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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5318, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087709

RESUMO

Synaptic vesicles (SVs) can be pooled across multiple synapses, prompting questions about their dynamic allocation for neurotransmission and plasticity. We find that the axonal traffic of recycling vesicles is not supported by ubiquitous microtubule-based motility but relies on actin instead. Vesicles freed from synaptic clusters undergo ~1 µm bouts of active transport, initiated by nearby elongation of actin filaments. Long distance translocation arises when successive bouts of active transport were linked by periods of free diffusion. The availability of SVs for active transport can be promptly increased by protein kinase A, a key player in neuromodulation. Vesicle motion is in turn impeded by shutting off axonal actin polymerization, mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling leading to inhibition of RhoA. These findings provide a potential framework for coordinating post-and pre-synaptic strength, using retrograde regulation of axonal actin dynamics to mobilize and recruit presynaptic SV resources.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Axonal/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Células Cultivadas , GMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Extremophiles ; 24(5): 773-785, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749548

RESUMO

Haloarchaea have evolved to thrive in hypersaline environments. Haloferax volcanii is of particular interest due to its genetic tractability; however, few in vivo reporters exist for halophiles. Haloarchaeal proteins evolved characteristics that promote proper folding and function at high salt concentrations, but many mesophilic reporter proteins lack these characteristics. Mesophilic proteins that acquire salt-stabilizing mutations, however, can lead to proper function in haloarchaea. Using laboratory-directed evolution, we developed and demonstrated an in vivo luciferase that functions in the hypersaline cytosol of H. volcanii.


Assuntos
Haloferax volcanii , Proteínas Luminescentes , Salinidade , Genes Reporter , Haloferax volcanii/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3834, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737309

RESUMO

The transcriptional inducer anhydrotetracycline (aTc) and the bacteriostatic antibiotic tetracycline (Tc) are commonly used in all fields of biology for control of transcription or translation. A drawback of these and other small molecule inducers is the difficulty of their removal from cell cultures, limiting their application for dynamic control. Here, we describe a simple method to overcome this limitation, and show that the natural photosensitivity of aTc/Tc can be exploited to turn them into highly predictable optogenetic transcriptional- and growth-regulators. This new optogenetic class uniquely features both dynamic and setpoint control which act via population-memory adjustable through opto-chemical modulation. We demonstrate this method by applying it for dynamic gene expression control and for enhancing the performance of an existing optogenetic system. We then expand the utility of the aTc system by constructing a new chemical bandpass filter that increases its aTc response range. The simplicity of our method enables scientists and biotechnologists to use their existing systems employing aTc/Tc for dynamic optogenetic experiments without genetic modification.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética/métodos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonagem Molecular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Fotólise , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857759

RESUMO

Poly(glycine-alanine) (polyGA) is one of the polydipeptides expressed in Frontotemporal Dementia and/or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 caused by C9ORF72 mutations and accumulates as inclusion bodies in the brain of patients. Superficially these inclusions are similar to those formed by polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded Huntingtin exon 1 (Httex1) in Huntington's disease. Both have been reported to form an amyloid-like structure suggesting they might aggregate via similar mechanisms and therefore recruit the same repertoire of endogenous proteins. When co-expressed in the same cell, polyGA101 and Httex1(Q97) inclusions adopted immiscible phases suggesting different endogenous proteins would be enriched. Proteomic analyses identified 822 proteins in the inclusions. Only 7 were specific to polyGA and 4 specific to Httex1(Q97). Quantitation demonstrated distinct enrichment patterns for the proteins not specific to each inclusion type (up to ~8-fold normalized to total mass). The proteasome, microtubules, TriC chaperones, and translational machinery were enriched in polyGA aggregates, whereas Dnaj chaperones, nuclear envelope and RNA splicing proteins were enriched in Httex1(Q97) aggregates. Both structures revealed a collection of folding and degradation machinery including proteins in the Httex1(Q97) aggregates that are risk factors for other neurodegenerative diseases involving protein aggregation when mutated, which suggests a convergence point in the pathomechanisms of these diseases.


Assuntos
Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Éxons , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/genética , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Peptídeos/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/patologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteólise , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Solubilidade
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000762, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760088

RESUMO

Centrosomes, the main microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) of metazoan cells, contain an older "mother" and a younger "daughter" centriole. Stem cells either inherit the mother or daughter-centriole-containing centrosome, providing a possible mechanism for biased delivery of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanisms regulating centrosome asymmetry and biased centrosome segregation are unclear. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and live-cell imaging, we show in fly neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that the mitotic kinase Polo and its centriolar protein substrate Centrobin (Cnb) accumulate on the daughter centriole during mitosis, thereby generating molecularly distinct mother and daughter centrioles before interphase. Cnb's asymmetric localization, potentially involving a direct relocalization mechanism, is regulated by Polo-mediated phosphorylation, whereas Polo's daughter centriole enrichment requires both Wdr62 and Cnb. Based on optogenetic protein mislocalization experiments, we propose that the establishment of centriole asymmetry in mitosis primes biased interphase MTOC activity, necessary for correct spindle orientation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Centríolos/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mitose , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Centríolos/ultraestrutura , Centrossomo/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Interfase , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4218, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839452

RESUMO

Exposure to social stress and dysregulated serotonergic neurotransmission have both been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. However, the serotonergic circuit involved in stress vulnerability is still unknown. Here, we explored whether a serotonergic input from the dorsal raphe (DR) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) influences vulnerability to social stress. We identified a distinct, anatomically and functionally defined serotonergic subpopulation in the DR that projects to the VTA (5-HTDR→VTA neurons). Moreover, we found that susceptibility to social stress decreased the firing activity of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons. Importantly, the bidirectional manipulation of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons could modulate susceptibility to social stress. Our findings reveal that the activity of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons may be an essential factor in determining individual levels of susceptibility to social stress and suggest that targeting specific serotonergic circuits may aid the development of therapies for the treatment of stress-related disorders.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/citologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
7.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(9): 939-945, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661377

RESUMO

Protein self-organization is a hallmark of biological systems. Although the physicochemical principles governing protein-protein interactions have long been known, the principles by which such nanoscale interactions generate diverse phenotypes of mesoscale assemblies, including phase-separated compartments, remain challenging to characterize. To illuminate such principles, we create a system of two proteins designed to interact and form mesh-like assemblies. We devise a new strategy to map high-resolution phase diagrams in living cells, which provide self-assembly signatures of this system. The structural modularity of the two protein components allows straightforward modification of their molecular properties, enabling us to characterize how interaction affinity impacts the phase diagram and material state of the assemblies in vivo. The phase diagrams and their dependence on interaction affinity were captured by theory and simulations, including out-of-equilibrium effects seen in growing cells. Finally, we find that cotranslational protein binding suffices to recruit a messenger RNA to the designed micron-scale structures.


Assuntos
Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Difusão , Escherichia coli/genética , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Transição de Fase , Mutação Puntual , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Viscosidade
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3444, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651384

RESUMO

Imaging membrane voltage from genetically defined cells offers the unique ability to report spatial and temporal dynamics of electrical signaling at cellular and circuit levels. Here, we present a general approach to engineer electrochromic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (eFRET) genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) with positive-going fluorescence response to membrane depolarization through rational manipulation of the native proton transport pathway in microbial rhodopsins. We transform the state-of-the-art eFRET GEVI Voltron into Positron, with kinetics and sensitivity equivalent to Voltron but flipped fluorescence signal polarity. We further apply this general approach to GEVIs containing different voltage sensitive rhodopsin domains and various fluorescent dye and fluorescent protein reporters.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurociências/métodos , Rodopsina/química , Rodopsina/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16313-16323, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601209

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxins are central to cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. They serve as peroxide scavengers, sensors, signal transducers, and chaperones, depending on conditions and context. Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins are known to switch between different oligomeric states, depending on redox state, pH, posttranslational modifications, and other factors. Quaternary states and their changes are closely connected to peroxiredoxin activity and function but so far have been studied, almost exclusively, outside the context of the living cell. Here we introduce the use of homo-FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer between identical fluorophores) fluorescence polarization to monitor dynamic changes in peroxiredoxin quaternary structure inside the crowded environment of living cells. Using the approach, we confirm peroxide- and thioredoxin-related quaternary transitions to take place in cellulo and observe that the relationship between dimer-decamer transitions and intersubunit disulfide bond formation is more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of the approach to compare different peroxiredoxin isoforms and to identify mutations and small molecules affecting the oligomeric state inside cells. Mutagenesis experiments reveal that the dimer-decamer equilibrium is delicately balanced and can be shifted by single-atom structural changes. We show how to use this insight to improve the design of peroxiredoxin-based redox biosensors.


Assuntos
Peroxirredoxinas/química , Linhagem Celular , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Mutação , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3306, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620754

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is selectively degraded by autophagy (ER-phagy) through proteins called ER-phagy receptors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Atg40 acts as an ER-phagy receptor to sequester ER fragments into autophagosomes by binding Atg8 on forming autophagosomal membranes. During ER-phagy, parts of the ER are morphologically rearranged, fragmented, and loaded into autophagosomes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we find that Atg40 molecules assemble in the ER membrane concurrently with autophagosome formation via multivalent interaction with Atg8. Atg8-mediated super-assembly of Atg40 generates highly-curved ER regions, depending on its reticulon-like domain, and supports packing of these regions into autophagosomes. Moreover, tight binding of Atg40 to Atg8 is achieved by a short helix C-terminal to the Atg8-family interacting motif, and this feature is also observed for mammalian ER-phagy receptors. Thus, this study significantly advances our understanding of the mechanisms of ER-phagy and also provides insights into organelle fragmentation in selective autophagy of other organelles.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/química , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/química , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
11.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597847

RESUMO

Studying the structure and the dynamics of kinetochores and centromeres is important in understanding chromosomal instability (CIN) and cancer progression. How the chromosomal location and function of a centromere (i.e., centromere identity) are determined and participate in accurate chromosome segregation is a fundamental question. CENP-A is proposed to be the non-DNA indicator (epigenetic mark) of centromere identity, and CENP-A ubiquitylation is required for CENP-A deposition at the centromere, inherited through dimerization between cell division, and indispensable to cell viability. Here we describe mass spectrometry analysis to identify ubiquitylation of EYFP-CENP-A K124R mutant suggesting that ubiquitylation at a different lysine is induced because of the EYFP tagging in the CENP-A K124R mutant protein. Lysine 306 (K306) ubiquitylation in EYFP-CENP-A K124R was successfully identified, which corresponds to lysine 56 (K56) in CENP-A through mass spectrometry analysis. A caveat is discussed in the use of GFP/EYFP or the tagging of high molecular weight protein as a tool to analyze the function of a protein. Current technical limit is also discussed for the detection of ubiquitylated bands, identification of site-specific ubiquitylation(s), and visualization of ubiquitylation in living cells or a specific single cell during the whole cell cycle. The method of mass spectrometry analysis presented here can be applied to human CENP-A protein with different tags and other centromere-kinetochore proteins. These combinatory methods consisting of several assays/analyses could be recommended for researchers who are interested in identifying functional roles of ubiquitylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteína Centromérica A/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Sobrevivência Celular , Centrômero , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2729, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483166

RESUMO

Aggregation and spreading of α-Synuclein (αSyn) are hallmarks of several neurodegenerative diseases, thus monitoring human αSyn (hαSyn) in animal models or cell cultures is vital for the field. However, the detection of native hαSyn in such systems is challenging. We show that the nanobody NbSyn87, previously-described to bind hαSyn, also shows cross-reactivity for the proteasomal subunit Rpn10. As such, when the NbSyn87 is expressed in the absence of hαSyn, it is continuously degraded by the proteasome, while it is stabilized when it binds to hαSyn. Here, we exploit this feature to design a new Fluorescent Reporter for hαSyn (FluoReSyn) by fusing NbSyn87 to fluorescent proteins, which results in fluorescence signal fluctuations depending on the presence and amounts of intracellular hαSyn. We characterize this biosensor in cells and tissues to finally reveal the presence of transmittable αSyn in human cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating the potential of FluoReSyn for clinical research and diagnostics.


Assuntos
Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citosol/química , Feminino , Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/líquido cefalorraquidiano , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511278

RESUMO

The autophagy-endolysosomal pathway is an evolutionally conserved degradation system that is tightly linked to a wide variety of physiological processes. Dysfunction of this system is associated with many pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, monitoring the cellular autophagy-endolysosomal activity is crucial for studies on the pathogenesis as well as therapeutics of such disorders. To this end, we here sought to create a novel means exploiting Keima, an acid-stable fluorescent protein possessing pH-dependent fluorescence excitation spectra, for precisely monitoring the autophagy-endolysosomal system. First, we generated three lines of transgenic (tg) mouse expressing monomeric Keima-fused MAP1LC3B (mKeima-LC3B). Then, these tg mice were subjected to starvation by food-restriction, and also challenged to neurodegeneration by genetically crossing with a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; i.e., SOD1H46R transgenic mouse. Unexpectedly, despite that a lipidated-form of endogenous LC3 (LC3-II) was significantly increased, those of mKeima-LC3B (mKeima-LC3B-II) were not changed under both stressed conditions. It was also noted that mKeima-LC3B-positive aggregates were progressively accumulated in the spinal cord of SOD1H46R;mKeima-LC3B double-tg mice, suggestive of acid-resistance and aggregate-prone natures of long-term overexpressed mKeima-LC3B in vivo. Next, we characterized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mKeima-LC3B-tg mice. In contrast with in vivo, levels of mKeima-LC3B-I were decreased under starved conditions. Furthermore, when starved MEFs were treated with chloroquine (CQ), the abundance of mKeima-LC3B-II was significantly increased. Remarkably, when cultured medium was repeatedly changed between DMEM (nutrient-rich) and EBSS (starvation), acidic/neutral signal ratios of mKeima-LC3B-positive compartments were rapidly and reversibly shifted, which were suppressed by the CQ treatment, indicating that intraluminal pH of mKeima-LC3B-positive vesicles was changeable upon nutritional conditions of culture media. Taken together, although mKeima-LC3B-tg mice may not be an appropriate tool to monitor the autophagy-endolysosomal system in vivo, mKeima-LC3B must be one of the most sensitive reporter molecules for monitoring this system under in vitro cultured conditions.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Endossomos/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Lisossomos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Inanição , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1060-1068, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597057

RESUMO

Fluorescent proteins can be used as probes to investigate intercellular molecular interactions and trace the pathway of specific metabolites, thus providing a detailed and accurate description of various metabolic processes and cellular pathways in living cells. Nowadays, the existing fluorescent proteins cover almost all spectral bands from ultraviolet to far-red. These fluorescent proteins have been applied in many fields of bioscience with the help of high-resolution microscopy, making great contributions to the development of biology. It is generally agreed that orange fluorescent proteins refer to the fluorescent proteins at the spectral range of 540-570 nm. In recent years, researches on orange fluorescent proteins have made great progress, and they have been widely applied in the field of biology and medicine as reporter protein and fluorescence resonance energy transfer as fluorescent receptor. This paper reviews the studies in the field of orange fluorescent proteins over the last 15 years, with the special focus on the development and application of orange fluorescent proteins to provide the basis for the future studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteínas Luminescentes , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Pesquisa/tendências
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3238, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591540

RESUMO

The challenge of monitoring in planta dynamic changes of NADP(H) and NAD(H) redox states at the subcellular level is considered a major obstacle in plant bioenergetics studies. Here, we introduced two circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein sensors, iNAP and SoNar, into Arabidopsis thaliana to monitor the dynamic changes in NADPH and the NADH/NAD+ ratio. In the light, photosynthesis and photorespiration are linked to the redox states of NAD(P)H and NAD(P) pools in several subcellular compartments connected by the malate-OAA shuttles. We show that the photosynthetic increases in stromal NADPH and NADH/NAD+ ratio, but not ATP, disappear when glycine decarboxylation is inhibited. These observations highlight the complex interplay between chloroplasts and mitochondria during photosynthesis and support the suggestions that, under normal conditions, photorespiration supplies a large amount of NADH to mitochondria, exceeding its NADH-dissipating capacity, and the surplus NADH is exported from the mitochondria to the cytosol through the malate-OAA shuttle.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Respiração Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Malatos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 16019-16026, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576684

RESUMO

The intracellular redox state is one of the key factors regulating various physiological phenomena in the cell. Monitoring this state is therefore important for understanding physiological homeostasis in cells. Various fluorescent sensor proteins have already been developed to monitor intracellular redox state. We also developed fluorescent redox sensor proteins named Oba-Q and Re-Q, the emissions of which are quenched under oxidized and reduced conditions, respectively. Although these sensors were useful to visualize the redox changes in the cell over time, they have the weakness that their emission signals are directly influenced by their in situ expression levels. To overcome this problem, we developed a redox sensor protein with a single excitation peak and dual variable emission peaks. This sensor protein shows green emission under oxidized conditions and blue emission under reduced conditions. We therefore named this sensor FROG/B, fluorescent protein with redox-dependent change in green/blue. By using this sensor, we successfully measured the changes in intracellular redox potentials in cyanobacterial cells quantitatively caused by light/dark transition just by calculating the ratio of emission between green and blue signals.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Anabaena , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Oxirredução
17.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597843

RESUMO

Proteins are synthesized and degraded constantly within a cell to maintain homeostasis. Being able to monitor the degradation of a protein of interest is key to understanding not only its life cycle, but also to uncover imbalances in the proteostasis network. This method shows how to track the degradation of the disease-causing protein huntingtin. Two versions of huntingtin fused to Dendra2 are expressed in the C. elegans nervous system: a physiological version or one with an expanded and pathogenic stretch of glutamines. Dendra2 is a photoconvertible fluorescent protein; upon a short ultraviolet (UV) irradiation pulse, Dendra2 switches its excitation/emission spectra from green to red. Similar to a pulse-chase experiment, the turnover of the converted red-Dendra2 can be monitored and quantified, regardless of the interference from newly synthesized green-Dendra2. Using confocal-based microscopy and due to the optical transparency of C. elegans, it is possible to monitor and quantify the degradation of huntingtin-Dendra2 in a living, aging organism. Neuronal huntingtin-Dendra2 is partially degraded soon after conversion and cleared further over time. The systems controlling degradation are deficient in the presence of mutant huntingtin and are further impaired with aging. Neuronal subtypes within the same nervous system exhibit different turnover capacities for huntingtin-Dendra2. Overall, monitoring any protein of interest fused to Dendra2 can provide important information not only on its degradation and the players of the proteostasis network involved, but also on its location, trafficking, and transport.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3123, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561740

RESUMO

Intracellular trafficking of organelles, driven by kinesin-1 stepping along microtubules, underpins essential cellular processes. In absence of other proteins on the microtubule surface, kinesin-1 performs micron-long runs. Under crowding conditions, however, kinesin-1 motility is drastically impeded. It is thus unclear how kinesin-1 acts as an efficient transporter in intracellular environments. Here, we demonstrate that TRAK1 (Milton), an adaptor protein essential for mitochondrial trafficking, activates kinesin-1 and increases robustness of kinesin-1 stepping on crowded microtubule surfaces. Interaction with TRAK1 i) facilitates kinesin-1 navigation around obstacles, ii) increases the probability of kinesin-1 passing through cohesive islands of tau and iii) increases the run length of kinesin-1 in cell lysate. We explain the enhanced motility by the observed direct interaction of TRAK1 with microtubules, providing an additional anchor for the kinesin-1-TRAK1 complex. Furthermore, TRAK1 enables mitochondrial transport in vitro. We propose adaptor-mediated tethering as a mechanism regulating kinesin-1 motility in various cellular environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555627

RESUMO

Fluorescent proteins that modulate their emission intensities when protonated serve as excellent probes of the cytosolic pH. Since the total fluorescence output fluctuates significantly due to variations in the fluorophore levels in cells, eliminating the dependence of the signal on protein concentration is crucial. This is typically accomplished with the aid of ratiometric fluorescent proteins such as pHluorin. However, pHluorin is excited by blue light, which can complicate pH measurements by adversely impacting bacterial physiology. Here, we characterized the response of intensity-based, pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins that excite at longer wavelengths where the blue light effect is diminished. The pH-response was interpreted in terms of an analytical model that assumed two emission states for each fluorophore: a low intensity protonated state and a high intensity deprotonated state. The model suggested a scaling to eliminate the dependence of the signal on the expression levels as well as on the illumination and photon-detection settings. Experiments successfully confirmed the scaling predictions. Thus, the internal pH can be readily determined with intensity-based fluorophores with appropriate calibrations irrespective of the fluorophore concentration and the signal acquisition setup. The framework developed in this work improves the robustness of intensity-based fluorophores for internal pH measurements in E. coli, potentially extending their applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2184, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366843

RESUMO

Roughly 10% of eukaryotic transmembrane proteins are found on the nuclear membrane, yet how such proteins target and translocate to the nucleus remains in dispute. Most models propose transport through the nuclear pore complexes, but a central outstanding question is whether transit occurs through their central or peripheral channels. Using live-cell high-speed super-resolution single-molecule microscopy we could distinguish protein translocation through the central and peripheral channels, finding that most inner nuclear membrane proteins use only the peripheral channels, but some apparently extend intrinsically disordered domains containing nuclear localization signals into the central channel for directed nuclear transport. These nucleoplasmic signals are critical for central channel transport as their mutation blocks use of the central channels; however, the mutated proteins can still complete their translocation using only the peripheral channels, albeit at a reduced rate. Such proteins can still translocate using only the peripheral channels when central channel is blocked, but blocking the peripheral channels blocks translocation through both channels. This suggests that peripheral channel transport is the default mechanism that was adapted in evolution to include aspects of receptor-mediated central channel transport for directed trafficking of certain membrane proteins.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
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