of short- and medium-chain fatty esters used as food flavor compounds. Herein a new approach for a magnetic core-shell biocatalyst by immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase is reported, coating single-core magnetic nanoparticles with an organic shell, preferably poly(benzofurane-co-arylacetic acid), followed by the covalent attachment of the enzyme and embedment of the primary biocatalyst in a silica layer. Although covalent and sol-gel immobilization were efficient on their own, their combination can ensure additional operational stability through multi-point linkages. Moreover, silanes holding glycidoxy groups, which can also form covalent linkages, have been successfully used as precursors for the silica coating layer. The structural, magnetic and morphological characteristics were assessed by TEM, SEM-EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The new biocatalysts demonstrated high catalytic efficiency in the solventless synthesis of isoamyl esters of natural carboxylic acids, also in multiple reaction cycles.


Assuntos
Ésteres/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Biocatálise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ésteres/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lipase/química , Dióxido de Silício/química
12.
Food Chem ; 293: 472-478, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151636

RESUMO

Water activity (aw) and temperature are two pivotal environmental factors affecting Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. Here, we found that AFB1 production on polished rice can occur over a wider range of temperature × aw levels than that on paddies. For fungal growth on polished rice, the optimum conditions were aw 0.92-0.96 and 28-37 °C. The maximum amounts of AFB1 on polished rice was observed at 33 °C and aw 0.96. Compared to 33 °C, all tested genes of A. flavus on polished rice were significantly up-regulated at 25 °C under aw 0.96. The late structural genes of pathway were significantly down-regulated at 37 °C under aw 0.96, although aflR and aflS and most of early structural genes were up-regulated. Compared to aw 0.96, most of pathway genes were significantly down-regulated at aw 0.90 and 0.99 under 33 °C, although two regulatory genes were up-regulated at aw 0.90.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Oryza/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
13.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(8): 846-852, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215677

RESUMO

In the present study, 20 psychrotolerant yeast species isolated from the soils of King George Island in the sub-Antarctic region were evaluated for the production of extracellular gelatinase, an enzyme with high potential for applications in diverse areas, such as food and medicine. The production of extracellular gelatinase was confirmed in the yeasts Metschnikowia sp., Leucosporidium fragarium, and Mrakia sp., the last one being the yeast in which the highest gelatinase activity was detected. The enzyme was purified from cultures of Mrakia sp., and the effect of different physical-chemical factors on its activity was determined. The gelatinase produced by Mrakia sp. would correspond to a protein of relative molecular weight (rMW) 37,000, which displayed the highest activity at 36°C, pH 7.0, 10 mM CaCl 2 , and 5 mM ZnSO 4 .


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Gelatinases/metabolismo , Regiões Antárticas , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Gelatinases/química , Gelatinases/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metschnikowia/enzimologia , Metschnikowia/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Temperatura Ambiente , Sulfato de Zinco
14.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 905-912, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154746

RESUMO

Bioethanol has attracted much attention in recent decades as a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative energy source. In this study, we compared the production of bioethanol by Candida molischiana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at different initial concentrations of cellobiose and glucose. The results showed that C. molischiana can utilize both glucose and cellobiose, whereas S. cerevisiae can only utilize glucose. The ethanol yields were 43-51% from different initial concentrations of carbon source. In addition, different concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) were directly converted to ethanol by a combination of Trichoderma reesei and two yeasts. Cellulose was first hydrolyzed by a fully enzymatic saccharification process using T. reesei cellulases, and the reducing sugars and glucose produced during the process were further used as carbon source for bioethanol production by C. molischiana or S. cerevisiae. Sequential culture of T. reesei and two yeasts revealed that C. molischiana was more efficient for bioconversion of sugars to ethanol than S. cerevisiae. When 20 g/l Avicel was used as a carbon source, the maximum reducing sugar, glucose, and ethanol yields were 42%, 26%, and 20%, respectively. The maximum concentrations of reducing sugar, glucose, and ethanol were 10.9, 8.57, and 5.95 g/l, respectively, at 120 h by the combination of T. reesei and C. molischiana from 50 g/l Avicel.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Candida/metabolismo , Celobiose/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Celobiose/química , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucose/química , Hidrólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichoderma/metabolismo
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3235-3244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118633

RESUMO

Purpose: Here, we present the successful preparation of a highly efficient gallic acid resin grafted with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and containing a branched brush polymeric shell. Methods: Using a convenient co-precipitation method, we prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles stabilized by citric acid. These nanoparticles underwent further silica modification and amino functionalization followed by gallic acid functionalization on their surface. Under alkaline conditions, we used a condensation reaction that combined formaldehyde and gallic, to graft the gallic acid-formaldehyde resin on the surface. We then evaluated the polymer-grafted MNPs to assay the Candida Antarctica B lipase(Cal-B) immobilization via physical adsorption. Conclusion: Furthermore, during optimization of parameters that defined conditions of immobilization, we found that the optimum immobilization was achieved in 15 mins. Also, optimal immobilization temperature and pH were 38ºC and 7.5, respectively. In addition, the reusability study of immobilized lipase polymer-grafted MNPs was done by isolating the MNPs from the reaction medium using magnetic separation, which showed that grafted MNPs reached 5 cycles with 91% activity retention.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Adsorção , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Polímeros , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente , Termogravimetria , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2297, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127085

RESUMO

Candida albicans is a fungal pathobiont, able to cause epithelial cell damage and immune activation. These functions have been attributed to its secreted toxin, candidalysin, though the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we identify epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a critical component of candidalysin-triggered immune responses. We find that both C. albicans and candidalysin activate human epithelial EGFR receptors and candidalysin-deficient fungal mutants poorly induce EGFR phosphorylation during murine oropharyngeal candidiasis. Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR impairs candidalysin-triggered MAPK signalling and release of neutrophil activating chemokines in vitro, and diminishes neutrophil recruitment, causing significant mortality in an EGFR-inhibited zebrafish swimbladder model of infection. Investigation into the mechanism of EGFR activation revealed the requirement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), EGFR ligands and calcium. We thus identify a PAMP-independent mechanism of immune stimulation and highlight candidalysin and EGFR signalling components as potential targets for prophylactic and therapeutic intervention of mucosal candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Sacos Aéreos/microbiologia , Animais , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candidíase/imunologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/imunologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Faringite/imunologia , Faringite/microbiologia , Fosforilação , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Food Chem ; 292: 81-89, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054696

RESUMO

How to effectively increase or decrease the ability of A. oryzae to produce enzymes was the key to improve the quality of soy sauce. However, multi-core property of A. oryzae resulted in genetic instability of the new strain. Here, A. oryzae 3.042-3 which can stably produce mononuclear spores was constructed based on A. oryzae 3.042. A. oryzae 3.042-3-c obtained by transformation of the fragment of cis-CreA into A. oryzae 3.042-3 exhibited genetic stability. The fragment containing the cis-acting and the promoter CreA from A. oryzae was connected to chromosome VII in A. oryzae 3.042-3-c. Compared with A. oryzae 3.042-3, the cellulase activity of A. oryzae 3.042-3-c was reduced by 50.5% and the pectinase activity was decreased by 10.0%. At the end of the soy sauce fermentation, the salt-free solid content of A. oryzae 3.042-3-c was higher 58.9% than that of A. oryzae 3.042-3. The kinds and contents of the flavor components of the soy sauce from the fermentation by A. oryzae 3.042-3-c were higher than those of the A. oryzae 3.042 and A. oryzae 3.042-3, especially in alcohols and esters. HEMF was only found in the soy sauce from A. oryzae 3.042-3-c. The results indicated that the new strain A. oryzae 3.042-3-c could improve the quality of soy sauce from the low-salt solid fermentation by decreasing enzyme activity of cellulase and pectinase.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Celulase/genética , Celulase/metabolismo , Cromossomos Fúngicos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia
18.
Food Chem ; 292: 90-97, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054697

RESUMO

Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potentially carcinogenic substance present in most alcoholic beverages, especially in Chinese rice wine. Consequently, much effort has been directed at suppressing EC formation during the production of these beverages, with particular attention directed at the use of urethanase, as this enzyme can directly catalyze EC degradation. Herein, we investigated the ability of three lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum) to generate urethanase during co-cultivation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. qPCR and transcriptomic analyses revealed that 57 genes of S. cerevisiae were significantly expressed in the presence of L. brevis, which highlighted the importance of studying urethanase-promoted EC degradation for establishing a powerful technique of EC level control. The obtained results provided deep insights into the adaptive responses of S. cerevisiae to the challenging environment of mixed-culture fermentation.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Uretana/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Amidoidrolases/genética , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2292, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123263

RESUMO

The wheat Pm3 resistance gene against the powdery mildew pathogen occurs as an allelic series encoding functionally different immune receptors which induce resistance upon recognition of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from the pathogen. Here, we describe the identification of five effector proteins from the mildew pathogens of wheat, rye, and the wild grass Dactylis glomerata, specifically recognized by the PM3B, PM3C and PM3D receptors. Together with the earlier identified AVRPM3A2/F2, the recognized AVRs of PM3B/C, (AVRPM3B2/C2), and PM3D (AVRPM3D3) belong to a large group of proteins with low sequence homology but predicted structural similarities. AvrPm3b2/c2 and AvrPm3d3 are conserved in all tested isolates of wheat and rye mildew, and non-host infection assays demonstrate that Pm3b, Pm3c, and Pm3d are also restricting the growth of rye mildew on wheat. Furthermore, divergent AVR homologues from non-adapted rye and Dactylis mildews are recognized by PM3B, PM3C, or PM3D, demonstrating their involvement in host specificity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Dactylis/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Grão Comestível/imunologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genoma Fúngico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas NLR/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Secale/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2357, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142738

RESUMO

The UbiX-UbiD enzymes are widespread in microbes, acting in concert to decarboxylate alpha-beta unsaturated carboxylic acids using a highly modified flavin cofactor, prenylated FMN (prFMN). UbiX serves as the flavin prenyltransferase, extending the isoalloxazine ring system with a fourth non-aromatic ring, derived from sequential linkage between a dimethylallyl moiety and the FMN N5 and C6. Using structure determination and solution studies of both dimethylallyl monophosphate (DMAP) and dimethyallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) dependent UbiX enzymes, we reveal the first step, N5-C1' bond formation, is contingent on the presence of a dimethylallyl substrate moiety. Hence, an SN1 mechanism similar to other prenyltransferases is proposed. Selected variants of the (pyro)phosphate binding site are unable to catalyse subsequent Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavin C6, but can be rescued by addition of (pyro)phosphate. Thus, retention of the (pyro)phosphate leaving group is required for C6-C3' bond formation, resembling pyrophosphate initiated class I terpene cyclase reaction chemistry.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/metabolismo , Dinitrocresóis/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Descarboxilação , Difosfatos/metabolismo , Prenilação , Terpenos/metabolismo
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