Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.082
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11444-11453, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592644

RESUMO

Innovative approaches to develop flavors with high sensory appeal are critical in encouraging increased consumer preference and adoption of low sodium foods. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, coupled with stable isotope dilution assays and sensory experiments, led to the identification of the odorants responsible for an enhancement in saltiness perception of chicken broth prepared with thermally treated enzymatically hydrolyzed mushroom protein and cysteine, then reacted under kitchen-like cooking conditions. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 36 odorants with flavor dilution factors between a range of 1 and 256. Sixteen odorants were quantitated and odor activity values (OAVs) calculated. Important odorants included 2-furfurylthiol (coffee, OAV 610), 1-(2-furyl)ethanethiol (meaty, OAV 78), 3-sulfanylpentan-2-one (catty, OAV 42), sotolon (maple, OAV 20), indole (animal, OAV 8), 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan (meaty, OAV 3), and p-cresol (barnyard, OAV 1). An odor simulation model was evaluated in two consumer sensory studies. These studies confirmed that the addition of the aroma model increased the perceived saltiness of low sodium chicken broth (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Cisteína/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Gustatória , Agaricus/metabolismo , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Culinária , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Hidrólise , Olfatometria , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11758-11768, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577438

RESUMO

Patulin contamination not only is a menace to human health but also causes serious environmental problems worldwide due to the synthetic fungicides that are used to control it. This study focused on investigating the patulin degradation mechanism in Pichia caribbica at the molecular level. According to the results, P. caribbica (2 × 106 cells/mL) was able to degrade patulin from 20 µg/mL to an undetectable level in 72 h. The RNA-seq data showed patulin-induced oxidative stress and responses in P. caribbica. The deletion of PcCRG1 led to a significant decrease in patulin degradation by P. caribbica, whereas the overexpression of PcCRG1 accelerated the degradation of patulin. The study identified that PcCRG1 protein had the ability to degrade patulin in vitro. Overall, we demonstrated that the patulin degradation process in P. caribbica was more than one way; PcCRG1 was an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase and played an important role in the patulin degradation process in P. caribbica.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Patulina/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/genética , Pichia/enzimologia , Pichia/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(20): 6351-6354, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566982

RESUMO

The cell membrane and many organellar membranes are asymmetric and highly curved. In experiments, it is challenging to reconstitute and characterize membranes that differ in the lipid composition of their leaflets. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the large-scale membrane shape changes associated with lipid shuttling between asymmetric leaflets. We exploit leaflet asymmetry to create a stable, near-spherical vesicle bud connected to a flat bilayer under periodic boundary conditions. Then we demonstrate how the lipid scramblase nhTMEM16 relaxes the lipid-number asymmetry. By mediating the flipping of lipids, this transmembrane protein dissipates the mechanochemical gradient between the leaflets and drives a large-scale membrane reorganization, converting the vesicle bud into a flat membrane. Our procedure to exploit bilayer asymmetry for simulations of highly curved membranes can be used to study the function of other lipid transporters and membrane-shaping proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nectria/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
4.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 159, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xylanases randomly cleave the internal ß-1,4-glycosidic bonds in the xylan backbone and are grouped into different families in the carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) database. Although multiple xylanases are detected in single strains of many filamentous fungi, no study has been reported on the composition, synergistic effect, and mode of action in a complete set of xylanases secreted by the same microorganism. RESULTS: All three xylanases secreted by Penicillium chrysogenum P33 were expressed and characterized. The enzymes Xyl1 and Xyl3 belong to the GH10 family and Xyl3 contains a CBM1 domain at its C-terminal, whereas Xyl2 belongs to the GH11 family. The optimal temperature/pH values were 35 °C/6.0, 50 °C/5.0 and 55 °C/6.0 for Xyl1, Xyl2, and Xyl3, respectively. The three xylanases exhibited synergistic effects, with the maximum synergy observed between Xyl3 and Xyl2, which are from different families. The synergy between xylanases could also improve the hydrolysis of cellulase (C), with the maximum amount of reducing sugars (5.68 mg/mL) observed using the combination of C + Xyl2 + Xyl3. Although the enzymatic activity of Xyl1 toward xylan was low, it was shown to be capable of hydrolyzing xylooligosaccharides into xylose. Xyl2 was shown to hydrolyze xylan to long-chain xylooligosaccharides, whereas Xyl3 hydrolyzed xylan to xylooligosaccharides with a lower degree of polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: Synergistic effect exists among different xylanases, and it was higher between xylanases from different families. The cooperation of hydrolysis modes comprised the primary mechanism for the observed synergy between different xylanases. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the hydrolysates of GH11 xylanases can be further hydrolyzed by GH10 xylanases, but not vice versa.


Assuntos
Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Penicillium chrysogenum/enzimologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Hidrólise , Família Multigênica , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Penicillium chrysogenum/química , Penicillium chrysogenum/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Xilanos/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10744-10755, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525900

RESUMO

We previously reported that ß-glucosidase BGL1 at low concentration (15 µg mL-1) from Coprinopsis cinerea exhibited hydrolytic activity only toward laminarioligosaccharides but not toward cellooligosaccharides and gentiobiose. This study shows that BGL1 at high concentration (200 µg mL-1) also hydrolyzed cellobiose and gentiobiose, which accounted for only 0.83 and 2.05% of its activity toward laminaribiose, respectively. Interestingly, BGL1 at low concentration (1.5 µg mL-1) showed transglycosylation but BGL1 at high concentration (200 µg mL-1) did not. BGL1 utilizes only laminarioligosaccharides but not glucose, gentiobiose, and cellobiose to synthesize the higher oligosaccharides. BGL1 transferred one glucosyl residue from substrate laminarioligosaccharide to another laminarioligosaccharide as an acceptor in a ß(1 → 3) or ß(1 → 6) fashion to produce higher laminarioligosaccharides or 3-O-ß-d-gentiobiosyl-d-laminarioligosaccharides. The BGL1-digested laminaritriose exhibited approximately 90% enhancement in the anti-oxidant activity compared to that of untreated laminaritriose, implying a potential application of BGL1-based transglycosylation for the production of high value-added rare oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Agaricales/enzimologia , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/química , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Dissacarídeos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Hidrólise , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/química , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Glucosidase/genética , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11025-11034, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502841

RESUMO

Recently, we have observed a relationship between poor breadmaking quality and protease activities related to fungal infection. This study aims to identify potential gluten-degrading proteases secreted by fungi and to analyze effects of these proteases on rheological properties of dough and gluten. Fusarium graminearum-infected grain was used as a model system. Zymography showed that serine-type proteases secreted by F. graminearum degrade gluten proteins. Zymography followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis predicted one serine carboxypeptidase and seven serine endo-peptidases to be candidate fungal proteases involved in gluten degradation. Effects of fungal proteases on the time-dependent rheological properties of dough and gluten were analyzed by small amplitude oscillatory shear rheology and large deformation extensional rheology. Our results indicate that fungal proteases degrade gluten proteins not only in the grain itself, but also during dough preparation and resting. Our study gives new insights into fungal proteases and their potential role in weakening of gluten.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Glutens/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Carboxipeptidases/química , Endopeptidases/química , Farinha/análise , Farinha/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Fusarium/fisiologia , Glutens/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Reologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10392-10400, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461615

RESUMO

The specificity of fructooligosaccharides as prebiotics depends on their size and structure, which in turn depend on their origin or the synthesis procedure. In this work we describe the application of an inulosucrase (IslA) from Leuconostoc citreum CW28 to produce high molecular weight inulin from sucrose alongside a commercial endoinulinase (Novozym 960) produced by Aspergillus niger for a simultaneous or sequential reaction to synthesize fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The simultaneous reaction resulted in a higher substrate conversion and a wide diversity of FOS when compared to the sequential reaction. A shotgun MS analysis of the commercial endoinulinase preparation surprisingly revealed an additional enzymatic activity: a fructosyltransferase, responsible for the synthesis of FOS from sucrose. Consequentially, the range of FOS obtained in reactions combining inulosucrase from Ln. citreum with the fructosyltransferase and endoinulinase from A. niger with sucrose as substrate may be extended and regulated.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hexosiltransferases/química , Inulina/química , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Oligossacarídeos/química , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Sacarose/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10505-10512, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462045

RESUMO

An aspartic protease gene (Bsapa) was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant BsAPA showed maximal activity at pH 3.0 and 75 °C and remained stable at 70 °C and below, indicating the thermostable nature of BsAPA. However, heat inactivation still limits the application of BsAPA. To further improve its thermostability, an autocatalysis site (L205-F206) in BsAPA was identified and three mutants (F193W, K204P, and A371V) were generated based on the analysis of the structure neighboring the autocatalysis site. These mutants have improved thermostability, and their half-life at 75 °C increased by 0.5-, 0.2-, and 0.3-fold, respectively. A triple-site mutant (F193W/K204P/A371V) was generated, with 1.5-fold increased half-life at 80 and a 10.7 °C increased Tm, compared with those of the wild-type. These results indicate that autocatalysis of aspartic protease reduces enzyme thermostability. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis at regions near the autocatalysis site is an efficient approach to improve aspartic protease thermostability.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/química , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/genética , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Pichia/genética , Pichia/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8573-8580, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293156

RESUMO

Glycosylation endows both natural and synthetic small molecules with modulated physicochemical and biological properties. Plant and bacterial glycosyltransferases capable of decorating various privileged scaffolds have been extensively studied, but those from kingdom Fungi still remain underexploited. Here, we use a combination of genome mining and heterologous expression techniques to identify four novel glycosyltransferase-methyltransferase (GT-MT) functional modules from Hypocreales fungi. These GT-MT modules display decent substrate promiscuity and regiospecificity, methylglucosylating a panel of natural products such as flavonoids, stilbenoids, anthraquinones, and benzenediol lactones. Native GT-MT modules can be split up and regrouped into hybrid modules with similar or even improved efficacy as compared with native pairs. Methylglucosylation of kaempferol considerably improves its insecticidal activity against the larvae of oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker). Our work provides a set of efficient biocatalysts for the combinatorial biosynthesis of small molecule glycosides that may have significant importance to the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Glicosiltransferases/química , Hypocreales/enzimologia , Metiltransferases/química , Fenóis/química , Animais , Biocatálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Hypocreales/genética , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8617-8625, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293160

RESUMO

Inhibiting starch digestion can effectively control postprandial blood sugar level. In this study, the in vitro digestion differences among the mixtures of five polyphenols (i.e., procyanidins [PAs], catechin [CA], tannic acid [TA], rutin [RU], and quercetin [QU]) and starch were analyzed through an in vitro simulation test of starch digestion. The interaction characteristics of these five polyphenols with α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated in terms of the inhibition effect, dynamics, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism (CD). The results revealed that the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased, while the resistant starch (RS) contents increased. All five polyphenols inhibited the α-amylase activity through the noncompetitive approach but inhibited the α-glucosidase activity through the competitive approach. Five polyphenols combined with α-amylase spontaneously by using the hydrophobic effect. The interaction of PAs and QU with α-glucosidase were recognized as van der Waals forces and H bonding, whereas CA and TA interacted with α-glucosidase through the hydrophobic effect. All five polyphenols can cause conformational changes in enzymes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Animais , Digestão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos , Leveduras/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6644-6648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apple juice is rich in polyphenolic compounds, especially in chlorogenic acid. A sour and bitter taste has been attributed to the compound. Chlorogenic acid in coffee powder was quickly hydrolysed by a p-coumaryl esterase of Rhizoctonia solani (RspCAE) at its optimal pH of 6.0. It was unknown, however, if RspCAE would also degrade chlorogenic acid under the strongly acidic conditions (pH 3.3) present in apple juice. RESULTS: Treatment of apple juice with RspCAE led to a chlorogenic acid degradation from 53.38 ± 0.94 mg L-1 to 21.02 ± 1.47 mg L-1 . Simultaneously, the caffeic acid content increased from 6.72 ± 0.69 mg L-1 to 19.33 ± 1.86 mg/L-1 . The aroma profile of the enzymatically treated sample and a control sample differed in only one volatile. Vitispirane had a higher flavour dilution factor in the treated juice. Sensory analysis showed no significant difference in the taste profile ( p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated a high stability and substrate specificity of RspCAE. An increase in caffeic acid and a concurrent decrease in chlorogenic acid concentration may exert a beneficial effect on human health. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Esterases/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Malus/química , Rhizoctonia/enzimologia , Aromatizantes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Odorantes/análise , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Nature ; 571(7765): 429-433, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292547

RESUMO

Balanced fusion and fission are key for the proper function and physiology of mitochondria1,2. Remodelling of the mitochondrial inner membrane is mediated by the dynamin-like protein mitochondrial genome maintenance 1 (Mgm1) in fungi or the related protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in animals3-5. Mgm1 is required for the preservation of mitochondrial DNA in yeast6, whereas mutations in the OPA1 gene in humans are a common cause of autosomal dominant optic atrophy-a genetic disorder that affects the optic nerve7,8. Mgm1 and OPA1 are present in mitochondria as a membrane-integral long form and a short form that is soluble in the intermembrane space. Yeast strains that express temperature-sensitive mutants of Mgm19,10 or mammalian cells that lack OPA1 display fragmented mitochondria11,12, which suggests that Mgm1 and OPA1 have an important role in inner-membrane fusion. Consistently, only the mitochondrial outer membrane-not the inner membrane-fuses in the absence of functional Mgm113. Mgm1 and OPA1 have also been shown to maintain proper cristae architecture10,14; for example, OPA1 prevents the release of pro-apoptotic factors by tightening crista junctions15. Finally, the short form of OPA1 localizes to mitochondrial constriction sites, where it presumably promotes mitochondrial fission16. How Mgm1 and OPA1 perform their diverse functions in membrane fusion, scission and cristae organization is at present unknown. Here we present crystal and electron cryo-tomography structures of Mgm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum. Mgm1 consists of a GTPase (G) domain, a bundle signalling element domain, a stalk, and a paddle domain that contains a membrane-binding site. Biochemical and cell-based experiments demonstrate that the Mgm1 stalk mediates the assembly of bent tetramers into helical filaments. Electron cryo-tomography studies of Mgm1-decorated lipid tubes and fluorescence microscopy experiments on reconstituted membrane tubes indicate how the tetramers assemble on positively or negatively curved membranes. Our findings convey how Mgm1 and OPA1 filaments dynamically remodel the mitochondrial inner membrane.


Assuntos
Chaetomium/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas Fúngicas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/ultraestrutura , Galactosilceramidas/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica
13.
Comput Biol Chem ; 82: 65-73, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272063

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi secrete various oxidative enzymes to degrade the glycosidic bonds of polysaccharides. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) (E.C.1.1.99.18) is one of the important lignocellulose degrading enzymes produced by various filamentous fungi. It contains two stereo specific ligand binding domains, cytochrome and dehydrogenase - one for heme and the other for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) respectively. The enzyme is of commercial importance for its use in amperometric biosensor, biofuel production, lactose determination in food, bioremediation etc. Termitomyces clypeatus, an edible fungus belonging to the basidiomycetes group, is a good producer of CDH. In this paper we have analyzed the structural properties of this enzyme from T. clypeatus and identified a distinct carbohydrate binding module (CBM) which is not present in most fungi belonging to the basidiomycetes group. In addition, the dehydrogenase domain of T. clypeatus CDH exhibited the absence of cellulose binding residues which is in contrast to the dehydrogenase domains of CDH of other basidiomycetes. Sequence analysis of cytochrome domain showed that the important residues of this domain were conserved like in other fungal CDHs. Phylogenetic tree, constructed using basidiomycetes and ascomycetes CDH sequences, has shown that very surprisingly the CDH from T. clypeatus, which is classified as a basidiomycetes fungus, is clustered with the ascomycetes group. A homology model of this protein has been constructed using the CDH enzyme of ascomycetes fungus Myricoccum thermophilum as a template since it has been found to be the best match sequence with T. clypeatus CDH. We also have modelled the protein with its substrate, cellobiose, which has helped us to identify the substrate interacting residues (L354, P606, T629, R631, Y649, N732, H733 and N781) localized within its dehydrogenase domain. Our computational investigation revealed for the first time the presence of all three domains - cytochrome, dehydrogenase and CBM - in the CDH of T. clypeatus, a basidiomycetes fungus. In addition to discovering the unique structural attributes of this enzyme from T. clypeatus, our study also discusses the possible phylogenetic status of this fungus.


Assuntos
Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Termitomyces/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Alinhamento de Sequência
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7954-7960, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199635

RESUMO

Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) have been shown to increase the antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol. This study investigated the ability of PE or PS to increase the antioxidant activity of different tocopherol homologues in bulk oil. In addition, the ability of a phospholipase-D-modified lecithin (high in PE) to increase the activity of α-tocopherol was determined. Results showed that PE was much more effective than PS at increasing the activity of the tocopherol homologues. The combination of mixed tocopherols with PE presented the greatest increase in antioxidant activity, with hydroperoxides and hexanal lag phases increasing 54 and 53 days compared to the mixed tocopherols alone. Phospholipase-D-modified lecithin increased the antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol in stripped bulk oil as well as a commercially refined oil with no added tocopherols. The study indicates that PE is a powerful tool to increase the antioxidant activity of tocopherols in bulk oil and that modification of lecithin to increase the PE concentration could be a commercially viable option to functionalize lecithin, so that its ability to inhibit lipid oxidation increases in bulk oils.


Assuntos
Lecitinas/química , Fosfolipase D/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Tocoferóis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Biocatálise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Temperatura Alta , Oxirredução , Streptomyces/enzimologia
15.
Protein Pept Lett ; 26(5): 377-385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (LPMOs) are auxiliary accessory enzymes that act synergistically with cellulases and which are increasingly being used in secondgeneration bioethanol production from biomasses. Several LPMOs have been identified in various filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus. However, many LPMOs have not been characterized yet. OBJECTIVE: To report the role of uncharacterized A. fumigatus AfAA9_B LPMO. METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the LPMO gene expression profile in different carbon sources. The gene encoding an AfAA9_B (Afu4g07850) was cloned into the vector pET- 28a(+), expressed in the E. coli strain RosettaTM (DE3) pLysS, and purified by a Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic (Ni-NTA) agarose resin. To evaluate the specific LPMO activity, the purified protein peroxidase activity was assessed. The auxiliary LPMO activity was investigated by the synergistic activity in Celluclast 1.5L enzymatic cocktail. RESULTS: LPMO was highly induced in complex biomass like sugarcane bagasse (SEB), Avicel® PH-101, and CM-cellulose. The LPMO gene encoded a protein comprising 250 amino acids, without a CBM domain. After protein purification, the AfAA9_B molecular mass estimated by SDSPAGE was 35 kDa. The purified protein specific peroxidase activity was 8.33 ± 1.9 U g-1. Upon addition to Celluclast 1.5L, Avicel® PH-101 and SEB hydrolysis increased by 18% and 22%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A. fumigatus LPMO is a promising candidate to enhance the currently available enzymatic cocktail and can therefore be used in second-generation ethanol production.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzimologia , Celulose/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Saccharum/química , Biomassa , Escherichia coli/genética , Etanol/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Hidrólise , Oxirredução , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
16.
Gene ; 711: 143934, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228540

RESUMO

Phytopathogenic fungi secrete a wide range of enzymes to penetrate and colonize host tissues. Of them protease activity is reported to increase disease aggressiveness in the plant. With the aim to explore the reason of the higher infection potential of proteases, we have compared several genomic and proteomic attributes among different hydrolytic enzymes coded by five pathogenic fungal species which are the potent infectious agents of plant. Categorizing the enzymes into four major groups, namely protease, lipase, amylase and cell-wall degraders, we observed that proteases are evolutionary more conserved, have higher expression levels, contain more hydrophobic buried residues, short linear motifs and post-translational modified (PTM) sites than the other three groups of enzymes. Again, comparing these features of protease between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Aspergillus sps, we have hypothesized that protein structural properties could play significant roles in imposing infection potency to the fungal proteases.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Aspergillus/classificação , Aspergillus/genética , Simulação por Computador , Sequência Conservada , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica/métodos
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2826, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249381

RESUMO

Bio-catalytic micro- and nanomotors self-propel by the enzymatic conversion of substrates into products. Despite the advances in the field, the fundamental aspects underlying enzyme-powered self-propulsion have rarely been studied. In this work, we select four enzymes (urease, acetylcholinesterase, glucose oxidase, and aldolase) to be attached on silica microcapsules and study how their turnover number and conformational dynamics affect the self-propulsion, combining both an experimental and molecular dynamics simulations approach. Urease and acetylcholinesterase, the enzymes with higher catalytic rates, are the only enzymes capable of producing active motion. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that urease and acetylcholinesterase display the highest degree of flexibility near the active site, which could play a role on the catalytic process. We experimentally assess this hypothesis for urease micromotors through competitive inhibition (acetohydroxamic acid) and increasing enzyme rigidity (ß-mercaptoethanol). We conclude that the conformational changes are a precondition of urease catalysis, which is essential to generate self-propulsion.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/química , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Urease/química , Animais , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Canavalia/enzimologia , Electrophorus , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Conformação Proteica , Coelhos , Dióxido de Silício/química
18.
Food Chem ; 296: 1-8, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202292

RESUMO

Immobilized lipases are excellent biocatalysts for the enzymatic synthesis of short- and medium-chain fatty esters used as food flavor compounds. Herein a new approach for a magnetic core-shell biocatalyst by immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase is reported, coating single-core magnetic nanoparticles with an organic shell, preferably poly(benzofurane-co-arylacetic acid), followed by the covalent attachment of the enzyme and embedment of the primary biocatalyst in a silica layer. Although covalent and sol-gel immobilization were efficient on their own, their combination can ensure additional operational stability through multi-point linkages. Moreover, silanes holding glycidoxy groups, which can also form covalent linkages, have been successfully used as precursors for the silica coating layer. The structural, magnetic and morphological characteristics were assessed by TEM, SEM-EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The new biocatalysts demonstrated high catalytic efficiency in the solventless synthesis of isoamyl esters of natural carboxylic acids, also in multiple reaction cycles.


Assuntos
Ésteres/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Biocatálise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ésteres/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lipase/química , Dióxido de Silício/química
19.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(8): 846-852, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215677

RESUMO

In the present study, 20 psychrotolerant yeast species isolated from the soils of King George Island in the sub-Antarctic region were evaluated for the production of extracellular gelatinase, an enzyme with high potential for applications in diverse areas, such as food and medicine. The production of extracellular gelatinase was confirmed in the yeasts Metschnikowia sp., Leucosporidium fragarium, and Mrakia sp., the last one being the yeast in which the highest gelatinase activity was detected. The enzyme was purified from cultures of Mrakia sp., and the effect of different physical-chemical factors on its activity was determined. The gelatinase produced by Mrakia sp. would correspond to a protein of relative molecular weight (rMW) 37,000, which displayed the highest activity at 36°C, pH 7.0, 10 mM CaCl 2 , and 5 mM ZnSO 4 .


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Gelatinases/metabolismo , Regiões Antárticas , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Gelatinases/química , Gelatinases/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metschnikowia/enzimologia , Metschnikowia/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Temperatura Ambiente , Sulfato de Zinco
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108243, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200120

RESUMO

Dry-cured meat products are usually contaminated with moulds during ripening. Although fungal development contributes to the desired sensory characteristics, some moulds, such as Penicillium nordicum are able to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) on meat products. Therefore, strategies to prevent OTA contamination in ripened meat products are required. Microorganisms isolated from these meat products can be adequate as biocontrol agents, given that no negative sensory impact is expected. The PgAFP antifungal protein-producer Penicillium chrysogenum (Pc) and Debaryomyces hansenii (Dh) have been shown to successfully inhibit toxigenic moulds. However, scarce information about the mechanism of action of these biocontrol agents on toxigenic mould inhibition is available. Comparative proteomic analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the physiological response of microorganisms to stimuli. Proteomic analysis was carried out on P. nordicum co-cultured with Pc, Dh, PgAFP, and their combinations on a dry-cured ham-based medium. Additionally, OTA production by P. nordicum in the different cultures was measured. The individual inoculation of Pc or Dh repressed OTA production by P. nordicum by 5 and 3.15 fold, respectively. A total of 2844 unique P. nordicum proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. The impact of the biocontrol agents on the proteome of P. nordicum was higher for Pc-containing cultures, followed by Dh-containing treatments. PgAFP alone had minimal impact on the proteome of P. nordicum. Proteomic analyses indicated Pc repressed P. nordicum OTA production through nutrient competition, potentially reducing glucose availability. Data also suggest that Dh and Pc inhibited P. nordicum through cell wall integrity impairment. Both Pc and Dh seem to hamper P. nordicum secondary metabolism (SM) as indicated by lower levels of MAP kinases and SM-associated proteins found in the co-inoculated P. nordicum. This work paves the way to use antifungal agents in the most efficient way to prevent OTA formation in meat products.


Assuntos
Debaromyces/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/metabolismo , Animais , Debaromyces/genética , Debaromyces/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ocratoxinas/análise , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium chrysogenum/genética , Penicillium chrysogenum/metabolismo , Proteômica , Metabolismo Secundário , Suínos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA