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1.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 549-558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879254

RESUMO

Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a stabilizer by-product in the process of manufacturing plastic, which is a kind of very strong toxic substance, and has acute, cumulative and chronic toxicity. TMT may cause bradycardia in patients with occupational poisoning, the mechanism of which has not been reported. This study explored the mechanism of TMT resulting in bradycardia of C57BL/6 mice. TMT was administered to mice to measure heart rate, serum succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) level, and myocardial Na+/K+-ATPase activity and expression. The effects of TMT on myocardial apoptosis were observed by changing the expressions of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in myocardium. It was found that the heart rate and SDH activity in serum of mice gradually decreased with the increase of TMT dose compared with the control group. The activity and the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart tissue of mice exposed to TMT was measured and gradually decreased with the increase of dose and time. We measured the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in the heart tissues of TMT exposed mice and found that the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 increased and the expressions of Bcl-2 decreased in the heart tissues of the TMT-exposed mice at different doses. With the extension of TMT exposure time, the expression of Bax and caspase-3 increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in the heart tissues of TMT exposed mice. Our findings suggest the mechanisms of TMT resulting in bradycardia may be associated with the inhibited activity and decreased content of Na+/K+-ATPase, thus further leading to the changes of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in the mice's ventricular tissues.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bradicardia/etiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Compostos de Trimetilestanho/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Bradicardia/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790676

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive pathological condition associated with proliferation of prostatic tissues, prostate enlargement, and lower-urinary tract symptoms. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a combination of Stauntonia hexaphylla and Cornus officinalis (SC extract) on a testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH model. The effect of SC extract was examined in a TP-induced human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6) for in vivo experiments. To induce BPH, all rats, except those in the control group, were administered daily with subcutaneous injections of TP (5 mg/kg) and orally treated with appropriate phosphate buffered saline/drugs (finasteride/saw palmetto/SC extract) for 4 consecutive weeks. SC extract significantly downregulated the androgen receptor (AR), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and 5α-reductase type 2 in TP-induced BPH in vitro. In in vivo experiments, SC extract significantly reduced prostate weight, size, serum testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. Histologically, SC extract markedly recovered TP-induced abnormalities and reduced prostatic hyperplasia, thereby improving the histo-architecture of TP-induced BPH rats. SC extract also significantly downregulated AR and PSA expression, as assayed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining revealed that SC extract markedly reduced the 5α-reductase type 2 and significantly downregulated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In addition, immunoblotting of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins indicated that SC extract significantly downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and markedly upregulated pro-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-associated X (Bax) expression. Furthermore, SC treatment significantly decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating induced prostate cell apoptosis in TP-induced BPH rats. Thus, our findings demonstrated that SC extract protects against BPH by inhibiting 5α-reductase type 2 and inducing prostate cell apoptosis. Therefore, SC extract might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/química , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/farmacologia , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/metabolismo , Cornus/química , Cornus/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/etiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ranunculales/química , Ranunculales/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Propionato de Testosterona/efeitos adversos
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3301, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620849

RESUMO

Many cellular stresses are transduced into apoptotic signals through modification or up-regulation of the BH3-only subfamily of BCL2 proteins. Through direct or indirect mechanisms, these proteins activate BAK and BAX to permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. While the BH3-only proteins BIM, PUMA, and tBID have been confirmed to directly activate BAK through its canonical BH3 binding groove, whether the BH3-only proteins BMF, HRK or BIK can directly activate BAK is less clear. Here we show that BMF and HRK bind and directly activate BAK. Through NMR studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and advanced molecular dynamics simulations, we also find that BAK activation by BMF and possibly HRK involves a previously unrecognized binding groove formed by BAK α4, α6, and α7 helices. Alterations in this groove decrease the ability of BMF and HRK to bind BAK, permeabilize membranes and induce apoptosis, suggesting a potential role for this BH3-binding site in BAK activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos Knockout , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/química , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716920

RESUMO

Occlusal disharmony leads to morphological changes in the hippocampus and osteopenia of the lumbar vertebra and long bones in mice, and causes stress. Various types of stress are associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship between occlusal disharmony and cardiovascular disease remain poorly understood. Therefore, in this work, we examined the effects of occlusal disharmony on cardiac homeostasis in bite-opening (BO) mice, in which a 0.7 mm space was introduced by cementing a suitable applicance onto the mandibular incisior. We first examined the effects of BO on the level of serum corticosterone, a key biomarker for stress, and on heart rate variability at 14 days after BO treatment, compared with baseline. BO treatment increased serum corticosterone levels by approximately 3.6-fold and the low frequency/high frequency ratio, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, was significantly increased by approximately 4-fold by the BO treatment. We then examined the effects of BO treatment on cardiac homeostasis in mice treated or not treated with the non-selective ß-blocker propranolol for 2 weeks. Cardiac function was significantly decreased in the BO group compared to the control group, but propranolol ameliorated the dysfunction. Cardiac fibrosis, myocyte apoptosis and myocyte oxidative DNA damage were significantly increased in the BO group, but propranolol blocked these changes. The BO-induced cardiac dysfunction was associated with increased phospholamban phosphorylation at threonine-17 and serine-16, as well as inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling and autophagic flux. These data suggest that occlusal disharmony might affect cardiac homeostasis via alteration of the autonomic nervous system.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16409-16417, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601185

RESUMO

The polar trophoblast overlays the epiblast in eutherian mammals and, depending on the species, has one of two different fates. It either remains a single-layered, thinning epithelium called "Rauber's layer," which soon disintegrates, or, alternatively, it keeps proliferating, contributing heavily to the population of differentiating, invasive trophoblast cells and, at least in mice, to the induction of gastrulation. While loss of the persistent polar trophoblast in mice leads to reduced induction of gastrulation, we show here that prevention of the loss of the polar trophoblast in cattle results in ectopic domains of the gastrulation marker, BRACHYURY This phenotype, and increased epiblast proliferation, arose when Rauber's layer was maintained for a day longer by countering apoptosis through BCL2 overexpression. This suggests that the disappearance of Rauber's layer is a necessity, presumably to avoid excessive signaling interactions between this layer and the subjacent epiblast. We note that, in all species in which the polar trophoblast persists, including humans and mice, ectopic polar trophoblast signaling is prevented via epiblast cavitation which leads to the (pro)amniotic cavity, whose function is to distance the central epiblast from such signaling interactions.


Assuntos
Trofoblastos/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Proteínas Fetais/genética , Proteínas Fetais/metabolismo , Gastrulação , Camadas Germinativas/embriologia , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Camadas Germinativas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4491-4504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxin II (PRDX2) performs unique roles in cells. It can reduce peroxides through cysteine residues, and helps prevent the effects of oxidative stress on cells. It is closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases, especially alcoholic liver injury and even liver cancer. The metabolism of alcohol in hepatocytes leads to the increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, injury, and apoptosis. Therefore, this study focused on the investigating the protection conferred by PRDX2 against alcohol-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PRDX2 inhibition of alcohol-induced apoptosis in L02 hepatocytes was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, western blotting and hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: The results showed that the levels of reactive oxygen species, protein kinase B, ß-catenin, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2), BCL-XL, BCL2-associated X, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in PRDX2-silenced cells were increased significantly after the treatment of cells with ethanol. Similar results were obtained in an in vivo Prdx2-knockout mouse model of alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, PRDX2 may regulate the phosphorylation of the AKT signal protein by eliminating reactive oxygen species from cells, and it inhibits the downstream mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway, and, thereby, the apoptosis of cells. CONCLUSION: Thus, PRDX2 may be a potential molecular target for the prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver injury.


Assuntos
Etanol/efeitos adversos , Hepatócitos/citologia , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 256: 117943, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531377

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic drugs on glioblastoma cells through an improved co-drug delivery system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methotrexate (MTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were co-loaded into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poloxamer188 (P188). KEY FINDINGS: The mean size of the NPs was about 212 nm, with a zeta potential of about -15.7 mV. Encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and drug loading (DL%) were determined to be 72% and 4% for MTX and 85% and 4.9% for PTX, respectively. The prepared NPs were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, an in vitro sustained release profile was observed for both drug loaded PLGA NPs. Glioblastoma cellular uptake of the NPs was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and cell survival rate was investigated through the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method after 48 h of incubation showing IC50 values of 24.5 µg·mL-1 for PTX and 9.5 µg·mL-1 for MTX for the MTX/PTX co-loaded PLGA nanoparticles coated with PVA/P188 (Co-2 NPs). Apoptosis and necrosis were also studied via flow cytometry, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and the amount of anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) expression. Blood compatibility of the co-delivery of PTX and MTX loaded PLGA NPs was investigated using a hemolysis method as well. SIGNIFICANCE: The co-delivery of PTX and MTX loaded PLGA NPs is promising for the treatment of glioblastoma compared to their respective free drug formulations and, thus, should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos
9.
Transl Res ; 224: 26-39, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505707

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most common invasive malignant tumor of the biliary tract, has poor prognosis. There is evidence suggesting that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) plays an important role in cholangiocarcinoma. Also, microRNA-612 (miR-612) is another key regulator of cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, we investigate the scantly documented interaction of HIF1α and miR-612 in cholangiocarcinoma. We first undertook microarray-based cholangiocarcinoma gene expression profiles to screen out the differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and genes. We used reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of HIF1α in normal bile duct and cholangiocarcinoma tissues, and in corresponding cells lines. Cell counting kit 8, scratch, and Transwell assays were used to detect the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. ChIP, dual luciferase reporter gene assay, RNA pull-down, and RNA immunoprecipitation were used to verify relationship between HIF1α and lncRNA H19, and lncRNA H19 and miR-612. We also monitored tumor formation in nude mice to verify the effect of HIF1α on cholangiocarcinoma. HIF1α expression was elevated in cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cells. Silencing HIF1α reduced proliferation, migration, and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells. HIF1α transcriptionally activated the expression of lncRNA H19. Overexpression of miR-612 could rescue the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells caused by lncRNA H19 overexpression. Taken together, HIF1α activated lncRNA H19-mediated miR-612/Bcl-2 pathway to promote cholangiocarcinoma, suggesting a promising therapeutic target for cholangiocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Invasividade Neoplásica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Life Sci ; 256: 118000, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585246

RESUMO

AIMS: Hsp90 is regarded as an important therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Client proteins of Hsp90 like Beclin-1, PI3K, and AKT, are associated with tumor development, poor prognosis, and resistance to cancer therapies. This study aims to analyze the role of Gedunin, an Hsp-90 inhibitor, in mediation of crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy by targeting Beclin-1:Bcl-2 interaction, and ER stress. MAIN METHODS: A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of gedunin, and inhibitory rate was evaluated by MTT assay. Effect of gedunin on generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, and chromatin condensation was studied by staining methods like DCFH-DA, MitoTracker, and DAPI. Expression of EGFR, PIK3CA, AKT, marker genes for apoptosis and autophagy were studied using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Interaction study of Hsp90:Beclin-1:Bcl-2 was done by immunoprecipitation analysis. Protein expression of autophagy and apoptosis markers along with Grp78, Hsp70, and Hsp90 was analyzed by immunoblotting. KEY FINDINGS: Gedunin exerts cytotoxic effects, causes increase in ROS generation, downregulates mitochondrial membrane potential and induces loss in DNA integrity. mRNA expression analysis revealed that gedunin sensitized A549 cells towards apoptosis by downregulating EGFR, PIK3CA, AKT, and autophagy. Gedunin also inhibited interaction between Hsp90:Beclin-1:Bcl-2, leading to downregulation of autophagy (Beclin-1, Atg5-12 complex, and LC3) and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, which may result in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Hsp90 inhibition by gedunin did not cause upregulation of Hsp70 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Gedunin induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells by disrupting Hsp90:Beclin-1:Bcl-2 interaction and autophagy downregulation, thus making gedunin a good drug lead for targeting lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Limoninas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Limoninas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109184, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590070

RESUMO

Scoulerine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Corydalis plants, has been reported to possess potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic function in cancer cells. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of scoulerine on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression remain elusive. CCK-8 and LDH assays were used to evaluate cell viability. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry analysis, caspase-3/7 activity assay, and Western blot analysis of Bax, Bcl-2 and cytochrome c (Cyt C) expression. Oxidative stress level was examined by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation was detected by Western blot analysis of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression. Results showed that scoulerine dose-dependently suppressed CRC cell viability. Scoulerine induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3/7 activity in CRC cells. Bax and cytosolic Cyt C expression was enhanced while Bcl-2 and mitochondrial Cyt C expression was reduced in scoulerine-treated CRC cells. Additionally, scoulerine induced oxidative damage in CRC cells by increasing ROS generation and reducing GSH content and SOD activity. Scoulerine activated ER stress, as evidenced by the increased GRP78 and CHOP expression in CRC cells. Interestingly, blocking ROS production by ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) attenuated scoulerine-induced ER stress. Inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) abolished scoulerine-induced ROS generation in CRC cells. Blockage of ROS and ER stress attenuated scoulerine-induced cell viability reduction and apoptosis in CRC cells. In conclusion, scoulerine promoted cell viability reduction and apoptosis by activating ROS-dependent ER stress in CRC cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 256: 117924, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522568

RESUMO

AIMS: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degeneration and joint inflammation. As its pathogenesis remains unclear, there are no effective treatments established. Circular RNA (circRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and other noncoding RNAs participate in OA development; however, the effects and mechanisms of circRNA and miRNA in OA remain unknown. MAIN METHODS: Cartilage miRNA was examined in patients with and without OA. KEY FINDINGS: CircRNA-9119 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression decreased in OA-affected cartilage and interleukin (IL)-1ß-induced chondrocytes, and miR-26a expression significantly decreased in normal cells and tissues. CircRNA-9119 overexpression restored chondrocyte growth, whereas IL-1ß treatment impaired chondrocyte growth. Annexin V-FITC & PI flow cytometry and Bcl-2/Bax ratio measurement indicated that the apoptosis of IL-1ß-treated articular chondrocytes was decreased by circRNA-9119 upregulation. Bioinformatic prediction and the dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that circRNA-9119 served as a miR-26a sponge and that miR-26a targeted the 3'-UTR of PTEN. Transfection of chondrocytes with a circRNA-9119-overexpressing vector revealed downregulation of miR-26a expression. Furthermore, circRNA-9119 overexpression induced PTEN expression. In addition, a miR-26a mimic induced IL-1ß-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, and circRNA-9119 overexpression inhibited IL-1ß-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: CircRNA-9119 is an important regulator of IL-1ß-treated chondrocytes through the miR-26a/PTEN axis, possibly contributing to OA development.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Condrócitos/citologia , Regulação para Baixo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 24(3): 277-282, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488544

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to find out if the biological behavior and the capacity of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) in maintaining pathologic cells alive are more similar to the dentigerous cyst or to the ameloblastoma by assessing bcl-2. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus for immunohistochemical studies reporting OKCs, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastomas. Risk difference between the lesions expressing bcl-2 was the effect measure and a P value < 0.05 was considered to provide evidence to the effect estimates. OKCs have an estimated difference of 91% in the probability to express the bcl-2 over dentigerous cysts, but there is no difference in the expression of bcl-2 between OKCs and ameloblastomas. The present study demonstrated a great risk difference in the expression of bcl-2 between OKCs and dentigerous cysts and no risk difference between OKCs and ameloblastomas. OKC's growth may indirectly be attributed to the anti-apoptotic effect of bcl-2 in the cystic epithelium and not only to the increase of its intraluminal pressure. Therefore, the classification of this lesion into keratocystic odontogenic tumor should be carefully reconsidered.


Assuntos
Cisto Dentígero , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares , Cistos Odontogênicos , Tumores Odontogênicos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3471-3482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547008

RESUMO

Introduction: Nanoparticles are at the forefront of rapidly developing nanotechnology and have gained much attention for their application as an effective drug delivery system and as a mediated therapeutic agent for cancer. However, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is still relatively unknown and, therefore, additional study is required in order to elucidate the potential toxicity of these nanoparticles on cells. Materials and Methods: Thus, the following work aimed to investigate the capability of Beta vulgaris (beetroot) water extract (BWE; 200 mg/kg) to protect hepatic tissue following silver nanoparticles (AgNPs; 80 mg/kg; >100 nm) intoxication in male rats. Results: AgNPs-intoxication elevated the liver function markers - including serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase activities - and decreased serum levels of albumin and total proteins, in addition to disturbing the oxidation homeostasis. This is evidenced by the increased lipid peroxidation, the depleted glutathione, and the suppressed activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, an apoptotic reaction was observed following AgNPs treatment, as indicated by the up-regulation of p53 and down-regulating Bcl-2 expressions, examined by the immunohistochemistry method. Furthermore, AgNPs exhibited a marked elevation in liver DNA damage that was indicated by an increase in tail length, tail DNA% and tail movement. However, BWE eliminated the biochemical and histological alterations, reflecting its hepatoprotection effect in response to AgNPs. Discussion: Collectively, the present data suggest that BWE could be used following AgNPs as a potential therapeutic intervention to minimize AgNPs-induced liver toxicity.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Fígado/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(1): 183-185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362635

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) with MYC translocations combined with translocations involving BCL-2 or BCL-6 are referred to as double-hit lymphomas. These lymphomas are generally refractory to currently available therapies and have a poor prognosis. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a rare subtype of DLBCL, which shares clinical, pathologic, and genetic similarities with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Unlike DLBCL, rearrangements involving MYC, BCL-2, and BCL-6 are typically absent in PMBL. We present a patient with PMBL who had increased gene copy numbers of MYC and BCL-2 along with increased protein expression of BCL-2 (c-Myc expression was about 15%-20% by immunostain). The disease was refractory to standard and salvage chemotherapies. The lymphoma, however, responded to brentuximab vedotin, a CD30-directed chemoimmunoconjugate.


Assuntos
Brentuximab Vedotin/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Ki-1/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Mediastino/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/genética , Neoplasias do Mediastino/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética
16.
Int Heart J ; 61(3): 585-594, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418959

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the world's leading causes of human death. Kaempferol (Kae) was proved to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Such properties suggested that it might play protective roles in IHD. In this study, we have attempted to disclose the potential regulating mechanisms of Kae in primary cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells.Cells were first stimulated by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and then exposed to Kae. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to examine cell characteristics. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was utilized to test the expression levels of miR-15b and TLR4. Afterward, cell transfection, dual-luciferase activity assay, and western blot were used to explore the potential mechanisms.OGD treatment suppressed cell viability, whereas it enhanced cell apoptosis. Besides, OGD treatment enhanced the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. Kae exposure, however, attenuated the effects that OGD-induced. Further experiments showed that Kae exposure promoted down-regulation of miR-15b, Bcl-2 and TLR4 were a target of miR-15b. Moreover, Kae enhanced the expression of key factors involved in PI3K/AKT and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways, whereas miR-15b mimic reversed the Kae-triggered effects.This investigation revealed that Kae diminished OGD-triggered cell damage through down-regulating miR-15b expression via activating PI3K/AKT and Wnt3a/ß-catenin pathways.


Assuntos
Quempferóis/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo
17.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 54(2): 233-243, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392192

RESUMO

Obesity is a major disease that causes significant complications. Inhibition of preadipocyte proliferation has the potential to prevent obesity and metabolic diseases. Melatonin is a pineal gland hormone that has various effects on cells and tissues. In this research, we investigated whether melatonin induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured until confluence and then treated with 0, 10, 100, and 1000 µM melatonin for 1, 3, and 5 days. A cell viability assay kit was used for determining cell viability. Cell death marker proteins were assessed by Western blot analysis using GAPDH for control. Apoptotic morphological changes with nuclei fragmentation were observed using DAPI staining. Melatonin treatment decreased the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) activation while increasing the activation of caspase-3, 8, and 9. Furthermore, melatonin not only increased Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) but decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression as dose increases from 0 to 1000 µM. The melatonin treatment also suppressed the growth of preadipocytes with increasing concentration. These effects were attenuated by luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist and U0126, an inhibitor of p-ERK activation. In conclusion, melatonin can induce apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes via p-ERK decrease.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Apoptose , Melatonina/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
18.
Cell Prolif ; 53(5): e12821, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising approach for cancer treatment, and the underlying signalling pathway changes has been carried out for studying the PDT mechanisms, but is majorly limited to organic photosensitizers (PSs). For the emerging nano-PSs typically possessing higher 1 O2 quantum yield, few mechanistic studies were carried out, which limited their further applications in clinical therapeutics. PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, a most frequently activated signalling network in cancers, could promote cancer cell survival, but was seldom reported in previous PDT studies mediated by nano-PSs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sulphur doped carbon dots (S-CDs) was prepared via a hydrothermal synthetic route and was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and so on. CCK-8 assay and Annexin V/PI staining were performed to demonstrate the death of cancer cells, Western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were employed to explore the underlying mechanism, and variation of PI3K/Akt and other signalling pathways was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: S-CDs was successfully synthesized, and it was much more efficient compared with classic organic PSs. S-CDs could induce cancer cell death through mitochondria mediated cell apoptosis with the imbalance of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase cascade via several signalling pathways. Low concentration of S-CDs could effectively inhibit PI3K/Akt pathway and promote p38/JNK pathway, on one way inhibiting cancer cell survival and on the other way promoting cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we found that S-CDs acted as an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway for efficient cancer cell killing, thus yielding in a higher PDT performance over the existing photosensitizers.


Assuntos
Carbono/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Enxofre/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20140, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443328

RESUMO

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) typically shows a strong uptake of F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) imaged by positron emission tomography (PET). Uncommonly, PCNSL demonstrates a low uptake on FDG PET. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of the unusual cases of PCNSL with low FDG uptake.We retrospectively enrolled 104 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL who underwent baseline brain FDG PET. The degree of FDG uptake of PCNSL was visually scored by 4 grades (0, ≤contralateral white matter; 1, >contralateral white matter and contralateral gray matter). Grades 0-2 were considered as PCNSL with low uptake. We investigated association of low uptake of PCNSL with the following clinicopathological factors: age, sex, steroid treatment, lactate dehydrogenase level, cerebrospinal fluid protein level, condition of PET scanning, immunohistochemical markers (cluster of differentiation 10 [CD10], B-cell lymphoma 6 [BCL-6], B-cell lymphoma 2 [BCL-2], multiple myeloma oncogene 1 [MUM1], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] protein, and Ki67), location of lesions, tumor size, multiplicity of lesions, involvement of deep brain structures, and cystic or necrotic appearance of lesions.Of the 104 patients with PCNSL, 14 patients (13.5%) showed PCNSL with low FDG uptake on PET. Among various clinicopathological factors, MUM1 negativity was the only factor associated with low FDG uptake PCNSL by univariate (P = .002) and multivariate analysis (P = .007).This study suggests that the different clinicopathological characteristics between patients with high uptake and low uptake of PCNSL on FDG PET is closely associated with lack of MUM1, a protein known to be a crucial regulator of B-cell development and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Proteínas do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/análise , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
20.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 19, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer types among women. Recent researches have focused on determining the efficiency of alternative molecules and miRNAs in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of usnic acid response-miR-185-5p on proliferation in the breast cancer cell and to determine its relationship with apoptosis pathway. METHODS: The cell proliferation and cell apoptosis rate were significantly increased following the ectopic expression of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells. Furthermore, the results of cell cycle assay performed by flow cytometry revealed that the transfection with miR-185-5p induced G1/S phase arrest. The apoptosis-related genes expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR and the direct target of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells was identified by western blot and luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Our data showed that miR-185-5p can cause significant changes in apoptosis-related genes expression levels, suggesting that cell proliferation was suppressed by miR-185-5p via inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. According to western blot results, miR-185-5p lead to decrease BCL2 protein level in BT-474 cells and direct target of miR-185-5p was identified as BCL by luciferase reporter assay. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that miR-185-5p may be an effective agent in the treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
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