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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4471, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901010

RESUMO

A human cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) packaged into nucleoids. Currently, the segregation and allocation of nucleoids are thought to be passively determined by mitochondrial fusion and division. Here we provide evidence, using live-cell super-resolution imaging, that nucleoids can be actively transported via KIF5B-driven mitochondrial dynamic tubulation (MDT) activities that predominantly occur at the ER-mitochondria contact sites (EMCS). We further demonstrate that a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex MICOS links nucleoids to Miro1, a KIF5B receptor on mitochondria, at the EMCS. We show that such active transportation is a mechanism essential for the proper distribution of nucleoids in the peripheral zone of the cell. Together, our work identifies an active transportation mechanism of nucleoids, with EMCS serving as a key platform for the interplay of nucleoids, MICOS, Miro1, and KIF5B to coordinate nucleoids segregation and transportation.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Células COS , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transfecção , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4416, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887881

RESUMO

Despite the clear association between myocardial injury, heart failure and depressed myocardial energetics, little is known about upstream signals responsible for remodeling myocardial metabolism after pathological stress. Here, we report increased mitochondrial calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation and left ventricular dilation in mice one week after myocardial infarction (MI) surgery. By contrast, mice with genetic mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition are protected from left ventricular dilation and dysfunction after MI. Mice with myocardial and mitochondrial CaMKII overexpression (mtCaMKII) have severe dilated cardiomyopathy and decreased ATP that causes elevated cytoplasmic resting (diastolic) Ca2+ concentration and reduced mechanical performance. We map a metabolic pathway that rescues disease phenotypes in mtCaMKII mice, providing insights into physiological and pathological metabolic consequences of CaMKII signaling in mitochondria. Our findings suggest myocardial dilation, a disease phenotype lacking specific therapies, can be prevented by targeted replacement of mitochondrial creatine kinase or mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4589, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917887

RESUMO

Mandibuloacral dysplasia syndromes are mainly due to recessive LMNA or ZMPSTE24 mutations, with cardinal nuclear morphological abnormalities and dysfunction. We report five homozygous null mutations in MTX2, encoding Metaxin-2 (MTX2), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, in patients presenting with a severe laminopathy-like mandibuloacral dysplasia characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis and severe hypertension. Loss of MTX2 in patients' primary fibroblasts leads to loss of Metaxin-1 (MTX1) and mitochondrial dysfunction, including network fragmentation and oxidative phosphorylation impairment. Furthermore, patients' fibroblasts are resistant to induced apoptosis, leading to increased cell senescence and mitophagy and reduced proliferation. Interestingly, secondary nuclear morphological defects are observed in both MTX2-mutant fibroblasts and mtx-2-depleted C. elegans. We thus report the identification of a severe premature aging syndrome revealing an unsuspected link between mitochondrial composition and function and nuclear morphology, establishing a pathophysiological link with premature aging laminopathies and likely explaining common clinical features.


Assuntos
Acro-Osteólise/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Lipodistrofia/metabolismo , Mandíbula/anormalidades , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Acro-Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Acro-Osteólise/genética , Acro-Osteólise/patologia , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lipodistrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipodistrofia/genética , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Metaloendopeptidases , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pele , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4866, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978391

RESUMO

Mitochondria house evolutionarily conserved pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism that drive cellular energy production. Mitochondrial bioenergetics is regulated by calcium uptake through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), a multi-protein complex whose assembly in the inner mitochondrial membrane is facilitated by the scaffold factor MCUR1. Intriguingly, many fungi that lack MCU contain MCUR1 homologs, suggesting alternate functions. Herein, we characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs Put6 and Put7 of MCUR1 as regulators of mitochondrial proline metabolism. Put6 and Put7 are tethered to the inner mitochondrial membrane in a large hetero-oligomeric complex, whose abundance is regulated by proline. Loss of this complex perturbs mitochondrial proline homeostasis and cellular redox balance. Yeast cells lacking either Put6 or Put7 exhibit a pronounced defect in proline utilization, which can be corrected by the heterologous expression of human MCUR1. Our work uncovers an unexpected role of MCUR1 homologs in mitochondrial proline metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Homeostase , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma
5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 319, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811513

RESUMO

In less than 20 years, three deadly coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, have emerged in human population causing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of deaths. Other coronaviruses are causing epizootic representing a significant threat for both domestic and wild animals. Members of this viral family have the longest genome of all RNA viruses, and express up to 29 proteins establishing complex interactions with the host proteome. Deciphering these interactions is essential to identify cellular pathways hijacked by these viruses to replicate and escape innate immunity. Virus-host interactions also provide key information to select targets for antiviral drug development. Here, we have manually curated the literature to assemble a unique dataset of 1311 coronavirus-host protein-protein interactions. Functional enrichment and network-based analyses showed coronavirus connections to RNA processing and translation, DNA damage and pathogen sensing, interferon production, and metabolic pathways. In particular, this global analysis pinpointed overlooked interactions with translation modulators (GIGYF2-EIF4E2), components of the nuclear pore, proteins involved in mitochondria homeostasis (PHB, PHB2, STOML2), and methylation pathways (MAT2A/B). Finally, interactome data provided a rational for the antiviral activity of some drugs inhibiting coronaviruses replication. Altogether, this work describing the current landscape of coronavirus-host interactions provides valuable hints for understanding the pathophysiology of coronavirus infections and developing effective antiviral therapies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4281, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855416

RESUMO

Controlling efficiency and fidelity in the early stage of mitochondrial DNA transcription is crucial for regulating cellular energy metabolism. Conformational transitions of the transcription initiation complex must be central for such control, but how the conformational dynamics progress throughout transcription initiation remains unknown. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques to examine the conformational dynamics of the transcriptional system of yeast mitochondria with single-base resolution. We show that the yeast mitochondrial transcriptional complex dynamically transitions among closed, open, and scrunched states throughout the initiation stage. Then abruptly at position +8, the dynamic states of initiation make a sharp irreversible transition to an unbent conformation with associated promoter release. Remarkably, stalled initiation complexes remain in dynamic scrunching and unscrunching states without dissociating the RNA transcript, implying the existence of backtracking transitions with possible regulatory roles. The dynamic landscape of transcription initiation suggests a kinetically driven regulation of mitochondrial transcription.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina , DNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Mol Cell ; 79(5): 768-781.e7, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738194

RESUMO

Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Although ERAD components involved in degradation of luminal substrates are well characterized, much less is known about quality control of membrane proteins. Here, we analyzed the degradation pathways of two short-lived ER membrane model proteins in mammalian cells. Using a CRISPR-Cas9 genome-wide library screen, we identified an ERAD branch required for quality control of a subset of membrane proteins. Using biochemical and mass spectrometry approaches, we showed that this ERAD branch is defined by an ER membrane complex consisting of the ubiquitin ligase RNF185, the ubiquitin-like domain containing proteins TMUB1/2 and TMEM259/Membralin, a poorly characterized protein. This complex cooperates with cytosolic ubiquitin ligase UBE3C and p97 ATPase in degrading their membrane substrates. Our data reveal that ERAD branches have remarkable specificity for their membrane substrates, suggesting that multiple, perhaps combinatorial, determinants are involved in substrate selection.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteólise , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3830, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737313

RESUMO

The mammalian mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) and its associated translational factors have evolved to accommodate greater participation of proteins in mitochondrial translation. Here we present the 2.68-3.96 Å cryo-EM structures of the human 55S mitoribosome in complex with the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1mt) in three distinct conformational states, including an intermediate state and a post-translocational state. These structures reveal the role of several mitochondria-specific (mito-specific) mitoribosomal proteins (MRPs) and a mito-specific segment of EF-G1mt in mitochondrial tRNA (tRNAmt) translocation. In particular, the mito-specific C-terminal extension in EF-G1mt is directly involved in translocation of the acceptor arm of the A-site tRNAmt. In addition to the ratchet-like and independent head-swiveling motions exhibited by the small mitoribosomal subunit, we discover significant conformational changes in MRP mL45 at the nascent polypeptide-exit site within the large mitoribosomal subunit that could be critical for tethering of the elongating mitoribosome onto the inner-mitochondrial membrane.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/química , RNA Mitocondrial/química , RNA de Transferência/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20607-20614, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788360

RESUMO

The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a multisubunit protein complex that is essential for the proper architecture of the mitochondrial inner membrane. MICOS plays a key role in establishing and maintaining crista junctions, tubular or slit-like structures that connect the cristae membrane with the inner boundary membrane, thereby ensuring a contiguous inner membrane. MICOS is enriched at crista junctions, but the detailed distribution of its subunits around crista junctions is unclear because such small length scales are inaccessible with established fluorescence microscopy. By targeting individually activated fluorophores with an excitation beam featuring a central zero-intensity point, the nanoscopy method called MINFLUX delivers single-digit nanometer-scale three-dimensional (3D) resolution and localization precision. We employed MINFLUX nanoscopy to investigate the submitochondrial localization of the core MICOS subunit Mic60 in relation to two other MICOS proteins, Mic10 and Mic19. We demonstrate that dual-color 3D MINFLUX nanoscopy is applicable to the imaging of organellar substructures, yielding a 3D localization precision of ∼5 nm in human mitochondria. This isotropic precision facilitated the development of an analysis framework that assigns localization clouds to individual molecules, thus eliminating a source of bias when drawing quantitative conclusions from single-molecule localization microscopy data. MINFLUX recordings of Mic60 indicate ringlike arrangements of multiple molecules with a diameter of 40 to 50 nm, suggesting that Mic60 surrounds individual crista junctions. Statistical analysis of dual-color MINFLUX images demonstrates that Mic19 is generally in close proximity to Mic60, whereas the spatial coordination of Mic10 with Mic60 is less regular, suggesting structural heterogeneity of MICOS.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3360, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620763

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the next major health epidemic with an estimated 25% worldwide prevalence. No drugs have yet been approved and NAFLD remains a major unmet need. Here, we identify MCJ (Methylation-Controlled J protein) as a target for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced phase of NAFLD. MCJ is an endogenous negative regulator of the respiratory chain Complex I that acts to restrain mitochondrial respiration. We show that therapeutic targeting of MCJ in the liver with nanoparticle- and GalNAc-formulated siRNA efficiently reduces liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis in multiple NASH mouse models. Decreasing MCJ expression enhances the capacity of hepatocytes to mediate ß-oxidation of fatty acids and minimizes lipid accumulation, which results in reduced hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. Moreover, MCJ levels in the liver of NAFLD patients are elevated relative to healthy subjects. Thus, inhibition of MCJ emerges as an alternative approach to treat NAFLD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA-Seq
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3645, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686675

RESUMO

Endosomes are compositionally dynamic organelles that regulate signaling, nutrient status and organelle quality by specifying whether material entering the cells will be shuttled back to the cell surface or degraded by the lysosome. Recently, membrane contact sites (MCSs) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes have emerged as important players in endosomal protein sorting, dynamics and motility. Here, we show that PDZD8, a Synaptotagmin-like Mitochondrial lipid-binding Proteins (SMP) domain-containing ER transmembrane protein, utilizes distinct domains to interact with Rab7-GTP and the ER transmembrane protein Protrudin and together these components localize to an ER-late endosome MCS. At these ER-late endosome MCSs, mitochondria are also recruited to form a three-way contact. Thus, our data indicate that PDZD8 is a shared component of two distinct MCSs and suggest a role for SMP-mediated lipid transport in the regulation of endosome function.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
12.
Nature ; 585(7824): 288-292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641834

RESUMO

The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is necessary for tumour growth1-6 and its inhibition has demonstrated anti-tumour efficacy in combination with targeted therapies7-9. Furthermore, human brain and lung tumours display robust glucose oxidation by mitochondria10,11. However, it is unclear why a functional ETC is necessary for tumour growth in vivo. ETC function is coupled to the generation of ATP-that is, oxidative phosphorylation and the production of metabolites by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Mitochondrial complexes I and II donate electrons to ubiquinone, resulting in the generation of ubiquinol and the regeneration of the NAD+ and FAD cofactors, and complex III oxidizes ubiquinol back to ubiquinone, which also serves as an electron acceptor for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-an enzyme necessary for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Here we show impaired tumour growth in cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III. This phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX)12, which also oxidizes ubiquinol to ubiquinone. Loss of mitochondrial complex I, II or DHODH diminished the tumour growth of AOX-expressing cancer cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III, which highlights the necessity of ubiquinone as an electron acceptor for tumour growth. Cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III but can regenerate NAD+ by expression of the NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX)13 targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol were still unable to grow tumours. This suggests that regeneration of NAD+ is not sufficient to drive tumour growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that tumour growth requires the ETC to oxidize ubiquinol, which is essential to drive the oxidative TCA cycle and DHODH activity.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciona intestinalis/enzimologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7924-7943, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652011

RESUMO

Biogenesis of mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) involves several conserved small GTPases. Here, we report that the Obg family protein GTPBP5 or MTG2 is a mitochondrial protein whose absence in a TALEN-induced HEK293T knockout (KO) cell line leads to severely decreased levels of the 55S monosome and attenuated mitochondrial protein synthesis. We show that a fraction of GTPBP5 co-sediments with the large mitoribosome subunit (mtLSU), and crosslinks specifically with the 16S rRNA, and several mtLSU proteins and assembly factors. Notably, the latter group includes MTERF4, involved in monosome assembly, and MRM2, the methyltransferase that catalyzes the modification of the 16S mt-rRNA A-loop U1369 residue. The GTPBP5 interaction with MRM2 was also detected using the proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) assay. In GTPBP5-KO mitochondria, the mtLSU lacks bL36m, accumulates an excess of the assembly factors MTG1, GTPBP10, MALSU1 and MTERF4, and contains hypomethylated 16S rRNA. We propose that GTPBP5 primarily fuels proper mtLSU maturation by securing efficient methylation of two 16S rRNA residues, and ultimately serves to coordinate subunit joining through the release of late-stage mtLSU assembly factors. In this way, GTPBP5 provides an ultimate quality control checkpoint function during mtLSU assembly that minimizes premature subunit joining to ensure the assembly of the mature 55S monosome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metilação , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/fisiologia , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/química , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000741, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520929

RESUMO

Mitochondrial metabolic remodeling is a hallmark of the Trypanosoma brucei digenetic life cycle because the insect stage utilizes a cost-effective oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) to generate ATP, while bloodstream cells switch to aerobic glycolysis. Due to difficulties in acquiring enough parasites from the tsetse fly vector, the dynamics of the parasite's metabolic rewiring in the vector have remained obscure. Here, we took advantage of in vitro-induced differentiation to follow changes at the RNA, protein, and metabolite levels. This multi-omics and cell-based profiling showed an immediate redirection of electron flow from the cytochrome-mediated pathway to an alternative oxidase (AOX), an increase in proline consumption, elevated activity of complex II, and certain tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, which led to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Interestingly, these ROS molecules appear to act as signaling molecules driving developmental progression because ectopic expression of catalase, a ROS scavenger, halted the in vitro-induced differentiation. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms of the parasite's mitochondrial rewiring and reinforce the emerging concept that mitochondria act as signaling organelles through release of ROS to drive cellular differentiation.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Elétrons , Glucose/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma/genética , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579605

RESUMO

ZapE/Afg1 is a component of the inner cell membrane of some eubacteria and the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. This protein is involved in FtsZ-dependent division of eubacteria. In the yeast and human mitochondrion, ZapE/Afg1 likely interacts with Oxa1 and facilitates the degradation of mitochondrion-encoded subunits of respiratory complexes. Furthermore, the depletion of ZapE increases resistance to apoptosis, decreases oxidative stress tolerance, and impacts mitochondrial protein homeostasis. It remains unclear whether ZapE is a multifunctional protein, or whether some of the described effects are just secondary phenotypes. Here, we have analyzed the functions of ZapE in Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist, and an important model organism. Using a newly developed proximity-dependent biotinylation approach (BioID2), we have identified the inner mitochondrial membrane insertase Oxa1 among three putative interacting partners of ZapE, which is present in two paralogs. RNAi-mediated depletion of both ZapE paralogs likely affected the function of respiratory complexes I and IV. Consistently, we show that the distribution of mitochondrial ZapE is restricted only to organisms with Oxa1, respiratory complexes, and a mitochondrial genome. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved interaction of ZapE with Oxa1, which is required for proper insertion of many inner mitochondrial membrane proteins, is behind the multifaceted phenotype caused by the ablation of ZapE.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Biotinilação , Regulação para Baixo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica
16.
Life Sci ; 256: 117965, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have proved that physical activity (PA) regulates energetic metabolism associated with mitochondrial dynamics through AMPK activation in healthy subjects. Obesity, a condition that induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low AMPK activity leads to mitochondrial fragmentation. However, few studies describe the effect of PA on mitochondrial dynamics regulation in obesity. AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single session of PA on mitochondrial dynamics regulation as well as its effect on mitochondrial function and organization in skeletal muscles of obese rats (Zucker fa/fa). MAIN METHODS: Male Zucker lean and Zucker fa/fa rats aged 12 to 13 weeks were divided into sedentary and subjected-to-PA (single session swimming) groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was dissected into isolated fibers, mitochondria, mRNA, and total proteins for their evaluation. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that PA increased the Mfn-2 protein level in the lean and obese groups, whereas Drp1 levels decreased in the obese group. OMA1 protease levels increased in the lean group and decreased in the obese group. Additionally, AMPK analysis parameters (expression, protein level, and activity) did not increase in the obese group. These findings correlated with the partial restoration of mitochondrial function in the obese group, increasing the capacity to maintain the membrane potential after adding calcium as a stressor, and increasing the transversal organization level of the mitochondria analyzed in isolated fibers. SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the notion that obese rats subjected to PA maintain mitochondrial function through mitochondrial fusion activation by an AMPK-independent mechanism.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosforilação , Ratos Zucker
17.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 575-587.e7, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589965

RESUMO

eIF3, a multi-subunit complex with numerous functions in canonical translation initiation, is known to interact with 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins and translation elongation factors, but a direct involvement in translation elongation has never been demonstrated. We found that eIF3 deficiency reduced early ribosomal elongation speed between codons 25 and 75 on a set of ∼2,700 mRNAs encoding proteins associated with mitochondrial and membrane functions, resulting in defective synthesis of their encoded proteins. To promote elongation, eIF3 interacts with 80S ribosomes translating the first ∼60 codons and serves to recruit protein quality-control factors, functions required for normal mitochondrial physiology. Accordingly, eIF3e+/- mice accumulate defective mitochondria in skeletal muscle and show a progressive decline in muscle strength. Hence, eIF3 interacts with 80S ribosomes to enhance, at the level of early elongation, the synthesis of proteins with membrane-associated functions, an activity that is critical for mitochondrial physiology and muscle health.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo
18.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568230

RESUMO

Mitochondrial nucleoids are compact particles formed by mitochondrial DNA molecules coated with proteins. Mitochondrial DNA encodes tRNAs, rRNAs, and several essential mitochondrial polypeptides. Mitochondrial nucleoids divide and distribute within the dynamic mitochondrial network that undergoes fission/fusion and other morphological changes. High resolution live fluorescence microscopy is a straightforward technique to characterize a nucleoid's position and motion. For this technique, nucleoids are commonly labeled through fluorescent tags of their protein components, namely transcription factor a (TFAM). However, this strategy needs overexpression of a fluorescent protein-tagged construct, which may cause artifacts (reported for TFAM), and is not feasible in many cases. Organic DNA-binding dyes do not have these disadvantages. However, they always show staining of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs, thus lacking specificity to mitochondrial nucleoids. By taking into account the physico-chemical properties of such dyes, we selected a nucleic acid gel stain (SYBR Gold) and achieved preferential labeling of mitochondrial nucleoids in live cells. Properties of the dye, particularly its high brightness upon binding to DNA, permit subsequent quantification of mitochondrial nucleoid motion using time series of super-resolution structured illumination images.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Humanos
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1857-1871, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350589

RESUMO

Antimony is an important drug for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. In several countries, the emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania species has reduced the effectiveness of this drug. The mechanism of clinical drug resistance is unclear. The aim of this work was to identify mitochondrial proteome alterations associated with resistance against antimonial. A combination of cell fractionation, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and Label-Free Quantification was used to characterize the mitochondrial protein composition of Leishmania tropica field isolates resistant and sensitive to meglumine antimoniate. LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 1200 proteins of the Leishmania tropica mitochondrial proteome. Various criteria were used to allocate about 40% proteins to mitochondrial proteome. Comparative quantitative proteomic analysis of the sensitive and the resistant strains showed proteins with differential abundance in resistance species are involved in TCA and aerobic respiration enzymes, stress proteins, lipid metabolism enzymes, and translation. These results showed that the mechanism of antimony resistance in Leishmania spp. field isolate may be associated with alteration in enzymes involved in mitochondrial pathways.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Resistência a Medicamentos , Leishmania tropica/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania tropica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Proteoma , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413073

RESUMO

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) is the process by which the ATP synthase conserves the energy released during the oxidation of different nutrients as ATP. The yeast ATP synthase consists of three assembly modules, one of which is a ring consisting of 10 copies of the Atp9 subunit. We previously reported the existence in yeast mitochondria of high molecular weight complexes composed of mitochondrially encoded Atp9 and of Cox6, an imported structural subunit of cytochrome oxidase (COX). Pulse-chase experiments indicated a correlation between the loss of newly translated Atp9 complexed to Cox6 and an increase of newly formed Atp9 ring, but did not exclude the possibility of an alternate source of Atp9 for ring formation. Here we have extended studies on the functions and structure of this complex, referred to as Atco. We show that Atco is the exclusive source of Atp9 for the ATP synthase assembly. Pulse-chase experiments show that newly translated Atp9, present in Atco, is converted to a ring, which is incorporated into the ATP synthase with kinetics characteristic of a precursor-product relationship. Even though Atco does not contain the ring form of Atp9, cross-linking experiments indicate that it is oligomeric and that the inter-subunit interactions are similar to those of the bona fide ring. We propose that, by providing Atp9 for biogenesis of ATP synthase, Atco complexes free Cox6 for assembly of COX. This suggests that Atco complexes may play a role in coordinating assembly and maintaining proper stoichiometry of the two oxphos enzymes.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/química , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
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