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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857759

RESUMO

Poly(glycine-alanine) (polyGA) is one of the polydipeptides expressed in Frontotemporal Dementia and/or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 caused by C9ORF72 mutations and accumulates as inclusion bodies in the brain of patients. Superficially these inclusions are similar to those formed by polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded Huntingtin exon 1 (Httex1) in Huntington's disease. Both have been reported to form an amyloid-like structure suggesting they might aggregate via similar mechanisms and therefore recruit the same repertoire of endogenous proteins. When co-expressed in the same cell, polyGA101 and Httex1(Q97) inclusions adopted immiscible phases suggesting different endogenous proteins would be enriched. Proteomic analyses identified 822 proteins in the inclusions. Only 7 were specific to polyGA and 4 specific to Httex1(Q97). Quantitation demonstrated distinct enrichment patterns for the proteins not specific to each inclusion type (up to ~8-fold normalized to total mass). The proteasome, microtubules, TriC chaperones, and translational machinery were enriched in polyGA aggregates, whereas Dnaj chaperones, nuclear envelope and RNA splicing proteins were enriched in Httex1(Q97) aggregates. Both structures revealed a collection of folding and degradation machinery including proteins in the Httex1(Q97) aggregates that are risk factors for other neurodegenerative diseases involving protein aggregation when mutated, which suggests a convergence point in the pathomechanisms of these diseases.


Assuntos
Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Éxons , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/genética , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Peptídeos/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/patologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteólise , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Solubilidade
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3834, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737309

RESUMO

The transcriptional inducer anhydrotetracycline (aTc) and the bacteriostatic antibiotic tetracycline (Tc) are commonly used in all fields of biology for control of transcription or translation. A drawback of these and other small molecule inducers is the difficulty of their removal from cell cultures, limiting their application for dynamic control. Here, we describe a simple method to overcome this limitation, and show that the natural photosensitivity of aTc/Tc can be exploited to turn them into highly predictable optogenetic transcriptional- and growth-regulators. This new optogenetic class uniquely features both dynamic and setpoint control which act via population-memory adjustable through opto-chemical modulation. We demonstrate this method by applying it for dynamic gene expression control and for enhancing the performance of an existing optogenetic system. We then expand the utility of the aTc system by constructing a new chemical bandpass filter that increases its aTc response range. The simplicity of our method enables scientists and biotechnologists to use their existing systems employing aTc/Tc for dynamic optogenetic experiments without genetic modification.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética/métodos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonagem Molecular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Fotólise , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000762, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760088

RESUMO

Centrosomes, the main microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) of metazoan cells, contain an older "mother" and a younger "daughter" centriole. Stem cells either inherit the mother or daughter-centriole-containing centrosome, providing a possible mechanism for biased delivery of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanisms regulating centrosome asymmetry and biased centrosome segregation are unclear. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and live-cell imaging, we show in fly neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that the mitotic kinase Polo and its centriolar protein substrate Centrobin (Cnb) accumulate on the daughter centriole during mitosis, thereby generating molecularly distinct mother and daughter centrioles before interphase. Cnb's asymmetric localization, potentially involving a direct relocalization mechanism, is regulated by Polo-mediated phosphorylation, whereas Polo's daughter centriole enrichment requires both Wdr62 and Cnb. Based on optogenetic protein mislocalization experiments, we propose that the establishment of centriole asymmetry in mitosis primes biased interphase MTOC activity, necessary for correct spindle orientation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Centríolos/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mitose , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Centríolos/ultraestrutura , Centrossomo/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Interfase , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4218, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839452

RESUMO

Exposure to social stress and dysregulated serotonergic neurotransmission have both been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. However, the serotonergic circuit involved in stress vulnerability is still unknown. Here, we explored whether a serotonergic input from the dorsal raphe (DR) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) influences vulnerability to social stress. We identified a distinct, anatomically and functionally defined serotonergic subpopulation in the DR that projects to the VTA (5-HTDR→VTA neurons). Moreover, we found that susceptibility to social stress decreased the firing activity of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons. Importantly, the bidirectional manipulation of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons could modulate susceptibility to social stress. Our findings reveal that the activity of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons may be an essential factor in determining individual levels of susceptibility to social stress and suggest that targeting specific serotonergic circuits may aid the development of therapies for the treatment of stress-related disorders.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/citologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3306, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620754

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is selectively degraded by autophagy (ER-phagy) through proteins called ER-phagy receptors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Atg40 acts as an ER-phagy receptor to sequester ER fragments into autophagosomes by binding Atg8 on forming autophagosomal membranes. During ER-phagy, parts of the ER are morphologically rearranged, fragmented, and loaded into autophagosomes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we find that Atg40 molecules assemble in the ER membrane concurrently with autophagosome formation via multivalent interaction with Atg8. Atg8-mediated super-assembly of Atg40 generates highly-curved ER regions, depending on its reticulon-like domain, and supports packing of these regions into autophagosomes. Moreover, tight binding of Atg40 to Atg8 is achieved by a short helix C-terminal to the Atg8-family interacting motif, and this feature is also observed for mammalian ER-phagy receptors. Thus, this study significantly advances our understanding of the mechanisms of ER-phagy and also provides insights into organelle fragmentation in selective autophagy of other organelles.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/química , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/química , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16313-16323, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601209

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxins are central to cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. They serve as peroxide scavengers, sensors, signal transducers, and chaperones, depending on conditions and context. Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins are known to switch between different oligomeric states, depending on redox state, pH, posttranslational modifications, and other factors. Quaternary states and their changes are closely connected to peroxiredoxin activity and function but so far have been studied, almost exclusively, outside the context of the living cell. Here we introduce the use of homo-FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer between identical fluorophores) fluorescence polarization to monitor dynamic changes in peroxiredoxin quaternary structure inside the crowded environment of living cells. Using the approach, we confirm peroxide- and thioredoxin-related quaternary transitions to take place in cellulo and observe that the relationship between dimer-decamer transitions and intersubunit disulfide bond formation is more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of the approach to compare different peroxiredoxin isoforms and to identify mutations and small molecules affecting the oligomeric state inside cells. Mutagenesis experiments reveal that the dimer-decamer equilibrium is delicately balanced and can be shifted by single-atom structural changes. We show how to use this insight to improve the design of peroxiredoxin-based redox biosensors.


Assuntos
Peroxirredoxinas/química , Linhagem Celular , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Mutação , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
7.
Science ; 368(6497)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554567

RESUMO

How does neural activity generate perception? Finding the combinations of spatial or temporal activity features (such as neuron identity or latency) that are consequential for perception remains challenging. We trained mice to recognize synthetic odors constructed from parametrically defined patterns of optogenetic activation, then measured perceptual changes during extensive and controlled perturbations across spatiotemporal dimensions. We modeled recognition as the matching of patterns to learned templates. The templates that best predicted recognition were sequences of spatially identified units, ordered by latencies relative to each other (with minimal effects of sniff). Within templates, individual units contributed additively, with larger contributions from earlier-activated units. Our synthetic approach reveals the fundamental logic of the olfactory code and provides a general framework for testing links between sensory activity and perception.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Odorantes , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/genética , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Proteína de Marcador Olfatório/genética , Optogenética , Análise Espaço-Temporal
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2729, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483166

RESUMO

Aggregation and spreading of α-Synuclein (αSyn) are hallmarks of several neurodegenerative diseases, thus monitoring human αSyn (hαSyn) in animal models or cell cultures is vital for the field. However, the detection of native hαSyn in such systems is challenging. We show that the nanobody NbSyn87, previously-described to bind hαSyn, also shows cross-reactivity for the proteasomal subunit Rpn10. As such, when the NbSyn87 is expressed in the absence of hαSyn, it is continuously degraded by the proteasome, while it is stabilized when it binds to hαSyn. Here, we exploit this feature to design a new Fluorescent Reporter for hαSyn (FluoReSyn) by fusing NbSyn87 to fluorescent proteins, which results in fluorescence signal fluctuations depending on the presence and amounts of intracellular hαSyn. We characterize this biosensor in cells and tissues to finally reveal the presence of transmittable αSyn in human cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating the potential of FluoReSyn for clinical research and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citosol/química , Feminino , Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/líquido cefalorraquidiano , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3123, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561740

RESUMO

Intracellular trafficking of organelles, driven by kinesin-1 stepping along microtubules, underpins essential cellular processes. In absence of other proteins on the microtubule surface, kinesin-1 performs micron-long runs. Under crowding conditions, however, kinesin-1 motility is drastically impeded. It is thus unclear how kinesin-1 acts as an efficient transporter in intracellular environments. Here, we demonstrate that TRAK1 (Milton), an adaptor protein essential for mitochondrial trafficking, activates kinesin-1 and increases robustness of kinesin-1 stepping on crowded microtubule surfaces. Interaction with TRAK1 i) facilitates kinesin-1 navigation around obstacles, ii) increases the probability of kinesin-1 passing through cohesive islands of tau and iii) increases the run length of kinesin-1 in cell lysate. We explain the enhanced motility by the observed direct interaction of TRAK1 with microtubules, providing an additional anchor for the kinesin-1-TRAK1 complex. Furthermore, TRAK1 enables mitochondrial transport in vitro. We propose adaptor-mediated tethering as a mechanism regulating kinesin-1 motility in various cellular environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3116, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561773

RESUMO

Cells reinforce adhesion strength and cytoskeleton anchoring in response to the actomyosin force. The mechanical stretching of talin, which exposes cryptic vinculin-binding sites, triggers this process. The binding of RIAM to talin could regulate this mechanism. However, the mechanosensitivity of the talin-RIAM complex has never been tested. It is also not known whether RIAM controls the mechanosensitivity of the talin-vinculin complex. To address these issues, we designed an in vitro microscopy assay with purified proteins in which the actomyosin force controls RIAM and vinculin-binding to talin. We demonstrate that actomyosin triggers RIAM dissociation from several talin domains. Actomyosin also provokes the sequential exchange of RIAM for vinculin on talin. The effect of RIAM on this force-dependent binding of vinculin to talin varies from one talin domain to another. This mechanism could allow talin to biochemically code a wide range of forces by selecting different combinations of partners.


Assuntos
Actomiosina/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Talina/metabolismo , Vinculina/metabolismo , Actomiosina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Genes Reporter/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Imagem Molecular , Músculo Esquelético , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Talina/genética , Talina/isolamento & purificação , Vinculina/genética , Vinculina/isolamento & purificação
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3061, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546731

RESUMO

Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is the controlled slippage of the translating ribosome to an alternative frame. This process is widely employed by human viruses such as HIV and SARS coronavirus and is critical for their replication. Here, we developed a high-throughput approach to assess the frameshifting potential of a sequence. We designed and tested >12,000 sequences based on 15 viral and human PRF events, allowing us to systematically dissect the rules governing ribosomal frameshifting and discover novel regulatory inputs based on amino acid properties and tRNA availability. We assessed the natural variation in HIV gag-pol frameshifting rates by testing >500 clinical isolates and identified subtype-specific differences and associations between viral load in patients and the optimality of PRF rates. We devised computational models that accurately predict frameshifting potential and frameshifting rates, including subtle differences between HIV isolates. This approach can contribute to the development of antiviral agents targeting PRF.


Assuntos
Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Proteínas de Fusão gag-pol/genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Células K562 , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511278

RESUMO

The autophagy-endolysosomal pathway is an evolutionally conserved degradation system that is tightly linked to a wide variety of physiological processes. Dysfunction of this system is associated with many pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, monitoring the cellular autophagy-endolysosomal activity is crucial for studies on the pathogenesis as well as therapeutics of such disorders. To this end, we here sought to create a novel means exploiting Keima, an acid-stable fluorescent protein possessing pH-dependent fluorescence excitation spectra, for precisely monitoring the autophagy-endolysosomal system. First, we generated three lines of transgenic (tg) mouse expressing monomeric Keima-fused MAP1LC3B (mKeima-LC3B). Then, these tg mice were subjected to starvation by food-restriction, and also challenged to neurodegeneration by genetically crossing with a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; i.e., SOD1H46R transgenic mouse. Unexpectedly, despite that a lipidated-form of endogenous LC3 (LC3-II) was significantly increased, those of mKeima-LC3B (mKeima-LC3B-II) were not changed under both stressed conditions. It was also noted that mKeima-LC3B-positive aggregates were progressively accumulated in the spinal cord of SOD1H46R;mKeima-LC3B double-tg mice, suggestive of acid-resistance and aggregate-prone natures of long-term overexpressed mKeima-LC3B in vivo. Next, we characterized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mKeima-LC3B-tg mice. In contrast with in vivo, levels of mKeima-LC3B-I were decreased under starved conditions. Furthermore, when starved MEFs were treated with chloroquine (CQ), the abundance of mKeima-LC3B-II was significantly increased. Remarkably, when cultured medium was repeatedly changed between DMEM (nutrient-rich) and EBSS (starvation), acidic/neutral signal ratios of mKeima-LC3B-positive compartments were rapidly and reversibly shifted, which were suppressed by the CQ treatment, indicating that intraluminal pH of mKeima-LC3B-positive vesicles was changeable upon nutritional conditions of culture media. Taken together, although mKeima-LC3B-tg mice may not be an appropriate tool to monitor the autophagy-endolysosomal system in vivo, mKeima-LC3B must be one of the most sensitive reporter molecules for monitoring this system under in vitro cultured conditions.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Endossomos/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Lisossomos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Inanição , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
13.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 802-815, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541832

RESUMO

Microglia and central nervous system (CNS)-associated macrophages (CAMs), such as perivascular and meningeal macrophages, are implicated in virtually all diseases of the CNS. However, little is known about their cell-type-specific roles in the absence of suitable tools that would allow for functional discrimination between the ontogenetically closely related microglia and CAMs. To develop a new microglia gene targeting model, we first applied massively parallel single-cell analyses to compare microglia and CAM signatures during homeostasis and disease and identified hexosaminidase subunit beta (Hexb) as a stably expressed microglia core gene, whereas other microglia core genes were substantially downregulated during pathologies. Next, we generated HexbtdTomato mice to stably monitor microglia behavior in vivo. Finally, the Hexb locus was employed for tamoxifen-inducible Cre-mediated gene manipulation in microglia and for fate mapping of microglia but not CAMs. In sum, we provide valuable new genetic tools to specifically study microglia functions in the CNS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Cadeia beta da beta-Hexosaminidase/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/imunologia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Genes Reporter/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/imunologia , Células NIH 3T3 , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Transfecção , Cadeia beta da beta-Hexosaminidase/genética
14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H349-H358, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589443

RESUMO

Here, we report the generation of a Cre-recombinase (iCre) transgenic rat, where iCre is driven using a vascular endothelial-cadherin (CDH5) promoter. The CDH5 promoter was cloned from rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and demonstrated ~60% similarity to the murine counterpart. The cloned rat promoter was 2,508 bp, it extended 79 bp beyond the transcription start site, and it was 22,923 bp upstream of the translation start site. The novel promoter was cloned upstream of codon-optimized iCre and subcloned into a Sleeping Beauty transposon vector for transpositional transgenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Transgenic founders were generated and selected for iCre expression. Crossing the CDH5-iCre rat with a tdTomato reporter rat resulted in progeny displaying endothelium-restricted fluorescence. tdTomato fluorescence was prominent in major arteries and veins, and it was similar in males and females. Quantitative analysis of the carotid artery and the jugular vein revealed that, on average, more than 50% of the vascular surface area exhibited strong fluorescence. tdTomato fluorescence was observed in the circulations of every tissue tested. The microcirculation in all tissues tested displayed homogenous fluorescence. Fluorescence was examined across young (6-7.5 mo), middle (14-16.5 mo), and old age (17-19.5 mo) groups. Although tdTomato fluorescence was seen in middle- and old-age animals, the intensity of the fluorescence was significantly reduced compared with that seen in the young rats. Thus, this endothelium-restricted transgenic rat offers a novel platform to test endothelial microheterogeneity within all vascular segments, and it provides exceptional resolution of endothelium within-organ microcirculation for application to translational disease models.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The use of transgenic mice has been instrumental in advancing molecular insight of physiological processes, yet these models oftentimes do not faithfully recapitulate human physiology and pathophysiology. Rat models better replicate some human conditions, like Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension. Here, we report the development of an endothelial cell-restricted transgenic reporter rat that has broad application to vascular biology. This first-in-kind model offers exceptional endothelium-restricted tdTomato expression, in both conduit vessels and the microcirculations of organs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Integrases/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Integrases/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/biossíntese , Masculino , Microcirculação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Transgênicos , Distribuição Tecidual , Transposases/genética , Transposases/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008729, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352975

RESUMO

Evolutionarily conserved circadian clocks generate 24-hour rhythms in physiology and behaviour that adapt organisms to their daily and seasonal environments. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the principal co-ordinator of the cell-autonomous clocks distributed across all major tissues. The importance of robust daily rhythms is highlighted by experimental and epidemiological associations between circadian disruption and human diseases. BMAL1 (a bHLH-PAS domain-containing transcription factor) is the master positive regulator within the transcriptional-translational feedback loops (TTFLs) that cell-autonomously define circadian time. It drives transcription of the negative regulators Period and Cryptochrome alongside numerous clock output genes, and thereby powers circadian time-keeping. Because deletion of Bmal1 alone is sufficient to eliminate circadian rhythms in cells and the whole animal it has been widely used as a model for molecular disruption of circadian rhythms, revealing essential, tissue-specific roles of BMAL1 in, for example, the brain, liver and the musculoskeletal system. Moreover, BMAL1 has clock-independent functions that influence ageing and protein translation. Despite the essential role of BMAL1 in circadian time-keeping, direct measures of its intra-cellular behaviour are still lacking. To fill this knowledge-gap, we used CRISPR Cas9 to generate a mouse expressing a knock-in fluorescent fusion of endogenous BMAL1 protein (Venus::BMAL1) for quantitative live imaging in physiological settings. The Bmal1Venus mouse model enabled us to visualise and quantify the daily behaviour of this core clock factor in central (SCN) and peripheral clocks, with single-cell resolution that revealed its circadian expression, anti-phasic to negative regulators, nuclear-cytoplasmic mobility and molecular abundance.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Ritmo Circadiano , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Encéfalo/embriologia , Células Cultivadas , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1529, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251274

RESUMO

Inteins are protein segments capable of joining adjacent residues via a peptide bond. In this process known as protein splicing, the intein itself is not present in the final sequence, thus achieving scarless peptide ligation. Here, we assess the splicing activity of 34 inteins (both uncharacterized and known) using a rapid split fluorescent reporter characterization platform, and establish a library of 15 mutually orthogonal split inteins for in vivo applications, 10 of which can be simultaneously used in vitro. We show that orthogonal split inteins can be coupled to multiple split transcription factors to implement complex logic circuits in living organisms, and that they can also be used for the in vitro seamless assembly of large repetitive proteins with biotechnological relevance. Our work demonstrates the versatility and vast potential of an expanded library of orthogonal split inteins for their use in the fields of synthetic biology and protein engineering.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Biblioteca Gênica , Inteínas/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Processamento de Proteína , Clonagem Molecular , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fluorescência , Genes Reporter/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Peptídeos , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transformação Bacteriana
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(8): 4139-4146, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232356

RESUMO

GoldenBraid is a rapid, modular, and robust cloning system used to assemble and combine genetic elements. Dictyostelium amoebae represent an intriguing synthetic biological chassis with tractable applications in development, chemotaxis, bacteria-host interactions, and allorecognition. We present GoldenBraid as a synthetic biological framework for Dictyostelium, including a library of 250 DNA parts and assemblies and a proof-of-concept strain that illustrates cAMP-chemotaxis with four fluorescent reporters coded by one plasmid.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Dictyostelium/genética , Quimiotaxia , AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Dictyostelium/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Biologia Sintética/métodos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1942, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327645

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a pivotal compound in marine biogeochemical cycles and a key chemical currency in microbial interactions. Marine bacteria transform DMSP via two competing pathways with considerably different biogeochemical implications: demethylation channels sulfur into the microbial food web, whereas cleavage releases sulfur into the atmosphere. Here, we present single-cell measurements of the expression of these two pathways using engineered fluorescent reporter strains of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, and find that external DMSP concentration dictates the relative expression of the two pathways. DMSP induces an upregulation of both pathways, but only at high concentrations (>1 µM for demethylation; >35 nM for cleavage), characteristic of microscale hotspots such as the vicinity of phytoplankton cells. Co-incubations between DMSP-producing microalgae and bacteria revealed an increase in cleavage pathway expression close to the microalgae's surface. These results indicate that bacterial utilization of microscale DMSP hotspots is an important determinant of the fate of sulfur in the ocean.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfônio/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Microalgas/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Análise de Célula Única , Compostos de Sulfônio/análise , Enxofre/análise , Transcrição Genética
19.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250362

RESUMO

Development of the vertebrate nervous system requires a precise coordination of complex cellular behaviors and interactions. The use of high resolution in vivo imaging techniques can provide a clear window into these processes in the living organism. For example, dividing cells and their progeny can be followed in real time as the nervous system forms. In recent years, technical advances in multicolor techniques have expanded the types of questions that can be investigated. The multicolor Brainbow approach can be used to not only distinguish among like cells, but also to color-code multiple different clones of related cells that each derive from one progenitor cell. This allows for a multiplex lineage analysis of many different clones and their behaviors simultaneously during development. Here we describe a technique for using time-lapse confocal microscopy to visualize large numbers of multicolor Brainbow-labeled cells over real time within the developing zebrafish nervous system. This is particularly useful for following cellular interactions among like cells, which are difficult to label differentially using traditional promoter-driven colors. Our approach can be used for tracking lineage relationships among multiple different clones simultaneously. The large datasets generated using this technique provide rich information that can be compared quantitatively across genetic or pharmacological manipulations. Ultimately the results generated can help to answer systematic questions about how the nervous system develops.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/embriologia , Microscopia Confocal , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Células Clonais , Cor , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134974

RESUMO

Rhabdoviruses are enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses that have numerous biotechnological applications. However, recovering plant rhabdoviruses from cDNA remains difficult due to technical difficulties such as the need for concurrent in planta expression of the viral genome together with the viral nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and viral genome instability in E. coli. Here, we developed a negative-sense minigenome cassette for Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV). We introduced introns into the unstable viral ORF and employed Agrobacterium tumefaciens to co-infiltrate Nicotiana with the genes for the N, P, and L proteins together with the minigenome cassette. The minigenome cassette included the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein gene (DsRed) cloned in the negative-sense between the viral trailer and leader sequences which were placed between hammerhead and hepatitis delta ribozymes. In planta DsRed expression was demonstrated by western blotting while the appropriate splicing of introduced introns was confirmed by sequencing of RT-PCR product.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Rhabdoviridae/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Virais , Íntrons , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Plasmídeos/genética , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/genética , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
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