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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938653

RESUMO

Primary haemochromatosis (PH) is a genetic disorder of iron metabolism with multiorgan involvement due to mutations in HFE or more rarely haemojuvelin (HJV) gene. Cardiac involvement results in dilated cardiomyopathy with reduced ejection fraction and progressive heart failure. PH is rarely reported from India and cardiomyopathy due to PH from HJV mutations is thought to be uncommon. We report two families with cardiomyopathy resulting from PH. Diagnosis was suspected on the basis of skin pigmentation, markedly elevated serum ferritin and transferring saturation. Genetic testing revealed a rare mutation in HJV gene in one family. Being a treatable condition, PH should be suspected and investigated in cardiomyopathy patients in Indian subcontinent. If HFE is negative, analysis of non-HFE mutation should always be considered.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Hemocromatose/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Hemocromatose/diagnóstico , Hemocromatose/genética , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Mutação
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4859, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978401

RESUMO

Cell death is intrinsically linked with immunity. Disruption of an immune-activated MAPK cascade, consisting of MEKK1, MKK1/2, and MPK4, triggers cell death and autoimmunity through the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein SUMM2 and the MAPK kinase kinase MEKK2. In this study, we identify a Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L), named LETUM2/MEDOS1 (LET2/MDS1), and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein LLG1 as regulators of mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 cell death. LET2/MDS1 functions additively with LET1, another CrRLK1L, and acts genetically downstream of MEKK2 in regulating SUMM2 activation. LET2/MDS1 complexes with LET1 and promotes LET1 phosphorylation, revealing an intertwined regulation between different CrRLK1Ls. LLG1 interacts with the ectodomain of LET1/2 and mediates LET1/2 transport to the plasma membrane, corroborating its function as a co-receptor of LET1/2 in the mekk1-mkk1/2-mpk4 cell death pathway. Thus, our data suggest that a trimeric complex consisting of two CrRLK1Ls LET1, LET2/MDS1, and a GPI-anchored protein LLG1 that regulates the activation of NLR SUMM2 for initiating cell death and autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Morte Celular/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Interferência de RNA , Transcriptoma
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870938

RESUMO

Highly exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals present a unique setting to study mechanisms of protection against HIV acquisition. As natural killer (NK) cell activation and function have been implicated as a correlate of protection in HESN individuals, we sought to better understand the features of NK cells that may confer protection. We used mass cytometry to phenotypically profile NK cells from a cohort of Beninese sex workers and healthy controls. We found that NK cells from HESN women had increased expression of NKG2A, NKp30 and LILRB1, as well as the Fc receptor CD16, and decreased expression of DNAM-1, CD94, Siglec-7, and NKp44. Using functional assessments of NK cells from healthy donors against autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells, we observed that NKp30+ and Siglec-7+ cells had improved functional activity. Further, we found that NK cells from HESN women trended towards increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity; this activity correlated with increased CD16 expression. Overall, we identify features of NK cells in HESN women that may contribute to protection from HIV infection. Follow up studies with larger cohorts are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Adulto , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Lectinas/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Receptor 3 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores de IgG/genética , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Profissionais do Sexo
4.
Exp Cell Res ; 395(2): 112204, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2, the agent responsible for the current pandemic, is also causing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), hyperinflammation and high mortality. It is critical to dissect the pathogenetic mechanisms in order to reach a targeted therapeutic approach. METHODS: In the present investigation, we evaluated the effects of SARS-CoV2 on human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). We used RNA-seq datasets available online for identifying SARS-CoV2 potential genes target on human bronchial epithelial cells. RNA expression levels and potential cellular gene pathways have been analyzed. In order to identify possible common strategies among the main pandemic viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, SARS-CoV1, MERS-CoV, and H1N1, we carried out a hypergeometric test of the main genes transcribed in the cells of the respiratory tract exposed to these viruses. RESULTS: The analysis showed that two mechanisms are highly regulated in HBEC: the innate immunity recruitment and the disassembly of cilia and cytoskeletal structure. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF3) and dynein heavy chain 7, axonemal (DNAH7) represented respectively the most upregulated and downregulated genes belonging to the two mechanisms highlighted above. Furthermore, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 (CEACAM7) that codifies for a surface protein is highly specific of SARS-CoV2 and not for SARS-CoV1, MERS-CoV, and H1N1, suggesting a potential role in viral entry. In order to identify potential new drugs, using a machine learning approach, we highlighted Flunisolide, Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Desoximetasone, xylazine, and salmeterol as potential drugs against SARS-CoV2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, lung involvement and RDS could be generated by the activation and down regulation of diverse gene pathway involving respiratory cilia and muscle contraction, apoptotic phenomena, matrix destructuration, collagen deposition, neutrophil and macrophages recruitment.


Assuntos
Brônquios/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Brônquios/patologia , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Dineínas/genética , Dineínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
5.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(21)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839292

RESUMO

Differentiation status of tumors is correlated with metastatic potential and malignancy. FOXA1 (forkhead box A1) is a transcription factor known to regulate differentiation in certain tissues. Here, we investigate FOXA1 function in human colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that FOXA1 is robustly expressed in the normal human colon but significantly downregulated in colon adenocarcinoma. Applying FOXA1 chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing and transcriptome analysis upon FOXA1 knockdown in well-differentiated CRC cells and FOXA1 overexpression in poorly differentiated CRC cells, we identified novel protein-coding and lncRNA genes regulated by FOXA1. Among the numerous novel FOXA1 targets we identified, we focused on CEACAM5, a tumor marker and facilitator of cell adhesion. We show that FOXA1 binds to a distal enhancer downstream of CEACAM5 and strongly activates its expression. Consistent with these data, we show that FOXA1 inhibits anoikis in CRC cells. Collectively, our results uncover novel protein-coding and noncoding targets of FOXA1 and suggest a vital role of FOXA1 in enhancing CEACAM5 expression and anoikis resistance in CRC cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Anoikis/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Proteínas/genética , Pseudogenes
6.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788748

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708319

RESUMO

Gene networks have arisen as a promising tool in the comprehensive modeling and analysis of complex diseases. Particularly in viral infections, the understanding of the host-pathogen mechanisms, and the immune response to these, is considered a major goal for the rational design of appropriate therapies. For this reason, the use of gene networks may well encourage therapy-associated research in the context of the coronavirus pandemic, orchestrating experimental scrutiny and reducing costs. In this work, gene co-expression networks were reconstructed from RNA-Seq expression data with the aim of analyzing the time-resolved effects of gene Ly6E in the immune response against the coronavirus responsible for murine hepatitis (MHV). Through the integration of differential expression analyses and reconstructed networks exploration, significant differences in the immune response to virus were observed in Ly6E Δ H S C compared to wild type animals. Results show that Ly6E ablation at hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to a progressive impaired immune response in both liver and spleen. Specifically, depletion of the normal leukocyte mediated immunity and chemokine signaling is observed in the liver of Ly6E Δ H S C mice. On the other hand, the immune response in the spleen, which seemed to be mediated by an intense chromatin activity in the normal situation, is replaced by ECM remodeling in Ly6E Δ H S C mice. These findings, which require further experimental characterization, could be extrapolated to other coronaviruses and motivate the efforts towards novel antiviral approaches.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Vírus da Hepatite Murina
9.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 148, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the four most common cancer that causing death worldwide. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have shown that genetic diversities MUC1 (Mucin 1) and PSCA (Prostate Stem Cell Antigen) genes are involved in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was avaluating the association of rs4072037G > A polymorphism in MUC1 and rs2294008 C > T in PSCA gene with risk of gastric cancer in northern Iran. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 99 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of gastric cancer and 96 peripheral blood samples from healthy individuals (sex matched) as controls. Two desired polymorphisms, 5640G > A and 5057C > T for MUC1 and PSCA genes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: The G allele at rs4072037 of MUC1 gene was associated with a significant decreased gastric cancer risk (OR = 0.507, 95% CI: 0.322-0.799, p = 0.003). A significant decreased risk of gastric cancer was observed in people with either AG vs. AA, AG + AA vs. GG and AA+GG vs. AG genotypes of MUC1 polymorphism (OR = 4.296, 95% CI: 1.190-15.517, p = 0.026), (OR = 3.726, 95% CI: 2.033-6.830, p = 0.0001) and (OR = 0.223, 95% CI: 0.120-0.413, p = 0.0001) respectively. Finally, there was no significant association between the PSCA 5057C > T polymorphism and risk of gastric cancer in all genetic models. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that the MUC1 5640G > A polymorphism may have protective effect for gastric cancer in the Northern Iran population and could be considered as a potential molecular marker in gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mucina-1/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(11): 1330-1339, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704094

RESUMO

Zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) are substantial threats to global health, as exemplified by the emergence of two severe acute respiratory syndrome CoVs (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) within two decades1-3. Host immune responses to CoVs are complex and regulated in part through antiviral interferons. However, interferon-stimulated gene products that inhibit CoVs are not well characterized4. Here, we show that lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E (LY6E) potently restricts infection by multiple CoVs, including SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Mechanistic studies revealed that LY6E inhibits CoV entry into cells by interfering with spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Importantly, mice lacking Ly6e in immune cells were highly susceptible to a murine CoV-mouse hepatitis virus. Exacerbated viral pathogenesis in Ly6e knockout mice was accompanied by loss of hepatic immune cells, higher splenic viral burden and reduction in global antiviral gene pathways. Accordingly, we found that constitutive Ly6e directly protects primary B cells from murine CoV infection. Our results show that LY6E is a critical antiviral immune effector that controls CoV infection and pathogenesis. These findings advance our understanding of immune-mediated control of CoV in vitro and in vivo-knowledge that could help inform strategies to combat infection by emerging CoVs.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
11.
Carcinogenesis ; 41(5): 571-581, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648918

RESUMO

Cripto-1 (CR1), an oncofetal protein, had been implied to reactivate in some cancers. However, the relationship between CR1 expression and patient outcomes and the tumor biological function of CR1 contributing to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that CR1 was expressed in over 80% of HCCs in a training cohort (n = 242) and a validation cohort (n = 159). High CR1 expression was significantly correlated with aggressive HCC phenotypes (i.e. portal vein tumor thrombus, microscopic vascular invasion, multiple tumors and poor tumor differentiation). In both the training and validation cohorts, patients with high CR1 expression had remarkably shorter disease-free survival and overall survival rates than those with low CR1 expression. A series in vitro and in vivo assays showed that CR1 substantially promoted HCC cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CR1 induced HCC cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activating the Akt/NFκB/p65 signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NFκB/p65 enhanced CR1 expression by binding its promoter. Thus, CR1 and NFκB/p65 form a positive feedback loop that sustained the process of migration and invasion of HCC. Therefore, CR1 plays an important role in HCC invasion and metastasis and may be an effective and reliable prognostic biomarker for HCC recurrence after resection. Targeting CR1 may be a promising treatment for HCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 41(5): 571-581, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649753

RESUMO

Cripto-1 (CR1), an oncofetal protein, had been implied to reactivate in some cancers. However, the relationship between CR1 expression and patient outcomes and the tumor biological function of CR1 contributing to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that CR1 was expressed in over 80% of HCCs in a training cohort (n = 242) and a validation cohort (n = 159). High CR1 expression was significantly correlated with aggressive HCC phenotypes (i.e. portal vein tumor thrombus, microscopic vascular invasion, multiple tumors and poor tumor differentiation). In both the training and validation cohorts, patients with high CR1 expression had remarkably shorter disease-free survival and overall survival rates than those with low CR1 expression. A series in vitro and in vivo assays showed that CR1 substantially promoted HCC cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CR1 induced HCC cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activating the Akt/NFκB/p65 signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NFκB/p65 enhanced CR1 expression by binding its promoter. Thus, CR1 and NFκB/p65 form a positive feedback loop that sustained the process of migration and invasion of HCC. Therefore, CR1 plays an important role in HCC invasion and metastasis and may be an effective and reliable prognostic biomarker for HCC recurrence after resection. Targeting CR1 may be a promising treatment for HCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1633-1636, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-534631

RESUMO

In a previous study, we identified a 117 base severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1b gene in non-structural protein 14 (NSP14), which is an exonuclease and NSP15, an endoribonuclease. In the current study we compared the human genome with other viral genomes to determine some of the characteristics of human sequences found in the latter. Most of the viruses had human sequences, but they were short. Hepatitis A and St Louis encephalitis had human sequences that were longer than the 117 base SARS-Cov-2 sequence, but they were in non-coding regions of the human genome. The SARS-Cov-2 sequence was the only long sequence found in a human gene (NTNG1). The related coronaviruses SARS-Cov had a 41 BP human sequence on chromosome 3 that was not part of a human gene, and MERS had no human sequence. The 117 base SARS-CoV-2 human sequence is relatively close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904 base sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. We have no explanation for the NSP14 and NSP15 SARS-Cov-2 sequences we observed here or how they might relate to infectiousness. Further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Netrinas/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
Tumour Biol ; 42(6): 1010428320924524, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies indicate that macrophage migration inhibitory factor 1 plays a role for tumor progression in colon cancer. We investigated whether determination of migration inhibitory factor 1 mRNA expression levels in lymph nodes of colon cancer patients could be used as a prognostic marker. METHODS: Expression levels of migration inhibitory factor 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen mRNAs were assessed in primary tumors and regional lymph nodes of 123 colon cancer patients (stages I-IV), and in colon cancer- and immune cell lines using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of migration inhibitory factor 1 protein was investigated by two-color immunohistochemistry and immunomorphometry. RESULTS: Migration inhibitory factor 1 mRNA was expressed at 60 times higher levels in primary colon cancer tumors compared to normal colonic tissue (medians 8.2 and 0.2 mRNA copies/18S rRNA unit; p < .0001). A highly significant difference in mRNA expression levels was found between hematoxylin-eosin positive lymph nodes and hematoxylin-eosin negative lymph nodes (p < .0001). Migration inhibitory factor 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen proteins were simultaneously expressed in many colon cancer-tumor cells. Kaplan-Meier survival model and hazard ratio analysis, using a cutoff level at 2.19 mRNA copies/18S rRNA unit, revealed that patients with lymph nodes expressing high levels of migration inhibitory factor 1 mRNA had a 3.5-fold (p = .04) higher risk for recurrence, associated with a small, but significant, difference in mean survival time (7 months, p = .03) at 12 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Although migration inhibitory factor 1 mRNA expression levels were related to severity of disease and lymph node analysis revealed that colon cancer patients with high levels had a shorter survival time after surgery than those with low levels, the difference was small and probably not useful in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Hormônio Inibidor da Liberação de MSH/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfonodos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
15.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(9): 1657-1663, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552051

RESUMO

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play crucial roles in the genesis and progress of tumor. We investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAMs, neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and Otoancorin (OTOA) on lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese nonsmoking females. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of SNPs and environmental factors. For rs3102911, genotype TT carriers decreased the risk of lung cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.635. AA genotypes of rs741718 increased the risk of lung cancer with an OR of 3.527. In stratified analysis, genotype AA carriers of rs741718 had a high susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma compared with GG and AG genotypes. Analyses of association between SNPs and clinical characteristics revealed that rs3102911 as a protective factor and rs741718 as a risk factor influenced the lung cancer occurrence and progression in nonsmoking females.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1633-1636, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503822

RESUMO

In a previous study, we identified a 117 base severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1b gene in non-structural protein 14 (NSP14), which is an exonuclease and NSP15, an endoribonuclease. In the current study we compared the human genome with other viral genomes to determine some of the characteristics of human sequences found in the latter. Most of the viruses had human sequences, but they were short. Hepatitis A and St Louis encephalitis had human sequences that were longer than the 117 base SARS-Cov-2 sequence, but they were in non-coding regions of the human genome. The SARS-Cov-2 sequence was the only long sequence found in a human gene (NTNG1). The related coronaviruses SARS-Cov had a 41 BP human sequence on chromosome 3 that was not part of a human gene, and MERS had no human sequence. The 117 base SARS-CoV-2 human sequence is relatively close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904 base sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. We have no explanation for the NSP14 and NSP15 SARS-Cov-2 sequences we observed here or how they might relate to infectiousness. Further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus da SARS/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Netrinas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas Virais/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3175, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581250

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. To identify risk loci, we perform a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies comprising 2,039 pancreatic cancer patients and 32,592 controls in the Japanese population. Here, we identify 3 (13q12.2, 13q22.1, and 16p12.3) genome-wide significant loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), of which 16p12.3 has not been reported in the Western population. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 16p12.3 is rs78193826 (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, P = 4.28 × 10-9), an Asian-specific, nonsynonymous glycoprotein 2 (GP2) gene variant. Associations between selected GP2 gene variants and pancreatic cancer are replicated in 10,822 additional cases and controls of East Asian origin. Functional analyses using cell lines provide supporting evidence of the effect of rs78193826 on KRAS activity. These findings suggest that GP2 gene variants are probably associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511276

RESUMO

Testisin (encoded by PRSS21) is a membrane anchored serine protease, which is tethered to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. While testisin is found in abundance in spermatozoa, it is also expressed in microvascular endothelial cells where its function is unknown. Here we identify testisin as a novel regulator of physiological hormone-induced angiogenesis and microvascular endothelial permeability. Using a murine model of rapid physiological angiogenesis during corpus luteal development in the ovary, we found that mice genetically deficient in testisin (Prss21-/-) show a substantially increased incidence of hemorrhages which are significantly more severe than in littermate control Prss21+/+ mice. This phenotype was associated with increased vascular leakiness, demonstrated by a greater accumulation of extravasated Evans blue dye in Prss21-/- ovaries. Live cell imaging of in vitro cultured microvascular endothelial cells depleted of testisin by siRNA knockdown revealed that loss of testisin markedly impaired reorganization and tubule-like formation on Matrigel basement membranes. Moreover testisin siRNA knockdown increased the paracellular permeability to FITC-albumin across endothelial cell monolayers, which was associated with decreased expression of the adherens junction protein VE-cadherin and increased levels of phospho(Tyr658)-VE-cadherin, without affecting the levels of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, or ZO-1. Decreased expression of VE-cadherin in the neovasculature of Prss21-/- ovaries was also observed without marked differences in endothelial cell content, vascular claudin-5 expression or pericyte recruitment. Together, these data identify testisin as a novel regulator of VE-cadherin adhesions during angiogenesis and indicate a potential new target for regulating neovascular integrity and associated pathologies.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar/fisiologia , Corpo Lúteo/irrigação sanguínea , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Serina Endopeptidases/deficiência , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Permeabilidade Capilar/genética , Células Cultivadas , Corpo Lúteo/patologia , Corpo Lúteo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/deficiência , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/genética , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Luteinização/genética , Luteinização/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Fenótipo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15104-15111, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541044

RESUMO

Five small protein domains, the CC-domains, at the N terminus of the RECK protein, play essential roles in signaling by WNT7A and WNT7B in the context of central nervous system angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier formation and maintenance. We have determined the structure of CC domain 4 (CC4) at 1.65-Å resolution and find that it folds into a compact four-helix bundle with three disulfide bonds. The CC4 structure, together with homology modeling of CC1, reveals the surface locations of critical residues that were shown in previous mutagenesis studies to mediate GPR124 binding and WNT7A/WNT7B recognition and signaling. Surprisingly, sequence and structural homology searches reveal no other cell-surface or secreted domains in vertebrates that resemble the CC domain, a pattern that is in striking contrast to other ancient and similarly sized domains, such as Epidermal Growth Factor, Fibronectin Type 3, Immunoglobulin, and Thrombospondin type 1 domains, which are collectively present in hundreds of proteins.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/química , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Hum Genet ; 139(11): 1471-1483, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583022

RESUMO

Human growth is a complex trait determined by genetic factors in combination with external stimuli, including environment, nutrition and hormonal status. In the past, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have collectively identified hundreds of genetic variants having a putative effect on determining adult height in different worldwide populations. Theoretically, a valuable approach to better understand the mechanisms of complex traits as adult height is to study a population exhibiting extreme stature phenotypes, such as African Baka Pygmies. After phenotypic characterization, we sequenced the whole exomes of a cohort of Baka Pygmies and their non-Pygmies Bantu neighbors to highlight genetic variants associated with the reduced stature. Whole exome data analysis revealed 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with the reduced height in the Baka group. Among these variants, we focused on SNP rs7629425, located in the 5'-UTR of the Hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2) gene. The frequency of the alternative allele was significantly increased compared to African and non-African populations. In vitro luciferase assay showed significant differences in transcription modulation by rs7629425 C/T alleles. In conclusion, our results suggested that the HYAL2 gene variants may play a role in the etiology of short stature in Baka Pygmies population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Estatura/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
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