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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361745

RESUMO

The edible parts of the plants Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera were extensively used in ancient practices such as Ayurveda, owing to their potent biomedical significance. They are very rich in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, which are very good antioxidants and exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the anti-cancerous properties of these plant crude extracts on human liver cancer HepG2 cells. The leaves of Camellia sinensis, Withania somnifera and the seeds of Vitis vinifera were collected and methanolic extracts were prepared. Then, these extracts were subjected to DPPH, α- amylase assays to determine the antioxidant properties. A MTT assay was performed to investigate the viability of the extracts of HepG2 cells, and the mode of cell death was detected by Ao/EtBr staining and flow cytometry with PI Annexin- V FITC dual staining. Then, the protein expression of BAX and BCl2 was studied using fluorescent dye to determine the regulation of the BAX and BCl2 genes. We observed that all the three extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or phytochemicals. The W. somnifera bioactive compounds were found to have the highest anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Withania/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Taninos/química , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(7): 785-790, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405615

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the translocations of MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 genes, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and the clinicopathological features of primary cardiac large B cell lymphoma (LBCL). Methods: Seven cases of primary cardiac LBCL were collected at Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, China from February 2013 to May 2019. The clinical feature, pathological morphology and immunophenotype were analyzed. The detections of EBV and gene rearrangements of MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 were conducted. The 2017 WHO classification of tumors of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues was used to classify the tumors. Results: Four patients with right atrial lesions showed diffuse infiltration of medium size lymphoid cells with small vascular hyperplasia, without evidence of EBV infection. Without detectable gene rearrangements of MYC and bcl-2, 2 of the patients showed bcl-6 gene break-apart. The diagnosis was revised from diffuse LBCL to high-grade B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (HGBL-NOS). There was a case of CD5+ diffuse LBCL involving the right atrium and ventricle and 2 cases of fibrin-associated diffuse LBCL located at left atrium without gene rearrangements of MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6. However, EBER and EBNA2 were highly expressed in fibrin-associated diffuse LBCL. The patients were followed up for 10-71 months. Four cases of HGBL-NOS and a case of CD5+ diffuse LBCL received R-CHOP with/without autologous stem cell transplantation. All but two patients survived. Two cases of fibrin-associated diffuse LBCL were disease free without adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusions: Primary cardiac LBCL is heterogeneous, including at least HGBL-NOS. Primary cardiac HGBL-NOS most frequently occurs in the right atrium. Tumor cells of primary cardiac LBCL have the morphological characteristics similar to Burkitt lymphoma, lacking MYC and bcl-2 gene rearrangements, but usually show bcl-6 gene disruption. Fibrin-associated diffuse LBCL has a good prognosis and postoperative chemotherapy seems unnecessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Transplante Autólogo
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2352: 57-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324180

RESUMO

Direct neuronal reprogramming is a promising strategy to generate various types of neurons that are, otherwise, inaccessible for researchers. However, the efficiency of neuronal conversion is highly dependent on the transcription factor used, the identity of the initial cells to convert, their species' background, and the neuronal subtype to which cells will convert. Regardless of these conditioning factors, the apoptotic regulator Bcl-2 acts as a pan-neuronal reprogramming enhancer. Bcl-2 mediates its effect in reprogramming by preventing an overshot of oxidative stress during the acquisition of a neuronal oxidative metabolism, thus reducing cell death by ferroptosis and facilitating the phenotypic conversion. In this chapter, we outline two methods to obtain either mouse or human neurons derived from postnatal astrocytes and skin fibroblasts, respectively. The overall reprogramming strategy is based on the co-expression of Bcl-2 and the transcription factor Neurog2 that produces mostly excitatory neurons. However, the method can be easily adapted to achieve alternative neuronal subtypes by using additional transcription factors, such as Isl1 for motor neurons. Therefore, our approaches provide solid but flexible platforms to obtain human and mouse induced neurons in vitro that can be applied to basic or translational research.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Fibroblastos/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Retroviridae/genética , Transdução Genética , Transfecção
4.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328190

RESUMO

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) apoptosis is the initial stage of adult pulmonary hypertension (PH), which involves high pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular remodeling. However, the mechanism regulating PMVEC apoptosis and its involvement in the early stages of neonatal hypoxic PH (HPH) pathogenesis are currently unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on hypoxia­induced apoptosis in PMVECs. PMVECs isolated from neonatal Sprague­Dawley rats were transfected with lentivirus with or without HSP70, or treated with the synthetic HSP70 inhibitor N­formyl­3,4­methylenedioxy­benzylidene-g-butyrolactam under hypoxic conditions (5% O2) for 24, 48 or 72 h. PMVEC apoptosis was evaluated by performing flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assays. The expression levels of HSP70, hypoxia­inducible factor­1α (HIF­1α) and apoptosis­associated proteins were determined by conducting reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting. Following 24, 48 or 72 h of hypoxia, the apoptotic rates of PMVECs were significantly elevated compared with cells under normoxic conditions. The MMP was significantly reduced, whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF­1α, cytochrome c (cyt C), caspase­3 and HSP70 were enhanced by hypoxia compared with those under normoxic conditions. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of B­cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl­2) were significantly downregulated in the hypoxia group compared with those in the normoxia group. In hypoxic PMVECs, HSP70 overexpression decreased the apoptotic rate and the expression levels of cyt C, downregulated the expression levels of caspase­3 and HIF­1α, and increased the MMP and the expression levels of Bcl­2. HSP70 inhibition resulted in the opposite outcomes compared with those of HSP70 overexpression. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that HSP70 may inhibit mitochondrial pathway­mediated apoptosis in isolated neonatal rat PMVECs in early­stage hypoxia, which may be associated with HSP70­mediated HIF­1α downregulation. Overall, HSP70 may be protective against neonatal HPH through the HSP70/HIF­1α pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Microvasos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Microvasos/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima
5.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223631

RESUMO

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is frequently accompanied by a poor prognosis. The majority of patients with AML will experience recurrence due to multiple drug resistance. Our previous study reported that targeting the mTOR pathway may increase cell sensitivity to doxorubicin (Doxo) and provide an improved therapeutic approach to leukemia. However, the effect and mechanism of action of NVP­BEZ235 (BEZ235), a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, on Doxo­resistant K562 cells (K562/A) is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BEZ235 on K562/A cell proliferation. K562/A cells was investigated using CCK­8, flow cytometry and western blotting, following BEZ235 treatment. It was observed that BEZ235 significantly decreased the viability of K562/A cells. In addition, BEZ235 arrested K562/A cells at the G0/G1 phase, and reduced the protein expression levels of CDK4, CDK6 and cyclin D1. Apoptotic cells were more frequently detected in K562/A cells treated with BEZ235 compared with the control group (12.97±0.91% vs. 7.37±0.42%, respectively; P<0.05). Cells treated with BEZ235 exhibited downregulation of Bcl­2 and upregulation of Bax. Furthermore, BEZ235 treatment markedly decreased the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its downstream effectors. Thus, these results demonstrated that BEZ235 inhibited cell viability, induced G0/G1 arrest and increased apoptosis in K562/A cells, suggesting that BEZ235 may reverse Doxo resistance in leukemia cells. Therefore, targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway may be of value as a novel therapeutic approach to leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células K562 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281151

RESUMO

The application of siRNA in gene therapy is mainly limited because of the problems with its transport into cells. Utilization of cationic dendrimers as siRNA carriers seems to be a promising solution in overcoming these issues, due to their positive charge and ability to penetrate cell membranes. The following two types of carbosilane dendrimers were examined: CBD-1 and CBD-2. Dendrimers were complexed with pro-apoptotic siRNA (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) and the complexes were characterized by measuring their zeta potential, circular dichroism and fluorescence of ethidium bromide associated with dendrimers. CBD-2/siRNA complexes were also examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both dendrimers form complexes with siRNA. Moreover, the cellular uptake and influence on the cell viability of the dendrimers and dendriplexes were evaluated using microscopic methods and XTT assay on MCF-7 cells. Microscopy showed that both dendrimers can transport siRNA into cells; however, a cytotoxicity assay showed differences in the toxicity of these dendrimers.


Assuntos
RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Silanos/farmacologia , Cátions , Sobrevivência Celular , Dicroísmo Circular , Dendrímeros/química , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Silanos/química , Silanos/metabolismo
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(8): 691-701, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resveratrol (REV), a natural compound found in red wine, exhibits antitumor activity in various cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). However, its potential anti-tumor mechanisms in OC are not well characterized. Here, we tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of REV in OC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-proliferative effects of REV against OC cells were measured using CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit. The anti-metastasis effects of REV were evaluated by invasion assay and wound healing assay. The miRNA profiles in REV-treated cells were determined by microarray assay. RESULTS: Our results showed that REV treatment suppresses the proliferation, induces the apoptosis, and inhibits the invasion and migration of OV-90 and SKOV-3 cells. miR-34a was selected for further study due to its tumor suppressive roles in various human cancers. We found miR-34a overexpression enhanced the inhibitory effects of REV on OC cells, whereas miR-34a inhibition had the opposite effect in OC cells. In addition, we verified that BCL2, an anti-apoptotic gene, was found directly targeted by miR-34a. We also found that REV reduced the expression of Bcl-2 in OC cells. Further investigations revealed that overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly abolished the anti-tumor effects of REV on OC cells. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results demonstrated that REV exerts anti-cancer effects on OC cells through an miR-34a/Bcl-2 axis, highlighting the therapeutic potential of REV for treatment of OC.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209365

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are potentially a good material for transplantation in many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. The main problem with using them is the low percentage of surviving cells after the transplant procedure and the naturally poor ability of MSC to spontaneously differentiate into certain types of cells, which results in their poor integration with the host cells. The aim and the novelty of this work consists in the synergistic overexpression of two genes, BCL2 and BDNF, using lentiviral vectors. According to our hypothesis, the overexpression of the BCL2 gene is aimed at increasing the resistance of cells to stressors and toxic factors. In turn, the overexpression of the BDNF gene is suspected to direct the MSC into the neural differentiation pathway. As a result, it was shown that the overexpression of both genes and the overproduction of proteins is permanent and persists for at least 60 days. The synergistically transduced MSC were significantly more resistant to the action of staurosporine; 12 days after transduction, the synergistically transduced MSC had a six-times greater survival rate. The overexpression of the Bcl-2 and BDNF proteins was sufficient to stimulate a significant overexpression of the CHAT gene, and under specific conditions, the TH, TPH1, and SYP genes were also overexpressed. Modified MSC are able to differentiate into cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons, and the release of acetylcholine and dopamine may indicate their functionality.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Diferenciação Celular , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/biossíntese , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Humanos , Lentivirus , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Transdução Genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205883

RESUMO

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating emergent event associated with high mortality and morbidity. Survivors usually experience functional neurological sequelae caused by vasospasm-related delayed ischemia. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham (non-SAH) group, SAH group, and three groups with SAH treated with different doses of valproic acid (VPA) (10, 20, 40 mg/kg, once-daily, for 7 days). The severity of vasospasm was determined by the ratio of cross-sectional areas to intima-media thickness of the basilar arteries (BA) on the seventh day after SAH. The BA showed decreased expression of phospho-Akt proteins. The dentate gyrus showed increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax proteins and decreased expression of Bcl-2, phospho-ERK 1/2, phospho-Akt and acetyl-histone H3 proteins. The incidence of SAH-induced vasospasm was significantly lower in the SAH group treated with VPA 40 mg/kg (p < 0.001). Moreover, all groups treated with VPA showed reversal of the above-mentioned protein expression in BA and the dentate gyrus. Treatment with VPA upregulated histone H3 acetylation and conferred anti-vasospastic and neuro-protective effects by enhancing Akt and/or ERK phosphorylation. This study demonstrated that VPA could alleviate delayed cerebral vasospasm induced neuro-apoptosis after SAH.


Assuntos
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Ratos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/genética , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/patologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: bone tissue regeneration remains a current challenge. A growing body of evidence shows that mitochondrial dysfunction impairs osteogenesis and that this organelle may be the target for new therapeutic options. Current literature illustrates that red and near-infrared light can affect the key cellular pathways of all life forms through interactions with photoacceptors within the cells' mitochondria. The current study aims to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which photobiomodulation (PBM) by 900-nm wavelengths can induce in vitro molecular changes in pre-osteoblasts. METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Scholar databases were used. The manuscripts included in the narrative review were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The new experimental set-up was based on irradiation with a 980-nm laser and a hand-piece with a standard Gaussian and flat-top beam profile. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were irradiated at 0.75, 0.45, and 0.20 W in continuous-wave emission mode for 60 s (spot-size 1 cm2) and allowed to generate a power density of 0.75, 0.45, and 0.20 W/cm2 and a fluence of 45, 27, and 12 J/cm2, respectively. The frequency of irradiation was once, three times (alternate days), or five times (every day) per week for two consecutive weeks. Differentiation, proliferation, and cell viability and their markers were investigated by immunoblotting, immunolabelling, fluorescein-FragELTM-DNA, Hoechst staining, and metabolic activity assays. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The 980-nm wavelength can photobiomodulate the pre-osteoblasts, regulating their metabolic schedule. The cellular signal activated by 45 J/cm2, 0.75 W and 0.75 W/cm2 consist of the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 pathway; differentiation markers were not affected, nor do other parameters seem to stimulate the cells. Our previous and present data consistently support the window effect of 980 nm, which has also been described in extracted mitochondria, through activation of signalling PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 and cyclin family, while the Wnt and Smads 2/3-ß-catenin pathway was induced by 55 J/cm2, 0.9 W and 0.9 W/cm2.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos/citologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Crânio/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Lasers , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos da radiação , Osteogênese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Crânio/metabolismo , Crânio/efeitos da radiação
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112531, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303041

RESUMO

Inorganic arsenic compounds are environmental toxicants that are widely distributed in air, water, and food. B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) is an oncogene having anti-apoptotic function. In this study, we clarify that BCL-2, as a pro-apoptotic factor, participates in As2O3-induced apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. Specifically, As2O3 stimulated the expression of BCL-2 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner which was highly accumulated in the nucleus of BEAS-2B cell together with chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. Mechanistically, the process described above is mediated through the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, which can be abated by corresponding inhibitors, such as BAY11-7082 and SB203580, respectively. Additionally, BAY11-7082, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide have inhibitory effects on As2O3-induced expression of BCL-2 mRNA and protein, and restore the cell viability of BEAS-2B cells. Suppression of BCL-2 protein activation by ABT-199 also restored viability of BEAS-2B cell in As2O3-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, As2O3 increased the level of BCL-2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that in BEAS-2B cells, As2O3-induced apoptosis is mainly dominated by BCL-2 upregulation, nuclear localization and phosphorylation. The study presented here provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of BCL-2-induced apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Arsenicais , Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/genética , Óxidos/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208159

RESUMO

B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (Cycs) are two important proteins relevant to cellular apoptosis. In this study, we characterized the functions of the promoter regions of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Cycs, in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We obtained a 1989 bp Bcl-2 promoter and an 1830 bp Cycs promoter and predicted several key transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on the promoters, such as Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), forkhead box O (FOXO), metal-responsive element (MRE) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α). Zinc (Zn) increased the activities of the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased the activities of the Cycs promoter. Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and HNF-1α directly bound with Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, and they positively regulated the activity of the Bcl-2 promoter but negatively regulated the activity of the Cycs promoter. Zn promoted the binding ability of HNF-1α to the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased its binding ability to the Cycs promoter. However, Zn had no significant effect on the binding capability of MTF-1 to the regions of Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters. Zn upregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Bcl-2 but downregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Cycs. At the same time, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that Zn significantly reduced the apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. For the first time, our study provides evidence for the MRE and HNF-1α response elements on the Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, offering new insight into the mechanism by which Zn affects apoptosis in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Peixes-Gato/genética , Citocromos c/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 221: 112245, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182186

RESUMO

There is currently no clear understanding on the pathways involved in the process of cell inhibition by photobiomodulation (PBM). The present study evaluated the influence of PBM on the expression of autophagy markers in vitro in an in situ model of oral carcinoma. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (Cal27) and stromal fibroblasts (FG) cultures were used. The independent variables were 'cell type' (FG and CAL27) 'culture condition' (monocultures or co-cultures) and PBM (placebo and 36 J/cm2). The cultures were irradiated from a red LED source for mRNA expression and protein expression analyses. The autophagy markers evaluated were Beclin-1, LC3B and p62 as well as adjuvant markers (BAX Bcl-2, VEGF, CD105, CD34, PRDX1, PRDX4 and GRP78). The Cal27 cells upregulated the autophagy markers upon exposure to PBM both at the mRNA and protein expression levels, providing evidence to explain malignant cell inhibition by PBM.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Luz , Regulação para Cima/efeitos da radiação , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064489

RESUMO

Melanoma represents one of the most aggressive and drug resistant skin cancers with poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Despite the increasing number of targeted therapies, novel approaches are needed to counteract both therapeutic resistance and the side effects of classic therapy. Betulinic acid (BA) is a bioactive phytocompound that has been reported to induce apoptosis in several types of cancers including melanomas; however, its effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics are less investigated. The present study performed in A375 human melanoma cells was aimed to characterize the effects of BA on mitochondrial bioenergetics and cellular behavior. BA demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect in both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in A375 melanoma cells and at sub-toxic concentrations (10 µM) induced mitochondrial dysfunction by eliciting a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and changes in mitochondria morphology and localization. In addition, BA triggered a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect characterized by apoptotic features: morphological alterations (nuclear fragmentation, apoptotic bodies) and the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers mRNA expression (Bax, Bad and Bak). BA represents a viable therapeutic option via a complex modulatory effect on mitochondrial metabolism that might be useful in advanced melanoma or as reliable strategy to counteract resistance to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/genética , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070493

RESUMO

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a naturally occurring non-proteinogenic amino acid, which contributes to the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches of various cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether 5-ALA exerted cytotoxic effects on GBM cells. We assessed cell viability, apoptosis rate, mRNA expressions of various apoptosis-related genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and migration ability of the human U-87 malignant GBM cell line (U87MG) treated with 5-ALA at different doses. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 5-ALA on U87MG cells was 500 µg/mL after 7 days; 5-ALA was not toxic for human optic cells and NIH-3T3 cells at this concentration. The application of 5-ALA led to a significant increase in apoptotic cells, enhancement of Bax and p53 expressions, reduction in Bcl-2 expression, and an increase in ROS generation. Furthermore, the application of 5-ALA increased the accumulation of U87MG cells in the SUB-G1 population, decreased the expression of cyclin D1, and reduced the migration ability of U87MG cells. Our data indicate the potential cytotoxic effects of 5-ALA on U87MG cells. Further studies are required to determine the spectrum of the antitumor activity of 5-ALA on GBM.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
Leuk Res ; 107: 106604, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965850

RESUMO

Determination of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio may be a good predictive tool to recognize chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients' outcome and prognosis to decide the time and type of therapy. This prospective study was carried out on 100 patients with newly diagnosed CLL. Bax and Bcl-2 expression in peripheral blood were measured by flow-cytometry. The association of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with CLL laboratory markers, Rai stage, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 18 months was investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of Bax/Bcl-2 in predicting survival was evaluated. The best cut-off value of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio to predict the survival, detected by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, was 1.2 with 80 % sensitivity and 60.86 % specificity. A ratio of ≤1.20 was detected in 78 % of patients and was associated with worse prognosis. A lower Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was associated with higher modified Rai stage at time of diagnosis and a significantly shorter both OS (64.1 % versus 90.9 %, p < 0.026) and PFS (66.7 % versus 90.9 %, p < 0.031) at 18 months. In multivariate analysis, bax/bcl-2 ≤ 1.2 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, (p = 0.025). We concluded that lower Bax /Bcl-2 ratios were associated with worse prognosis as evidenced by lower OS and PFS in CLL patients. It was also associated with markers of high tumor burden and unfavorable prognostic markers. Recognition of patients with low Bax /Bcl-2 ratio would make them good candidates for the novel Bcl-2 inhibitory targeted chemotherapy to avoid resistance to the traditional therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Curva ROC , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
17.
Mol Cell Biol ; 41(8): e0006521, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001648

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can lead to serious brain function impairments. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) CCAAT enhancer binding protein α antisense RNA 1 (CEBPA-AS1) was shown to be upregulated in human ischemic stroke. This study investigated the function and mechanism of CEBPA-AS1 in I/R. An oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model was used to induce I/R injury in SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. RT-qPCR examined the expression of CEBPA-AS1, microRNA 24-3p (miR-24-3p), and Bcl-2-related ovarian killer (Bok). The cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress in OGD/R-treated cells were detected using CCK-8, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The relationship among genes was tested by RNA pulldown and luciferase reporter assays. We found that OGD/R upregulated CEBPA-AS1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Functionally, CEBPA-AS1 depletion ameliorated OGD/R-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells by reducing reactive oxygen species production and superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Mechanistic investigations indicated that CEBPA-AS1 acts as a sponge for miR-24-3p, and miR-24-3p binds to BOK. Moreover, miR-24-3p upregulation or BOK downregulation antagonized the protective role of CEBPA-AS1 depletion in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to OGD/R. Overall, downregulation of CEBPA-AS1 exerts protective functions against OGD/R-induced injury by targeting the miR-24-3p/BOK axis.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
18.
J Int Med Res ; 49(5): 3000605211019187, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Abnormal B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and interleukin-19 (IL-19) expression is closely related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. We aimed to determine whether BCL2 polymorphisms and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IL19 are significantly associated with SLE susceptibility and if this is affected by synergism between IL19 and BCL2 genotypes. METHODS: This observational cohort study randomly enrolled 150 patients with SLE and 150 healthy controls. Major BCL2 and IL19 allele and genotype distributions were examined in the two groups. The IL19 SNP rs2243188 was determined using the TaqMan-MGB probe method. The synergistic effect between BCL2 and IL19 and clinical symptoms of SLE was also analyzed. RESULTS: The distribution of major BCL2 genotypes and common BCL2 alleles, especially for genotypes 191, 193, and 197, differed significantly between patients and controls. A significant difference in the dominant genetic model was also observed between groups, but not in the recessive model. The risk of disease in individuals who carried both 195-bp BCL2 and 138-bp IL19 susceptibility alleles was higher than in those carrying either allele alone. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggested that BCL2 polymorphisms and the IL19 SNP rs2243188 are closely related to the pathogenesis of SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2580, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972534

RESUMO

Combining genetic and cell-type-specific proteomic datasets can generate biological insights and therapeutic hypotheses, but a technical and statistical framework for such analyses is lacking. Here, we present an open-source computational tool called Genoppi (lagelab.org/genoppi) that enables robust, standardized, and intuitive integration of quantitative proteomic results with genetic data. We use Genoppi to analyze 16 cell-type-specific protein interaction datasets of four proteins (BCL2, TDP-43, MDM2, PTEN) involved in cancer and neurological disease. Through systematic quality control of the data and integration with published protein interactions, we show a general pattern of both cell-type-independent and cell-type-specific interactions across three cancer cell types and one human iPSC-derived neuronal cell type. Furthermore, through the integration of proteomic and genetic datasets in Genoppi, our results suggest that the neuron-specific interactions of these proteins are mediating their genetic involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, our analyses suggest that human iPSC-derived neurons are a relevant model system for studying the involvement of BCL2 and TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Software , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Genômica , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Proteômica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836616

RESUMO

Despite advances that have improved the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in chronic phase, the mechanisms of the transition from chronic phase CML to blast crisis (BC) are not fully understood. Considering the key role of miR-15/16 loci in the pathogenesis of myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia, here we aimed to correlate the expression of miR-15a/16 and miR-15b/16 to progression of CML from chronic phase to BC. We analyzed the expression of the two miR-15/16 clusters in 17 CML patients in chronic phase and 22 patients in BC and in 11 paired chronic phase and BC CML patients. BC CMLs show a significant reduction of the expression of miR-15a/-15b/16 compared to CMLs in chronic phase. Moreover, BC CMLs showed an overexpression of miR-15/16 direct targets such as Bmi-1, ROR1, and Bcl-2 compared to CMLs in chronic phase. This study highlights the loss of both miR-15/16 clusters as a potential oncogenic driver in the transition from chronic phase to BC in CML patients.


Assuntos
Crise Blástica/patologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Crise Blástica/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo
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