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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008854, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956405

RESUMO

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised patient populations. Mortality is thought to be context-specific and occurs via both enhanced fungal growth and immunopathogenesis. NLRX1 is a negative regulator of immune signaling and metabolic pathways implicated in host responses to microbes, cancers, and autoimmune diseases. Our study indicates loss of Nlrx1 results in enhanced fungal burden, pulmonary inflammation, immune cell recruitment, and mortality across immuno-suppressed and immuno-competent models of IPA using two clinically derived isolates (AF293, CEA10). We observed that the heightened mortality is due to enhanced recruitment of CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) that produce elevated amounts of IL-4 resulting in a detrimental Th2-mediated immune response. Adoptive transfer of Nlrx1-/- CD103+ DCs in neutropenic NRG mice results in enhanced mortality that can be ablated using IL-4 neutralizing antibodies. In vitro analysis of CD103+ DCs indicates loss of Nlrx1 results in enhanced IL-4 production via elevated activation of the JNK/JunB pathways. Interestingly, loss of Nlrx1 also results in enhanced recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils. Chimeras of irradiated Nlrx1-/- mice reconstituted with wild type bone marrow have enhanced neutrophil recruitment and survival during models of IPA. This enhanced immune cell recruitment in the absence of Nlrx1 is mediated by excessive production of CXCL8/IL-8 family of chemokines and IL-6 via early and enhanced activation of P38 in response to A. fumigatus conidia as shown in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. In summary, our results point strongly towards the cell-specific and contextual function of Nlrx1 during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and may lead to novel therapeutics to reduce Th2 responses by CD103+ DCs or heightened recruitment of neutrophils.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/imunologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/genética , Aspergilose Pulmonar/patologia , Células Th2/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4589, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917887

RESUMO

Mandibuloacral dysplasia syndromes are mainly due to recessive LMNA or ZMPSTE24 mutations, with cardinal nuclear morphological abnormalities and dysfunction. We report five homozygous null mutations in MTX2, encoding Metaxin-2 (MTX2), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, in patients presenting with a severe laminopathy-like mandibuloacral dysplasia characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis and severe hypertension. Loss of MTX2 in patients' primary fibroblasts leads to loss of Metaxin-1 (MTX1) and mitochondrial dysfunction, including network fragmentation and oxidative phosphorylation impairment. Furthermore, patients' fibroblasts are resistant to induced apoptosis, leading to increased cell senescence and mitophagy and reduced proliferation. Interestingly, secondary nuclear morphological defects are observed in both MTX2-mutant fibroblasts and mtx-2-depleted C. elegans. We thus report the identification of a severe premature aging syndrome revealing an unsuspected link between mitochondrial composition and function and nuclear morphology, establishing a pathophysiological link with premature aging laminopathies and likely explaining common clinical features.


Assuntos
Acro-Osteólise/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Lipodistrofia/metabolismo , Mandíbula/anormalidades , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Acro-Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Acro-Osteólise/genética , Acro-Osteólise/patologia , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lipodistrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipodistrofia/genética , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Metaloendopeptidases , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pele , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4416, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887881

RESUMO

Despite the clear association between myocardial injury, heart failure and depressed myocardial energetics, little is known about upstream signals responsible for remodeling myocardial metabolism after pathological stress. Here, we report increased mitochondrial calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation and left ventricular dilation in mice one week after myocardial infarction (MI) surgery. By contrast, mice with genetic mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition are protected from left ventricular dilation and dysfunction after MI. Mice with myocardial and mitochondrial CaMKII overexpression (mtCaMKII) have severe dilated cardiomyopathy and decreased ATP that causes elevated cytoplasmic resting (diastolic) Ca2+ concentration and reduced mechanical performance. We map a metabolic pathway that rescues disease phenotypes in mtCaMKII mice, providing insights into physiological and pathological metabolic consequences of CaMKII signaling in mitochondria. Our findings suggest myocardial dilation, a disease phenotype lacking specific therapies, can be prevented by targeted replacement of mitochondrial creatine kinase or mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 1051-1065.e10, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877643

RESUMO

Mitochondria contain their own gene expression systems, including membrane-bound ribosomes dedicated to synthesizing a few hydrophobic subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. We used a proximity-dependent biotinylation technique, BioID, coupled with mass spectrometry to delineate in baker's yeast a comprehensive network of factors involved in biogenesis of mitochondrial encoded proteins. This mitochondrial gene expression network (MiGENet) encompasses proteins involved in transcription, RNA processing, translation, or protein biogenesis. Our analyses indicate the spatial organization of these processes, thereby revealing basic mechanistic principles and the proteins populating strategically important sites. For example, newly synthesized proteins are directly handed over to ribosomal tunnel exit-bound factors that mediate membrane insertion, co-factor acquisition, or their mounting into OXPHOS complexes in a special early assembly hub. Collectively, the data reveal the connectivity of mitochondrial gene expression, reflecting a unique tailoring of the mitochondrial gene expression system.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4471, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901010

RESUMO

A human cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) packaged into nucleoids. Currently, the segregation and allocation of nucleoids are thought to be passively determined by mitochondrial fusion and division. Here we provide evidence, using live-cell super-resolution imaging, that nucleoids can be actively transported via KIF5B-driven mitochondrial dynamic tubulation (MDT) activities that predominantly occur at the ER-mitochondria contact sites (EMCS). We further demonstrate that a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex MICOS links nucleoids to Miro1, a KIF5B receptor on mitochondria, at the EMCS. We show that such active transportation is a mechanism essential for the proper distribution of nucleoids in the peripheral zone of the cell. Together, our work identifies an active transportation mechanism of nucleoids, with EMCS serving as a key platform for the interplay of nucleoids, MICOS, Miro1, and KIF5B to coordinate nucleoids segregation and transportation.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Células COS , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transfecção , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008923, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735630

RESUMO

Mitochondrial translation defects can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial- or nuclear-encoded components. The number of known nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial translation has significantly increased in the past years. RCC1L (WBSCR16), a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor, has recently been described to interact with the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit. In humans, three different RCC1L isoforms have been identified that originate from alternative splicing but share the same N-terminus, RCC1LV1, RCC1LV2 and RCC1LV3. All three isoforms were exclusively localized to mitochondria, interacted with its inner membrane and could associate with homopolymeric oligos to different extent. Mitochondrial immunoprecipitation experiments showed that RCC1LV1 and RCC1LV3 associated with the mitochondrial large and small ribosomal subunit, respectively, while no significant association was observed for RCC1LV2. Overexpression and silencing of RCC1LV1 or RCC1LV3 led to mitoribosome biogenesis defects that resulted in decreased translation. Indeed, significant changes in steady-state levels and distribution on isokinetic sucrose gradients were detected not only for mitoribosome proteins but also for GTPases, (GTPBP10, ERAL1 and C4orf14), and pseudouridylation proteins, (TRUB2, RPUSD3 and RPUSD4). All in all, our data suggest that RCC1L is essential for mitochondrial function and that the coordination of at least two isoforms is essential for proper ribosomal assembly.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
7.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1230513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821283

RESUMO

Background: As a multifaceted disease, atherosclerosis is often characterized by the formation and accumulation of plaque anchored to the inner wall of the arteries and causes some cardiovascular diseases and vascular embolism. Numerous studies have reported on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, fewer studies focused on both genes and immune cells, and the correlation of genes and immune cells was evaluated via comprehensive bioinformatics analyses. Methods: 29 samples of atherosclerosis-related gene expression profiling, including 16 human advanced atherosclerosis plaque (AA) and 13 human early atherosclerosis plaque (EA) samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, were analyzed to get differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the construction of protein and protein interaction (PPI) networks. Besides, we detected the relative fraction of 22 immune cell types in atherosclerosis by using the deconvolution algorithm of "cell type identification by estimating relative subsets of RNA transcripts (CIBERSORT)." Ultimately, based on the significantly changed types of immune cells, we executed the correlation analysis between DEGs and immune cells to discover the potential genes and pathways associated with immune cells. Results: We identified 17 module genes and 6 types of significantly changed immune cells. Correlation analysis showed that the relative percentage of T cell CD8 has negative correlation with the C1QB expression (R = -0.63, p = 0.02), and the relative percentage of macrophage M2 has positive correlation with the CD86 expression (R = 0.57, p = 0.041) in EA. Meanwhile, four gene expressions (CD53, C1QC, NCF2, and ITGAM) have a high correlation with the percentages of T cell CD8 and macrophages (M0 and M2) in AA samples. Conclusions: In this study, we suggested that the progression of atherosclerosis might be related to CD86, C1QB, CD53, C1QC, NCF2, and ITGAM and that it plays a role in regulating immune-competent cells such as T cell CD8 and macrophages M0 and M2. These results will enable studies of the potential genes associated with immune cells in the progression of atherosclerosis, as well as provide insight for discovering new treatments and drugs.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Macrófagos/imunologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Transcriptoma , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno CD11b/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Fenótipo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Tetraspanina 25/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4281, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855416

RESUMO

Controlling efficiency and fidelity in the early stage of mitochondrial DNA transcription is crucial for regulating cellular energy metabolism. Conformational transitions of the transcription initiation complex must be central for such control, but how the conformational dynamics progress throughout transcription initiation remains unknown. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques to examine the conformational dynamics of the transcriptional system of yeast mitochondria with single-base resolution. We show that the yeast mitochondrial transcriptional complex dynamically transitions among closed, open, and scrunched states throughout the initiation stage. Then abruptly at position +8, the dynamic states of initiation make a sharp irreversible transition to an unbent conformation with associated promoter release. Remarkably, stalled initiation complexes remain in dynamic scrunching and unscrunching states without dissociating the RNA transcript, implying the existence of backtracking transitions with possible regulatory roles. The dynamic landscape of transcription initiation suggests a kinetically driven regulation of mitochondrial transcription.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina , DNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3830, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737313

RESUMO

The mammalian mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) and its associated translational factors have evolved to accommodate greater participation of proteins in mitochondrial translation. Here we present the 2.68-3.96 Å cryo-EM structures of the human 55S mitoribosome in complex with the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1mt) in three distinct conformational states, including an intermediate state and a post-translocational state. These structures reveal the role of several mitochondria-specific (mito-specific) mitoribosomal proteins (MRPs) and a mito-specific segment of EF-G1mt in mitochondrial tRNA (tRNAmt) translocation. In particular, the mito-specific C-terminal extension in EF-G1mt is directly involved in translocation of the acceptor arm of the A-site tRNAmt. In addition to the ratchet-like and independent head-swiveling motions exhibited by the small mitoribosomal subunit, we discover significant conformational changes in MRP mL45 at the nascent polypeptide-exit site within the large mitoribosomal subunit that could be critical for tethering of the elongating mitoribosome onto the inner-mitochondrial membrane.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/química , RNA Mitocondrial/química , RNA de Transferência/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
10.
Nature ; 585(7824): 288-292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641834

RESUMO

The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is necessary for tumour growth1-6 and its inhibition has demonstrated anti-tumour efficacy in combination with targeted therapies7-9. Furthermore, human brain and lung tumours display robust glucose oxidation by mitochondria10,11. However, it is unclear why a functional ETC is necessary for tumour growth in vivo. ETC function is coupled to the generation of ATP-that is, oxidative phosphorylation and the production of metabolites by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Mitochondrial complexes I and II donate electrons to ubiquinone, resulting in the generation of ubiquinol and the regeneration of the NAD+ and FAD cofactors, and complex III oxidizes ubiquinol back to ubiquinone, which also serves as an electron acceptor for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-an enzyme necessary for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Here we show impaired tumour growth in cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III. This phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX)12, which also oxidizes ubiquinol to ubiquinone. Loss of mitochondrial complex I, II or DHODH diminished the tumour growth of AOX-expressing cancer cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III, which highlights the necessity of ubiquinone as an electron acceptor for tumour growth. Cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III but can regenerate NAD+ by expression of the NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX)13 targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol were still unable to grow tumours. This suggests that regeneration of NAD+ is not sufficient to drive tumour growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that tumour growth requires the ETC to oxidize ubiquinol, which is essential to drive the oxidative TCA cycle and DHODH activity.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciona intestinalis/enzimologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649732

RESUMO

Gene editing in large animal models for future applications in translational medicine and food production must be deeply investigated for an increase of knowledge. The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a member of the HMGB subfamily that binds to mtDNA promoters. This gene maintains mtDNA, and it is essential for the initiation of mtDNA transcription. Lately, we generated a new cell line through the disruption of the TFAM gene in bovine fibroblast cells by CRISPR/Cas 9 technology. We showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 design was efficient through the generation of heterozygous mutant clones. In this context, once this gene regulates the mtDNA replication specificity, the study aimed to determine if the post-edited cells are capable of in vitro maintenance and assess if they present changes in mtDNA copies and mitochondrial membrane potential after successive passages in culture. The post-edited cells were expanded in culture, and we performed a growth curve, doubling time, cell viability, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. The editing process did not make cell culture unfeasible, even though cell growth rate and viability were decreased compared to control since we observed the cells grow well when cultured in a medium supplemented with uridine and pyruvate. They also exhibited a classical fibroblastoid appearance. The RT-qPCR to determine the mtDNA copy number showed a decrease in the edited clones compared to the non-edited ones (control) in different cell passages. Cell staining with Mitotracker Green and red suggests a reduction in red fluorescence in the edited cells compared to the non-edited cells. Thus, through characterization, we demonstrated that the TFAM gene is critical to mitochondrial maintenance due to its interference in the stability of the mitochondrial DNA copy number in different cell passages and membrane potential confirming the decrease in mitochondrial activity in cells edited in heterozygosis.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Edição de Genes , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Replicação do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Mitocôndrias/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3360, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620763

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the next major health epidemic with an estimated 25% worldwide prevalence. No drugs have yet been approved and NAFLD remains a major unmet need. Here, we identify MCJ (Methylation-Controlled J protein) as a target for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced phase of NAFLD. MCJ is an endogenous negative regulator of the respiratory chain Complex I that acts to restrain mitochondrial respiration. We show that therapeutic targeting of MCJ in the liver with nanoparticle- and GalNAc-formulated siRNA efficiently reduces liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis in multiple NASH mouse models. Decreasing MCJ expression enhances the capacity of hepatocytes to mediate ß-oxidation of fatty acids and minimizes lipid accumulation, which results in reduced hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. Moreover, MCJ levels in the liver of NAFLD patients are elevated relative to healthy subjects. Thus, inhibition of MCJ emerges as an alternative approach to treat NAFLD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA-Seq
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 364-373, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707086

RESUMO

We report bi-allelic pathogenic HPDL variants as a cause of a progressive, pediatric-onset spastic movement disorder with variable clinical presentation. The single-exon gene HPDL encodes a protein of unknown function with sequence similarity to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Exome sequencing studies in 13 families revealed bi-allelic HPDL variants in each of the 17 individuals affected with this clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive neurological disorder. HPDL levels were significantly reduced in fibroblast cell lines derived from more severely affected individuals, indicating the identified HPDL variants resulted in the loss of HPDL protein. Clinical presentation ranged from severe, neonatal-onset neurodevelopmental delay with neuroimaging findings resembling mitochondrial encephalopathy to milder manifestation of adolescent-onset, isolated hereditary spastic paraplegia. All affected individuals developed spasticity predominantly of the lower limbs over the course of the disease. We demonstrated through bioinformatic and cellular studies that HPDL has a mitochondrial localization signal and consequently localizes to mitochondria suggesting a putative role in mitochondrial metabolism. Taken together, these genetic, bioinformatic, and functional studies demonstrate HPDL is a mitochondrial protein, the loss of which causes a clinically variable form of pediatric-onset spastic movement disorder.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15763-15771, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571938

RESUMO

HIV-1 latency is a major barrier to cure. Identification of small molecules that destabilize latency and allow immune clearance of infected cells could lead to treatment-free remission. In vitro models of HIV-1 latency involving cell lines or primary cells have been developed for characterization of HIV-1 latency and high-throughput screening for latency-reversing agents (LRAs). We have shown that the majority of LRAs identified to date are relatively ineffective in cells from infected individuals despite activity in model systems. We show here that, for diverse LRAs, latency reversal observed in model systems involves a heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated stress pathway. Small-molecule inhibition of HSF1 attenuated HIV-1 latency reversal by histone deactylase inhibitors, protein kinase C agonists, and proteasome inhibitors without interfering with the known mechanism of action of these LRAs. However, latency reversal by second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetics was not affected by inhibition of HSF1. In cells from infected individuals, inhibition of HSF1 attenuated latency reversal by phorbol ester+ionomycin but not by anti-CD3+anti-CD28. HSF1 promotes elongation of HIV-1 RNA by recruiting P-TEFb to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), and we show that inhibition of HSF1 attenuates the formation of elongated HIV-1 transcripts. We demonstrate that in vitro models of latency have higher levels of the P-TEFb subunit cyclin T1 than primary cells, which may explain why many LRAs are functional in model systems but relatively ineffective in primary cells. Together, these studies provide insights into why particular LRA combinations are effective in reversing latency in cells from infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Latência Viral/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Ciclina T/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/genética , Proteína Quinase C/genética , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Ativação Viral/genética
16.
Life Sci ; 256: 117965, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have proved that physical activity (PA) regulates energetic metabolism associated with mitochondrial dynamics through AMPK activation in healthy subjects. Obesity, a condition that induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low AMPK activity leads to mitochondrial fragmentation. However, few studies describe the effect of PA on mitochondrial dynamics regulation in obesity. AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single session of PA on mitochondrial dynamics regulation as well as its effect on mitochondrial function and organization in skeletal muscles of obese rats (Zucker fa/fa). MAIN METHODS: Male Zucker lean and Zucker fa/fa rats aged 12 to 13 weeks were divided into sedentary and subjected-to-PA (single session swimming) groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was dissected into isolated fibers, mitochondria, mRNA, and total proteins for their evaluation. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that PA increased the Mfn-2 protein level in the lean and obese groups, whereas Drp1 levels decreased in the obese group. OMA1 protease levels increased in the lean group and decreased in the obese group. Additionally, AMPK analysis parameters (expression, protein level, and activity) did not increase in the obese group. These findings correlated with the partial restoration of mitochondrial function in the obese group, increasing the capacity to maintain the membrane potential after adding calcium as a stressor, and increasing the transversal organization level of the mitochondria analyzed in isolated fibers. SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the notion that obese rats subjected to PA maintain mitochondrial function through mitochondrial fusion activation by an AMPK-independent mechanism.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosforilação , Ratos Zucker
17.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 575-587.e7, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589965

RESUMO

eIF3, a multi-subunit complex with numerous functions in canonical translation initiation, is known to interact with 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins and translation elongation factors, but a direct involvement in translation elongation has never been demonstrated. We found that eIF3 deficiency reduced early ribosomal elongation speed between codons 25 and 75 on a set of ∼2,700 mRNAs encoding proteins associated with mitochondrial and membrane functions, resulting in defective synthesis of their encoded proteins. To promote elongation, eIF3 interacts with 80S ribosomes translating the first ∼60 codons and serves to recruit protein quality-control factors, functions required for normal mitochondrial physiology. Accordingly, eIF3e+/- mice accumulate defective mitochondria in skeletal muscle and show a progressive decline in muscle strength. Hence, eIF3 interacts with 80S ribosomes to enhance, at the level of early elongation, the synthesis of proteins with membrane-associated functions, an activity that is critical for mitochondrial physiology and muscle health.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo
19.
Hum Genet ; 139(10): 1325-1343, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399598

RESUMO

Perrault syndrome is a rare heterogeneous condition characterised by sensorineural hearing loss and premature ovarian insufficiency. Additional neuromuscular pathology is observed in some patients. There are six genes in which variants are known to cause Perrault syndrome; however, these explain only a minority of cases. We investigated the genetic cause of Perrault syndrome in seven affected individuals from five different families, successfully identifying the cause in four patients. This included previously reported and novel causative variants in known Perrault syndrome genes, CLPP and LARS2, involved in mitochondrial proteolysis and mitochondrial translation, respectively. For the first time, we show that pathogenic variants in PEX6 can present clinically as Perrault syndrome. PEX6 encodes a peroxisomal biogenesis factor, and we demonstrate evidence of peroxisomal dysfunction in patient serum. This study consolidates the clinical overlap between Perrault syndrome and peroxisomal disorders, and highlights the need to consider ovarian function in individuals with atypical/mild peroxisomal disorders. The remaining patients had variants in candidate genes such as TFAM, involved in mtDNA transcription, replication, and packaging, and GGPS1 involved in mevalonate/coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis and whose enzymatic product is required for mouse folliculogenesis. This genomic study highlights the diverse molecular landscape of this poorly understood syndrome.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/genética , Endopeptidase Clp/genética , Farnesiltranstransferase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Geraniltranstransferase/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/diagnóstico , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/patologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Linhagem , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/patologia
20.
Science ; 368(6497): 1371-1376, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439659

RESUMO

The effect of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. In this work, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria owing to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result in premature death. T cell metabolic failure induces the accumulation of circulating cytokines, which resembles the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of aging ("inflammaging"). This cytokine storm itself acts as a systemic inducer of senescence. Blocking tumor necrosis factor-α signaling or preventing senescence with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide precursors partially rescues premature aging in mice with Tfam-deficient T cells. Thus, T cells can regulate organismal fitness and life span, which highlights the importance of tight immunometabolic control in both aging and the onset of age-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/deficiência , Multimorbidade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/prevenção & controle , Animais , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Longevidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , NAD/administração & dosagem , NAD/farmacologia , Aptidão Física , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
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