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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 177-190, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) regulates cancer cell proliferation and invasion via complex molecular mechanisms. We aimed to investigate whether COUP-TFII modulates proliferation and invasion of the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HT-29 cells were stably tranfected with COUP-TFII shRNA plasmid to knock-down COUP-TFII (COUP-TFII shRNA-HT-29 cells). Cell proliferation, colony formation assay, invasion assay, microarray assays and western blot analyses were performed. RESULTS: Cell proliferation and invasion were significantly enhanced in COUP-TFII shRNA-HT-29 cells. The protein levels of forkhead box C1 (FOXC1), p-Akt, p-glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (p-GSK-3ß), and ß-catenin, which are known to be involved in cell proliferation and invasion, were significantly increased in COUP-TFII shRNA-HT-29 cells. Akt inhibitor IV and dominant negative (DN)-Akt expression vector transfection reversed the increased proliferation and invasion, which was accompanied by decreased protein levels of p-Akt, p-GSK-3ß, ß-catenin and FOXC1. CONCLUSION: COUP-TFII knock-down promoted proliferation and invasion via activation of Akt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin and up-regulation of FOXC1. Further studies on the molecular mechanism of interaction between ß-catenin and FOXC1 expression may reveal novel target molecules for metastatic colorectal cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Fator II de Transcrição COUP/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator II de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
2.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 85-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794329

RESUMO

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) regulates collagen-mediated platelet activation through its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). However, the function of CEACAM1's extracellular cleavage fragments is currently unknown. In the present study, we used mass spectrometry (MS) to identify 9 cleavage fragments shed by matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP-12), and then we synthesized peptides with sequences corresponding to the fragments. QLSNGNRTLT (QLSN), a peptide from the A1-domain of CEACAM1, significantly attenuated collagen-induced platelet aggregation. QLSN also attenuated platelet static adhesion to collagen. Additionally, QLSN reduced human platelet secretion and integrin αIIbß3 activation in response to glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-selective agonist, convulxin. Correspondingly, QLSN treatment significantly decreased convulxin-mediated phosphorylation of Src, protein kinase B (Akt), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) in human platelets. These data indicate that the CEACAM1-derived peptide QLSN inhibits GPVI-mediated human platelet activation. QLSN could potentially be developed as a novel antiplatelet agent.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Motivo de Inibição do Imunorreceptor Baseado em Tirosina/fisiologia , Lectinas Tipo C , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/agonistas , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/metabolismo
3.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104579, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect and mechanism of calcium on LS8 cell differentiation, especially on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) /protein kinase B(AKT) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ameloblast-like LS8 cell line was used and additional 0-3.5 mmol/L calcium chloride was treated for 24 h, 48 h. Cell viability and morphological changes, cell cycle and associated regulatory proteins were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant effects on morphological changes were observed. Decreased cell viability and increased S phase cells were accompanied by the significant decrease of cyclin A and cyclin B proteins, and significant increase of cyclin D protein in LS8 cells. Additionally, kallikrein-4 and amelotin expressions were significantly increased. Finally, the levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) significantly downregulated after calcium treatment in LS8 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium inhibit proliferation and promotes differentiation in LS8 cells, this is closely related to the downregulation of PI3K/AKT signal in LS8 cells.


Assuntos
Ameloblastos/enzimologia , Cálcio/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ameloblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Camundongos
4.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(11): 1023-1029, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878999

RESUMO

Objective To explore the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and its significance in lung adenocarcinoma and to examine the effect of VEGFR3 knockdown on the biological behaviors of A549 cells. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of VEGFR3 in 78 pieces of lung adenocarcinoma tissue and 35 of paracancerous tissue. Relationships between VEGFR3 and clinicopathological indices were also analyzed. Correlations between lung adenocarcinoma patient survival and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) or VEGFR3 were analyzed using the TCGA database. VEGFR3 expression was knocked down in A549 cells using RNA interference, and cell proliferation was assessed using a CCK-8 assay. Cell migration and invasion were detected using TranswellTM assays. The effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of EGFR3 in A549 cells on AKT pathway activity was assessed by Western blot analysis. Results Expression of VEGFR3 was significantly higher in the lung adenocarcinoma tissue than in the adjacent tissue, and positively correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. The survival rate of patients with high VEGFR3 expression was significantly lower than that of patients with low VEGFR3 expression. Exogenous VEGF-C promoted the expression of VEGFR3, and activated the AKT signaling pathway. Silencing of VEGFR3 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of A549 cells, and reduced the activation of the AKT signaling pathway by VEGF-C. Conclusion High expression of VEGFR3 in the lung adenocarcinoma tissue is positively correlated with poor prognosis. Silencing VEGFR3 can block AKT pathway activity and inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(8): e201900802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618402

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To reveal the function of miR-134 in myocardial ischemia. METHODS: Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the expression of miR-134, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and apoptotic-associated proteins. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Hoechst 33342/PI double staining and flow cytometry assay were implemented in H9c2 cells, respectively. MiR-134 mimic/inhibitor was used to regulate miR-134 expression. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were utilized to identify the interrelation between miR-134 and NOS3. Rescue experiments exhibited the role of NOS3. The involvement of PI3K/AKT was assessed by western blot analysis. RESULTS: MiR-134 was high regulated in the myocardial ischemia model, and miR-134 mimic/inhibitor transfection accelerated/impaired the speed of cell apoptosis and attenuated/exerted the cell proliferative prosperity induced by H/R regulating active status of PI3K/AKT signaling. LDH activity was also changed due to the different treatments. Moreover, miR-134 could target NOS3 directly and simultaneously attenuated the expression of NOS3. Co-transfection miR-134 inhibitor and pcDNA3.1-NOS3 highlighted the inhibitory effects of miR-134 on myocardial H/R injury. CONCLUSION: This present work puts insights into the crucial effects of the miR-134/NOS3 axis in myocardial H/R injury, delivering a potential therapeutic technology in future.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 2921-2936, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aims to determine whether co-targeting PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) is a potential anticancer strategy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of HSCC patients, and the phosphorylation status of Akt and Erk in HSCC and tumor adjacent tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. MTT and colony formation assay were performed to determine the anti-proliferative effect of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GDC-0980 and MEK inhibitor Refametinib on HSCC cell line Fadu. Wound-healing and Transwell migration assay were used to analyze the anti-migrative capability of the two drugs. The involved anti-tumor mechanism was explored by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and western blot. The combinational anticancer effect of GDC-0980 and Refametinib was evaluated according to Chou and Talalay's method. RESULTS: The levels of p-Akt and p-Erk were increased significantly with the progression of clinical stage of HSCC, suggesting PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways might be associated with HSCC occurrence and progression. Furthermore, both GDC-0980 and Refametinib showed obvious antitumor effects on FaDu cells. Treatment by the two drugs arrested FaDu cell cycle progression in G1 phase, with reduction of cyclin D1 and p-Rb, in contrast to enhancement of p27. GDC-0980 inhibited FaDu cell migration and reduced metastasis related proteins including p-PKCζ, p-Integrin ß1 and uPA. Combination use of GDC-0980 and Refametinib exhibited strong synergistic anti-tumor effect. CONCLUSION: Dual inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathway by GDC-0980 and Refametinib might be a promising treatment strategy for HSCC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Difenilamina/análogos & derivados , Difenilamina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3429-3434, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602905

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the concentration,time and mechanism of autophagy induced by triptolide( TP) in ovarian granulosa cells( OGCs). CCK-8 method was used to compare the inhibitory effects of TP at different concentrations on primary cultured rat OGCs and IC50 was calculated. The effects of TP at different concentrations and time points on the expression of OGCs autophagy factor protein and the cascade of PI3 K/AKT/m TOR pathway were detected by Western blot. The effects of TP,autophagy inducer( brefeldin A) and PI3 K/m TOR inhibitor( NVP-BEZ235) on the expression of PI3 K/AKT/m TOR cascade and autophagy related factor protein were detected by Western blot. The results show that the IC50 of different concentrations of TP on OGCs of rat ovary was14. 65 µmol·L-1,and the minimum inhibitory concentration of TP was 0. 1 µmol·L-1( 100 nmol·L-1). Compared with the control group,the expression levels of beclin1 and LC3Ⅱ in each group were significantly higher than those in the control group( P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). After 12 hours of treatment with TP,brefeldin A and NVP-BEZ235,respectively,compared with the control group,TP could significantly promote the expression level of downstream autophagy effect or molecule beclin1,LC3Ⅱ and inhibit the expression level of LC3Ⅰ,p62 protein( P<0. 05 or P< 0. 01). Moreover,the expression of beclin1 and LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ in TP group was higher than that in brefeldin A group( P<0. 05 or P<0. 01),and the expression of p62 in TP group was lower than that in brefeldin A group( P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). At the same time,TP could significantly inhibit the expression of p-PI3 K,p-AKT,p-mTOR protein,and the inhibitory effect of TP was better than that of NVP-BEZ235 group. This study suggests that 100 nmol·L-1 TP could induce OGCs autophagy successfully in cultured rat ovary for 12 h; TP may induce OGCs autophagy by inhibiting PI3 k/Akt/m TOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Feminino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3773-3779, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602952

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to explore the mechanism of Shenxiong Glucose Injection antagonizing apoptosis of H9 c2 cells induced by H_2O_2. H9 c2 cells were pretreated with 1. 7%,3. 4% and 6. 8% Shenxiong Glucose Injection,and then H_2O_2 was introduced to induce apoptosis in vitro. Cell viability was detected by MTS assay,morphological changes of apoptosis were observed by AO/EB fluorescence staining,apoptosis rate was detected by Annexin/PI method,cell expression profile was detected by gene chip technology,the mRNA of PIK3 CA,Bcl-2,Bax,caspase-3 and GAPDH were detected by qRT-PCR,the protein expression levels of PIK3 CA,AKT,P-AKT,Bcl-2,Bax and caspase-3 were detected by Western blot,and the contents of LDH and MDA were detected by kit. The results showed that Shenxiong Glucose Injection of different concentrations significantly increased the viability of H9 c2 cells treated with H_2O_2( P<0. 01),and reversed H_2O_2-induced apoptosis( P< 0. 01). The microarray experiments showed that 138 genes were altered in H9 c2 cells after treatment with Shenxiong Glucose Injection. The differential expression fold of PIK3 CA associated with PI3 K/AKT pathway was 3. 59. The results of qRT-PCR and Western blot showed that Shenxiong Glucose Injection could down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression levels of caspase-3( P<0. 01),up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression level of PIK3 CA and Bcl-2( P<0. 01),and up-regulate the phosphorylation levels of AKT( P<0. 01) in H_2O_2-treated H9 c2 cells. The protective effect of Shenxiong Glucose Injection on H_2O_2 cells injury was significantly inhibited by LY294002,a PI3 K/AKT pathway inhibitor. The results suggested that Shenxiong Glucose Injection may inhibit H_2O_2-induced H9 c2 cells apoptosis by regulating PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromonas , Glucose , Morfolinas , Ratos
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5297-5310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) may possess putative antitumoral properties; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We evaluated the antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of enoxaparin (a LMWH) in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and assessed the possible mechanism involved, and the effect on doxorubicin's efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proliferation and migration were evaluated using BrdU and transwell assays, respectively. Immunoblotting was used to measure PAR-1, PAR-2, MMP-2, ERK1/2 and Akt proteins. Apoptosis and cell cycle studies examined the combined effect of enoxaparin and doxorubicin. RESULTS: Enoxaparin inhibited A549 cell proliferation and migration. Following PAR-1 gene knock down, enoxaparin's effect on A549 cell proliferation was diminished compared to scrambled siRNA. Our experiments verified that enoxaparin-mediated down-regulation of MAPK and PI3K, reduced MMP-2 expression and inhibited A549 cell migration. Additionally, enoxaparin increased doxorubicin's efficacy by enhancing apoptosis, while no effect on cell-cycle progression was observed. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the anticancer activity of enoxaparin in A549 cells was mediated by the interference of two major PAR-1 downstream signaling pathways, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt, which in turn inhibit proliferation and migration. Therefore, enoxaparin may be promising as an adjunct to traditional chemotherapy for lung cancer and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Enoxaparina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5329-5338, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The P13K/Akt signaling pathway is a growth-regulating cellular pathway that is constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers. In previous studies, we reported that a solenopsin analog, compound B (MU-06-SC-608-7), shows inhibitory effects on Akt phosphorylation at a key activation site, as well as on proliferation of tumorigenic cells at sub-micromolar concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of compound B on downstream effectors of Akt kinase, phosphorylation of Akt at a second activation site, Akt kinase activity in vitro, tumorigenic cell viability and other signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot analyses were performed using WBras1 epithelial and H2009 human carcinoma cells and cell viability assays were performed on H2009 cells. In vitro Akt kinase assays were performed using a commercially available kit. RESULTS: Compound B decreased the phosphorylation of Akt at the Thr308 activation site and key downstream effectors of Akt kinase, but did not directly inhibit Akt kinase. Substantial decreases in cell viability were observed at concentrations above 5 µM. No effect was seen on ERK or JNK pathways. CONCLUSION: The results earmark this compound for further studies as a potential targeted cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108849, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610157

RESUMO

To provide novel insight into approaches designed to combat glioblastoma, the molecular details of the cytotoxicity of gamabufotalin, were investigated in the human glioblastoma cell line U-87. A dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in the cells, whereas no detectable toxicity was confirmed in mouse primary astrocytes. LDH leakage was only observed in the cells treated with a relatively high concentration (>80 ng/ml). Downregulation of the expression levels of Aurora B, cdc25A, cdc25C, cdc2, Cyclin B1 and survivin, and upregulation of the expression level of p21 were observed in treated cells and occurred in parallel with G2/M phase arrest. Treatment with gamabufotalin also downregulated the expression level of uPA, CA9, and upregulated the expression level of TIMP3, all of which are closely associated with invasion/metastasis. Autophagy induction was observed in the treated cells and the addition of wortmannin, a potent autophagy inhibitor, significantly rescued U-87 cells. These results indicate that gamabufotalin exhibits cytotoxicity against cancerous glial cells with high potency and selectivity through multiple cytotoxic signaling pathways. The activation of p38 MAPK pathway along with the upregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 was observed in the treated cells, both of which are likely to be compensatory changes in response to gamabufotalin treatment. Intriguingly, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK enhanced the cytotoxicity of the drug, suggesting an important prosurvival role for p38 MAPK. We thus suggest that developing a new combination regimen of gamabufotalin plus a p38 MAPK inhibitor and/or inhibitors for VEGF/VEGFR could improve the efficacy of the drug, and may provide more therapeutic benefits to patients with glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufanolídeos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Wortmanina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 236: 116899, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614145

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of our study is to illustrate the role of amphiregulin in trophoblast invasiveness and underlying signal cascades. MAIN METHODS: An immortalized human early extravillous cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, was used for this investigation. Matrigel-transwell invasion assay was used for testing the effects of amphiregulin on cell invasiveness. MMP9 and MMP2 mRNA expression level and activity were measured using Rt-qPCR and zymographic analysis. Cell signals involved in the invasion process were verified using western blot and specific inhibitors. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that amphiregulin could promote HTR-8/SVneo cell invasiveness without interfering cell proliferation, and significantly upregulate the expression of MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs as well as the ratio of MMP9/TIMP-1. Using specific inhibitors for MEK and PI3K signaling further indicated that, both ERK1/2 and Akt signal pathways were required for amphiregulin-induced cell invasiveness. The co-ordination between ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathway was needed for the upregulation of MMP9 mRNA, while ERK1/2 was more essential for the upregulation of TIMP-1 mRNA. Meanwhile, we first put forward that the deficiency of amphiregulin expression in trophoblast might be compensated by the upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) mRNA. SIGNIFICANCE: ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways mediate amphiregulin-induced upregulation of MMP9 mRNA and the MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio, which subsequently contribute to amphiregulin-promotion of HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion.


Assuntos
Anfirregulina/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108843, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586550

RESUMO

Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiology has been associated with glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Thus, the research for new antidepressant strategies with the ability to mitigate glutamate toxicity has received growing attention. Given this background, the present study sought to investigate the antidepressant-like and neuroprotective effects of Morus nigra (MN) and its major phenolic, syringic acid (SA), against glutamate-induced damage, as well as, the role of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in these effects. Treatment with MN (3 mg/kg) and SA (1 mg/kg) for 7 days, similar to fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), triggered an antidepressant-like effect. Moreover, the treatments evoked neuroprotection against glutamatergic excitotoxicity in hippocampal slices, and MN treatment also afforded protection in cerebrocortical slices. Notably, ex vivo neuroprotective effect of MN and SA was mediated, at least in part, by PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß signaling pathway. Furthermore, the ability of MN and SA to counteract the glutamate-induced damage were evaluated in three different in vitro experiments. The hippocampal slices pretreated with MN (0.05 and 0.1 µg/mL) or SA (0.01-0.1 µg/mL) as well as the concomitant treatment with MN (0.01 and 0.05 µg/mL) or SA (0.05 and 0.1 µg/mL) exhibited protection against glutamate toxicity. Interestingly, post-treatment with MN in all doses (0.01-0.1 µg/mL) and SA at dose of 0.1 µg/mL were capable of preventing glutamate-induced cell death. In vitro neuroprotective effect of SA, but not MN, involves the activation of Akt, since the pretreatment with LY294002 completely abolished the protective effect. Overall, MN and SA presented antidepressant-like and neuroprotective effects against glutamatergic excitotoxicity via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Morus/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antidepressivos/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Morus/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
14.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 546-550, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in breast cancer cell lines. To analyze the effect of inhibiting SCD1 activity on the proliferation and cell cycle of MCF-7 breast cancer cell and its mechanism. METHODS: The expression of SCD1 protein were detected by Western blot techniques in breast cancer cell lines and humanskin fibroblasts.Cell viability of MCF-7 cells treated with MF-438 was measured using MTS assay and IC50 value was calculated.The distribution of cell cycle was determined by PI staining using flow cytometry.The expression of Cyclin D1 was detected by Western blot. The expression of Akt, pAkt, pAMPK and pACC were also detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The expression level of SCD1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly higher than that in HSF cells (P < 0.05).MF-438 showed a significant dose-dependent proliferation inhibition effect on MCF-7 cells cultured in low serum at a concentration ranging from 100 nmol/L to 100 µmol/L with an IC50 value of (3.9±0.45) µmol/L. After intervention of 5 µmol/L MF-438 in MCF-7 cells, the proportion of cells in S phase and G2/M phase was significantly decreased (P < 0.01), the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase increased (P < 0.01), and the expression of Cyclin D1 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05); Meanwhile, the expression of pAkt and pAkt/Akt value were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and the expression of pAMPK and pACC levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SCD1 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Inhibition of SCD1 activity can inhibit cell cycle progression and impair cell proliferation by down-regulating the Akt pathway and activating the AMPK pathway. Further research on SCD1 is expected to provide a new target for molecular targeted therapy of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Divisão Celular , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108846, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606474

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in EMT but their role in the regulation of cigarette smoke-induced EMT in airway epithelium is not clear. We have therefore investigated the potential role of MMP-2 and -9 in cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced EMT using A549 lung epithelial cells and human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). The cells were treated with different concentration of CSE, and MTT and trypan blue assays, acridine orange-ethidium bromide assay, gelatin zymography, Western blotting, immunofluorescence studies, Boyden-chamber assay, wound healing assay and air-liquid interface (ALI) culture were used to assess different cellular and molecular changes associated with EMT. The results depict that CSE increased the cytotoxicity along with a concurrent increase in the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. CSE further altered EMT markers like E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and the molecular modulators of EMT such as ß-catenin and pGSK-3ß. Further, CSE also upregulated EGFR, AKT, and ERK1/2 in airway epithelial cells. SB-3CT, a known inhibitor of MMP-2 and -9, altered and reversed the expression of markers of EMT and kinases, validating the role of MMP-2 and -9 in CSE-induced EMT. Fisetin, a plant-derived bioflavonoid, also reversed the expression of EMT markers and molecular regulators in a similar fashion as SB-3CT. In summary, this study highlights the role of MMP-2 and -9 in CSE-induced EMT and curate its molecular cascade through EGFR/AKT/ERK/ß-catenin axis, which could be restored by MMP-2 and -9 inhibitor and fisetin. Fisetin is hitherto unknown to modulate CSE-induced MMPs activity in airway epithelial cells, and our study suggests its potential role as a therapeutic approach in CSE-induced EMT in lung epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/química , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 507, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human tumor is a complex tissue with multiple heterogeneous hypoxic regions and significant cell-to-cell variability. Due to the complexity of the disease, the explanation of why anticancer therapies fail cannot be attributed to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance alone. Furthermore, there are inconsistent reports of hypoxia-induced kinase activities in different cancer cell-lines, where increase, decreases, or no change has been observed. Thus, we asked, why are there widely contrasting results in kinase activity under hypoxia in different cancer cell-lines and how does hypoxia play a role in anti-cancer drug sensitivity? RESULTS: We took a modeling approach to address these questions by analyzing the model simulation to explain why hypoxia driven signals can have dissimilar impact on tumor growth and alter the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. Repeated simulations with varying concentrations of biomolecules followed by decision tree analysis reveal that the highly differential effects among heterogeneous subpopulation of tumor cells could be governed by varying concentrations of just a few key biomolecules. These biomolecules include activated serine/threonine-specific protein kinases (pRAF), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (pMEK), protein kinase B (pAkt), or phosphoinositide-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (pPI3K). Additionally, the ratio of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) or pAkt to its respective total was a key factor in determining the sensitivity of pERK or pAkt to hypoxia. CONCLUSION: This work offers a mechanistic insight into how hypoxia can affect the efficacy of anti-cancer drug that targets tumor signaling and provides a framework to identify the types of tumor cells that are either sensitive or resistant to anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Modelos Teóricos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quinases raf/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11657-11664, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549821

RESUMO

The therapeutic benefits of whole grains on diabetes mellitus have been continuously confirmed by in-depth research. To date, limited studies have investigated the effect of extruded products of whole grains on the insulin signaling pathway in vivo. This study investigated the effects of oral consumption of whole grain extrudate, including 97% brown rice and 3% defatted rice bran (w/w, BRD), on glucose metabolism and the hepatic insulin signaling pathway in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. BRD treatment induced a remarkable reduction in blood glucose. Moreover, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were ameliorated in the BRD-treated group compared with those in the db/db control group. BRD also increased the hepatic glycogen content by reducing the expression and increasing the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß). The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and their respective mRNA expression levels in the liver were simultaneously decreased in the BRD-treated group. BRD also significantly upregulated the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and protein kinase B (AKT). These results indicate that BRD exhibits antidiabetic potential by activating the IRS1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, further regulating the expression of the FOXO1 gene and p-GSK3ß protein, thus inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, increasing hepatic glycogen storage, and improving insulin resistance. Therefore, BRD could be used as a functional ingredient to alleviate the symptoms of hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Oryza/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108823, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563592

RESUMO

Schizophrenia cannot be treated sufficiently with existing antipsychotic drugs. Taken into account that increased Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta (GSK-3ß) activity is associated with schizophrenia pathophysiology and certain antipsychotics can be able to decrease GSK3ß activity, inhibition of GSK-3ß activity could be a novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. In the present study MK-801, a widely used chemical for the in vivo/in vitro modeling of schizophrenia was selected to evoke a detrimental effect on cellular survival via GSK3ß and related proteins. A limited number of studies have reported the curative effects of famotidine, an antiulcer drug, in schizophrenic patients. To the best of our knowledge, no study investigated the molecular mechanism of the beneficial effect of famotidine in the patients. A recent study based on computerized drug modeling software (docking) indicated that famotidine might inhibit the GSK3ß activity due to its chemical structure independent from histaminergic receptors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of famotidine on the Akt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in the presence of MK-801. We investigated the effects of famotidine, olanzapine (an antipsychotic drug), and SB 415286 (specific GSK-3ß inhibitor), on the basal cellular survival and MK-801 induced neuronal death beside of Akt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin protein and gene expressions in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell viability, protein and gene expressions were determined by the real-time cell analysis (xCELLigence) system, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reactions (Rt-PCR), respectively. Our findings suggested that MK-801 administration decreased cell survival probably via the increasing GSK-3ß gene expression and activity in the SH-SY5Y cells. Pre-treatments with famotidine, olanzapine, and SB 415286 prevented MK-801 induced cell death via inhibitory effects on the MK-801 induced GSK-3ß activity. Overall, the present results suggest that famotidine has a neuroprotective effect against MK-801 via modulation of the Akt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway, an important mechanism in schizophrenia neurobiology.


Assuntos
Maleato de Dizocilpina/farmacologia , Famotidina/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminofenóis/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Maleimidas/farmacologia , Olanzapina/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
19.
Life Sci ; 236: 116836, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493479

RESUMO

AIMS: The present experiment was conceptualised to explore the therapeutic response of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a major active constituent of Ligusticum chuanxiong, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, in high-fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and to identify the possible mechanism of action. MAIN METHODS: Dose-reliant effect of oral treatment of TMP (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg/day) for 28 days was evaluated by calculating the alteration in body weight, level of fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), serum lipids, oral glucose & intraperitoneal insulin tolerance and glycosylated haemoglobin in HFD-STZ-induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats and underlying molecular mechanisms of TMP was also studied. KEY FINDINGS: TMP treatment prominently reduced the level of FBG, glycosylated haemoglobin and revived body weight gain and level of serum insulin dose-dependently in diabetic rats. TMP treatment considerably improved insulin resistance, as observed in oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Moreover, dose-dependent reduction in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was observed and their level was found to be significantly reduced in highest dose TMP (200 mg/kg) treated diabetic rats, pointing towards TMP mediated recovery of insulin signalling and a decrease in insulin resistance. The expressions of p-PI3K-p85/p-Akt/GLUT-4 were also significantly up-regulated by TMP (200 mg/kg), suggesting the connection of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway in the anti-hyperglycemic action of TMP. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that TMP may be used as a potential agent for type-2 diabetes treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 313: 108818, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494106

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes that remains the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) is a member of FOX family involved in the progression of diabetes. However, the pathogenic role of FOXP1 in DN remains unclear. This study was aimed to explore the effects of FOXP1 on glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) in response to high glucose (HG) stimulation. We found that HG stimulation markedly inhibited the FOXP1 expression in MCs in dose-and time-dependent manner. CCK-8 assay proved that FOXP1 overexpression attenuated HG-induced cell proliferation in MCs. FOXP1 exhibited anti-oxidative activity in HG-induced MCs, as proved by the decreased production of ROS and expressions of ROS producing enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4. Besides, FOXP1 suppressed the expression and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including collagen IV (Col IV) and fibronectin (FN). Furthermore, FOXP1 overexpression significantly prevented HG-induced activation of Akt/mTOR signaling in MCs, and Akt activator blocked FOXP1-mediated cell proliferation, ROS production and ECM accumulation in MCs. Collectively, FOXP1 prevented HG-induced proliferation, oxidative stress, and ECM accumulation in MCs via inhibiting the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The findings suggested that FOXP1 might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of DN.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
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