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1.
Life Sci ; 248: 117461, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097665

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare how OCT4A proteins interact with and regulate multiple OCT4A-octamer motifs (OMs) in different regions of the FOS gene expressed in somatic cancer cells versus pluripotent stem cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two FOS reporter gene systems harboring predicted OMs or their mutational counterparts were introduced into HeLa and NCCIT cells with varying OCT4A protein levels. The transcription of dsGFP reflecting FOS expression was quantitated by RT-qPCR, the OCT4A-OMs binding and the correlation between OCT4A and FOS transcription was determined by ChIP-PCR and RNA-Seq, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: In NCCIT cells, abundant OCT4A proteins bound to and inhibited OM1 and OM2 at the promoter of the FOS gene. RA-induced OCT4A down-regulation transiently increased FOS transcription. In contrast, in HeLa cells that contain much lower levels of endogenous OCT4A proteins, OCT4A primarily bound to and activate OM1 thereby promoting FOS transcription. OCT4A KO significantly reduced FOS expression. Ectopically introduced OCT4A, at its leaked or induced expression level, promoted FOS transcription by binding to OM2/OM3 or OM1/OM3, respectively. Thus, the interaction of OCT4A proteins with different OMs is cellular context- and protein level-dependent, and such complicated OCT4A binding mode can only be reflected by a dsGFP-based reporter harboring the full-length FOS gene but not by that merely having the FOS promoter. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings unravel an additional layer of regulatory mechanisms that account for the cellular context- and dose-related versatile functions of OCT4A protein, and further underscore the importance of precise modulation of OCT4A in the regenerative medicine and anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110940, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693914

RESUMO

Eplingiella fruticosa (Lamiaceae), formally known as Hyptis fruticosa, is an important aromatic medicinal herb used in folk medicine in northeastern Brazil. We aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of essential oil obtained from E. fruticosa (HypEO) complexed with ßCD (HypEO-ßCD) in a chronic widespread non-inflammatory muscle pain animal model (a mice fibromyalgia-like model, FM). The HypEO was extracted by hydro distillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS/FID. Moreover, Fos protein expression in the spinal cord was assessed by immunofluorescence. (E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, ß-pinene and 21 other compounds were identified in the HypEO. The treatment with HypEO-ßCD produced a longer-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect compared to HypEO, without alterations in motor coordination or myorelaxant effects. Moreover, HypEO and HypEO-ßCD produced a significant anti-hyperalgesic effect over 7 consecutive treatment days. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated a decrease in Fos protein expression in the spinal cord (p < 0.001). We demonstrated that the anti-hyperalgesic effect produced by HypEO was improved after complexation with ß-CD and this seems to be related to the central pain-inhibitory pathway, suggesting the possible use of E. fruticosa for chronic pain management.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Lamiaceae/química , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , beta-Ciclodextrinas/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
3.
J Surg Res ; 246: 527-534, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia is a serious problem in patients with gastric cancer who have undergone gastrectomy. Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone primarily secreted from the stomach, has been proposed to prevent anorexia. Significant reduction in plasma ghrelin levels after gastrectomy may contribute to lack of appetite and weight loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of Z-505, a ghrelin receptor agonist, on anorexia after total gastrectomy (TG) in a rat model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a TG model, and then sham-operated (control) and TG rats were randomly assigned to four subgroups receiving administration of Z-505 (100 mg/kg, p.o., once daily) or vehicle for 14 d from day 14 to day 27 after TG. The food intake, body weight, and fat weight were evaluated during the test period. Moreover, the neuronal activity in the hypothalamus was evaluated on day 21 to investigate the mechanism of action of Z-505. RESULTS: In TG rats, Z-505 significantly improved the decrease in cumulative food intake induced by the surgery over 14 d (TG + vehicle; 213.8 ± 15.3 g, n = 12 versus TG + Z-505; 258.2 ± 13.1 g, n = 14, P < 0.05). Z-505 also significantly increased fat weight and had a milder effect on body weight over 14 d. In addition, Z-505 significantly increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (TG + vehicle; 17.8 ± 2.0, n = 12 versus TG + Z-505; 72.2 ± 11.8, n = 12, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Z-505 may be a useful therapeutic treatment for anorexia after TG.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Grelina/sangue , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas , Animais , Anorexia/sangue , Anorexia/etiologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/citologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 256-263, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639410

RESUMO

Transcription factor activator protein (AP)-1 can be activated in nitrogen-mustard-injured mouse skin, and is thought to participate in the inflammatory response. AP-1 consists of homo- or heterodimers of Fos [c-Fos, Fos-B, fos-related antigen (Fra)-1 and Fra-2] and Jun (c-Jun, JunB and JunD) family members, and information about their expression, location and function are still unclear. In nitrogen-mustard-exposed mouse skin, we found p-ERK activation increased Fra-1 and FosB. Unlike the nucleus location of c-Fos and FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2 were mainly expressed in the cytoplasm. In nitrogen-mustard-exposed cultured immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), Fra-1 in the nucleus functioned as an inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that Fra-1 formed dimers with IL-8 transcription factors c-Jun, JunB and JunD. Fra-1 depletion increased c-Fos and FosB in the nucleus, accompanied by increased heterodimers of c-Fos/c-Jun, c-Fos/JunB, c-Fos/JunD, and FosB/JunB. In conclusion, Fra-1 trapped in the cytoplasm after nitrogen mustard exposure might be a driving force for IL-8 over-expression in injured skin.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Epiderme/lesões , Epiderme/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Mecloretamina/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia
5.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 159-170, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483212

RESUMO

We tested whether Sake Lees (SL) had inhibitory effects on hyperalgesia in the hindpaw under psychophysical stress conditions. Male rats were subjected to repeated forced swim stress treatments (FST) from Day -3 to Day -1. Intraperiotoneal administration of SL which contained low concentration of ethanol (SLX) was conducted after each FST. On Day 0, formalin-evoked licking behaviors and Fos responses in the lumbar spinal cord (DH) and several areas within the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) were quantified as nociceptive responses. FST-induced hyperalgesia in the hindpaw was prevented by repeated SL and SLX treatments. Fos expression was significantly increased in DH and some areas within the RVM under FST, which was prevented by repeated SL or SLX. These findings indicated that daily administration of SL had the potential to alleviate stress-induced hyperalgesia.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Formaldeído/administração & dosagem , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/imunologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Natação/fisiologia , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(3): 238-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587016

RESUMO

The present study examined temporal activation patterns of rat cerebellar cortical neurons in 4-aminopyridine induced seizures, using c-fos protein as a marker of neuronal activity. C-fos-containing cells were counted in each cerebellar cortical layer, and cell count was compared between zebrin II positive and zebrin II negative bands of the lobules of the vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. We found significant activation of granule cells and interneurons of the molecular layer in zebrin II positive bands. The Purkinje cells, in contrast, exhibited non-significant, scattered c-fos immunoreactivity across all bands. Fluctuation of synaptophysin expression in the mossy fibre rosettes of the granular layer was determined via light microscopic immunohistochemistry. We detected a transient, significant decrease in synaptophysin staining density following 4-aminopyridine seizures, which may indicate short-term synaptic depression. We also identified different timing of increased c-fos expression in the neurons of the cerebellar cortex in different cortical zones. In particular, the activation pattern of the interneurons of the molecular layer reflected the climbing fibre distribution, reflecting the zonal olivo-cortico-nuclear organization. Seizure-induced activation of the granule cells corresponded with the zebrin II positive zones. This observation raises the possibility that zebrin II positive compartments may be more susceptible to cerebellar convulsions.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Convulsões/metabolismo , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebelar/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Células de Purkinje/citologia , Ratos Wistar , Sinapses/metabolismo
7.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(3): 309-317, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587023

RESUMO

We determined CA1 hippocampal field to be involved in self-exposure, a type of novelty­seeking behaviour that has also been associated with short 22 kHz and flat 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in adult male Long-Evans rats. Rats were habituated for three days to a self-exposure cage with two nose-poke holes. On day four, the animals from the experimental group were allowed to turn the cage light off for 5 s with a nose­poke (test/self­exposure session), while rats from control-yoked group had changing light conditions coupled and identical to the experimental animals. The experimental rats performed more nose-pokes during self-exposure session than animals from the control group. This effect was accompanied by a higher density of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the hippocampal CA1. There were no significant group differences in c-Fos expression in other brain regions analysed. However, possible involvement of several other structures in self-exposure (i.e., CA3, the dentate gyrus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens) is also discussed, as their correlational activity, reflected by c-Fos immunoactivity, was observed in the experimental rats. During test sessions, there were more nose-pokes accompanied by short 22 kHz calls and 50 kHz calls performed by the rats of the experimental group than of the control group. The CA1 region has previously been associated with novelty; short 22 kHz USV and flat 50 kHz USV could be associated with self-exposure, also they appear to be emitted correlatively.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Ratos Long-Evans
8.
Endocr Regul ; 53(2): 83-92, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prolonged treatment with neuroleptics has been shown to induce FosB/ΔFosB expression in several brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum, ventrolateral and dorsolateral septum, nucleus accumbens shell and core, and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Some of these regions are known to be also stress responsive. This study was designed to determine whether repeated clozapine (CLZ) administration for 7 consecutive days to Wistar rats may modify FosB/ΔFosB expression in the above-mentioned brain areas induced by acute stress or novel stressor that followed 13-day chronic mild stress preconditioning. METHODS: Following experimental groups were used: unstressed animals treated with vehicle/ CLZ for 7 days; 7-day vehicle/CLZ-treated animals on the last day exposed to acute stress - forced swimming (FSW); and animals preconditioned with stress for 13 days treated from the 8th day with vehicle/CLZ and on the 14th day exposed to novel stress - FSW. RESULTS: In the unstressed animals CLZ markedly increased FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral septum and PVN. FSW elevated FosB/ΔFosB expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and septum. CLZ markedly potentiated the effect of the FSW on FosB/ΔFosB expression in the PVN, but suppressed it in the dorsomedial striatum. Novel stress with stress preconditioning increased FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, ventrolateral septum, and the PVN. In the nucleus accumbens the effect of the novel stressor was potentiated by CLZ. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that CLZ may modulate the acute as well as novel stress effects on FosB/ΔFosB expression but its effect differs within the individual brain regions.


Assuntos
Clozapina/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/patologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Natação/psicologia
9.
Endocr Regul ; 53(3): 165-177, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the spatial relationship between the c-Fos immunoreactive cells elicited by an acute treatment with neuroleptics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI) and enkephalinergic (ENK), substance P (SP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) innervation fields in the rat septum. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of OLA (5 mg), ARI (10 mg), AMI (20 mg), QUE (15 mg/kg/b.w.). Ninety min after antipsychotics administration, the animals were transcardially perfused with a fixative and the brains cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black endproduct. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to ENK, SP, and TH antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent AlexaFluor 564 dye. The data were evaluated from the sections either simultaneously illuminated with fluorescent and transmission microscope beams or after merging the separately illuminated sections in the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. RESULTS: ENK, SP, and TH displayed characteristic spatial images formed by a dense accumulation of immunoreactive fibers and terminals on the both sides of the septum. A dense plexus of axons formed by ENK and SP immunopositive terminals were situated predominantly in the lateral, while TH ones more medial portion of the septum. QUE and AMI activated distinct amount of c-Fos expression in cells located within the SP-immunoreactive principal innervation field. The OLA effect on the c-Fos expression was very pronounced in the ventral TH-labeled principal innervation field including the space between the ENK field ventral portion and the dorsal margin of the accumbens nucleus shell. Generally, the occurrence of c-Fos cells in the ENK-immunoreactive principal innervation field, in comparison with the surrounding septal area, was less abundant after all of the four antipsychotics treatments. CONCLUSION: The data of the present study indicate that ENK, SP, and TH innervation fields may influence separate populations of septal cells activated by AMI, OLA, QUE, and ARI and that each of these region-differently innervated cells may be associated with the functional heterogeneity of the individual lateral septal nuclei.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Septo do Cérebro/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância P/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Amissulprida/farmacologia , Animais , Aripiprazol/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Olanzapina/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Septo do Cérebro/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Cell Prolif ; 52(6): e12693, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited skeletal disease characterized by increased bone mineral density due to the loss of osteoclast function or differentiation potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved a Chinese patient with osteopetrosis (the proband) and her immediate family members and 180 controls without osteopetrosis. Bone density of the femoral neck, lumbar spine and total body was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Osteoclast differentiation by the participants' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Osteoblast differentiation was examined with Alizarin Red S staining. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to amplify immunoglobulin superfamily member 23 (IGSF23), c-FOS and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATC1). RESULTS: We found a homozygous mutation (c.295C>T) in the IGSF23 gene in two osteopetrosis samples. The mutation led to the formation of a stop codon, causing loss of the immunoglobulin-like domain and the whole transmembrane domain. PBMCs from the proband (IGSF23-/- ) exhibited poor ability for differentiating into mature osteoclasts in vitro. Overexpression of IGSF23 rescued the ability of IGSF23-/- PBMCs to differentiate into osteoclasts. Moreover, knockdown of IGSF23 reversed the bone loss in OVX mice by injecting AAV-shIGSF23 into mice femoral bone marrow cavity. Furthermore, we also found that the IGSF23 mutation led to decreased c-Fos and NFATC1 expression levels by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: IGSF23-mediated osteoclast differentiation of PBMCs may serve as a potential target in osteoporosis therapy.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteopetrose/genética , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteopetrose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo
11.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2948-2959, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478281

RESUMO

The balance between the osteoblasts and the osteoclasts is important for the maintenance of the skeleton of the human body. The osteoclasts absorb bone after differentiated into polymorphonuclear cells by the fusion of monocytes/macrophages. We have found that 6,7,4'-Trihydroxyflavone (THF), a compound from the heartwood of Dalbergia Odorifera inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation, actin ring formation, and bone resorption in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow macrophage. THF significantly inhibited the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling pathway without affecting extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and AKT signaling. Moreover, THF inhibited the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells cytoplasm 1, cathepsin K, and c-src by RANKL. We used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss model in mice. Consequently, bone volume per tissue volume, trabecular number's reduction was recovered in THF-treated mice, and trabecular separation's augmentation was also attenuated by THF administration. In summary, THF inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by MAPK signaling pathway and inhibits bone resorption by destroying the actin ring in mature osteoclasts. THF also prevented LPS-induced bone loss in a mice model. Thus, THF may be useful in the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dalbergia/química , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Neuropeptides ; 77: 101962, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488323

RESUMO

Hindbrain energy state shapes hypothalamic control of glucostasis. Dorsal vagal complex (DVC) L-lactate deficiency is a potent glucose-stimulatory signal that triggers neuronal transcriptional activation in key hypothalamic metabolic loci. The energy gauge AMPK is activated in DVC metabolic-sensory A2 noradrenergic neurons by hypoglycemia-associated lactoprivation, but sensor reactivity is diminished by antecedent hypoglycemia (AH). Current research addressed the premise that AH alters hindbrain lactoprivic regulation of hypothalamic metabolic transmitter function. AH did not modify reductions in A2 dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and monocarboxylate-2 (MCT2) protein expression elicited by caudal fourth ventricular delivery of the MCT inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CIN), but attenuated 4CIN activation of A2 AMPK. 4CIN constraint of hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) activity was averted by AH in a site-specific manner. 4CIN induction of Fos immunolabeling in hypothalamic arcuate (ARH), ventromedial (VMN), dorsomedial (DMN) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was avoided by AH. AH affected reactivity of select hypothalamic metabolic neurotransmitter/enzyme marker proteins, e.g. ARH neuropeptide Y, VMN glutamate decarboxylase, DMN RFamide-related peptide-1 and -3, and LHA orexin-A profiles to 4CIN, but did not alleviate drug inhibition of ARH proopiomelanocortin. AH prevented 4CIN augmentation of circulating glucagon, but did not alter hyperglycemic or hypocorticosteronemic responses to that treatment. Results identify hindbrain lactate deficiency as a stimulus for glucagon secretion, and imply that habituation of this critical counter-regulatory hormone to recurring hypoglycemia may involve one or more hypothalamic neurotransmitters characterized here by acclimation to this critical sensory stimulus.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Rombencéfalo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ativação Transcricional
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 207, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cnidii Rhizoma is the dried root stem of Cnidium officinale Makino. Cnidii Rhizoma (CR) has been used to treat menstrual irregularity, menstrual pain, and menopause in Korea. However, the effects and mechanisms of CR on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis pathway remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of CR on the inhibition of bone resorption of osteoclast and its mechanism RANK signaling pathway. METHODS: The anti-osteoclastogenesis of water extract of CR was measured using RAW 264.7 cell. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay, pit assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot were performed. Moreover, the effects of CR were determined with an in vivo model using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. RESULTS: CR extract suppressed osteoclastogenesis, its activity and bone resorption activity through decreasing gene of osteoclast-related such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, etc. Moreover, CR extract prevented the bone loss in OVX rats. CONCLUSION: These results show that CR has a positive effect on menopausal osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclastogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Cnidium/química , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Ligante RANK/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , República da Coreia , Rizoma/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Neurochem Res ; 44(9): 2123-2138, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376053

RESUMO

Number of ligations made in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain model has raised serious concerns. We compared behavioural responses, nerve morphology and expression of pain marker, c-fos among CCI models developed with one, two, three and four ligations. The numbers of ligation(s) on sciatic nerve shows no significant difference in displaying mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia throughout 84 days. All groups underwent similar levels of nerve degeneration post-surgery. Similar c-fos level in brain cingulate cortex, parafascicular nuclei and amygdala were observed in all CCI models compared to sham-operated group. Therefore, number of ligations does not impact intensity of pain symptoms, pathogenesis and neuronal activation. A single ligation is sufficient to develop neuropathic pain, in contrast to the established model of four ligations. This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neuralgia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Constrição Patológica/complicações , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/metabolismo , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/patologia , Ligadura , Masculino , Neuralgia/etiologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/patologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Neuropatia Ciática/etiologia , Neuropatia Ciática/metabolismo , Neuropatia Ciática/patologia , Neuropatia Ciática/fisiopatologia
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109237, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376653

RESUMO

Tea consumption has positive effects on the skeletal system and prevents postmenopausal osteoporosis, mainly by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. In green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and active compound and has been shown to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. Taking into account the highly oxidizable and unstable nature of EGCG, we hypothesized that EGCG oxidation product exhibits greater anti-osteoclastogenesis potential than EGCG. In this study, we successfully isolated and identified an EGCG oxidation derivative, (-)-gallocatechin gallate (compound 2), using a chemical oxidation strategy. We then compared the ability of compound 2 and EGCG to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells. The results of TRAP staining and F-actin ring immunofluorescent staining showed that compound 2 exhibits stronger inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and F-actin ring formation, respectively, than EGCG. Additionally, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analyses showed that compound 2 significantly and more strongly inhibited the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes and proteins, including c-Src, TRAP, cathepsin K, ß3-Integrin, and MMP-9, compared with EGCG. Furthermore, compound 2 significantly suppressed RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, the master transcriptional regulators of osteoclastogenesis, more strongly than EGCG. Mechanistically, molecular interaction assays showed that compound 2 binds to RANK with high affinity (KD = 189 nM) and blocks RANKL-RANK interactions, thereby suppressing RANKL-induced early RANK signaling pathways including p65, JNK, ERK, and p38 in osteoclast precursors. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that an oxidation derivative of EGCG (compound 2) inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing RANK signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109276, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paeonia lactiflora (PL) was widely used for pain relief, but its effects on migraine headaches remain unclear. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PL on migraine headaches. METHODS: First, we found that PL was frequently used in Taiwan for headache treatment based on data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Migraine was induced through the intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of nitroglycerin (NTG, 10 mg/kg) in rats. Pretreatment with PL was administered orally 30 min prior to the NTG i.p. Migraine headache behavior was observed by video-recordings. Finally, the rats were sacrificed and brain was removed for immunohistochemistry staining analysis. RESULTS: The frequency and total time spent rearing up and sniffing in exploratory behavior, and walking in locomotor behavior, were reduced in the NTG group compared with the control group (all p <  0.001). This reduction could be ameliorated by pretreatment with PL 1.0 g/kg (all p <  0.05). Total time spent in the light chamber was lower in the NTG group compared with the control group (p <  0.05); this could be ameliorated by pretreatment with 1.0 g/kg PL (p <  0.05). The rats in the NTG group spent longer time on the smooth surface than those in the control group (p <  0.001); this could be shortened by pretreatment with 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg PL (both p <  0.01). The traveling distance of rats in the NTG group was shorter than in the control group (p <  0.001); rats given 1.0 g/kg PL had a longer traveling distance than those in the NTG group (p <  0.01). Both c-fos and CGRP immunoreactive cells increased in the TNC in the NTG group compared with that of the control group (both p <  0.001); this increased could be reduced by pretreatment with PL 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg (both p <  0.05). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PL ameliorated migraine headache behaviors in the NTG-induced migraine rat model, suggesting pretreatment with PL is beneficial for migraine headache treatment. This effect of PL is related to the decrease of c-fos and CGRP in the TNC. However, still there are too many methodological limitations which need to be overcome in further experiments to support the data.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Paeonia/química , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica , Asseio Animal , Hiperalgesia/complicações , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Imobilização , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroglicerina , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono , Núcleos do Trigêmeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleos do Trigêmeo/patologia , Núcleos do Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia
17.
BMC Neurosci ; 20(1): 36, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain (POP) is a severe acute pain encountered in patients suffering from an operation, and is less than adequately controlled by the currently available analgesics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to have an important role in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Our previous research revealed that pre-surgical inhibition of spinal PI3K alleviated the pain behavior induced by plantar incision in mice. The aim of this study was to clarify whether post-surgical inhibition of PI3K would attenuate the POP and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A POP model was established by plantar incision in Kunming mice. A behavioral test was performed to determine mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and cumulative pain scores. The spinal Fos was detected by immunohistochemistry. The spinal expression of protein kinase B (Akt) or phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) was explored using western blot. The cellular location of pAkt was determined by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Post-surgical inhibition of PI3K attenuated mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and cumulative pain scores induced by plantar incision significantly in male mice, and mildly in female mice. Post-surgical inhibition of PI3K attenuated the expression of spinal Fos in male mice. Plantar incision induced a time-dependent expression of spinal pAkt in male mice, which was primarily expressed in the spinal dorsal horn, and localized with the neuron and microglia's marker. Post-surgical inhibition of PI3K attenuated the activation of Akt induced by plantar incision in male mice as well. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that post-surgical inhibition of PI3K could attenuate the pain-related behaviors induced by plantar incision, by suppressing the activation of spinal Akt in male mice. This finding might be used in clinical studies to reach a better understanding of POP mechanisms and optimal treatment.


Assuntos
Cromonas/farmacologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Wortmanina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Traumatismos do Pé/complicações , Hiperalgesia/complicações , Hiperalgesia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/complicações , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
18.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) ; 2019: 8243813, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281769

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in experimental esophagitis in rats. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control group, sham + saline group, sham + acid group, operation + saline group, and operation + acid group. Two weeks after the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) destruction, hydrochloric acid with pepsin was perfused into the lower part of the esophagus for 90 min. The rats were sacrificed 60 min after perfusion. The esophagus was prepared for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and the degree of inflammation and NF-κB activation in the esophagus was measured. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, and PGE2) in the esophagus were measured by ELISA. The brain was removed and processed for c-fos immunohistochemistry staining. The c-fos-positive neurons were counted and analyzed. Results: The TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and PGE2 concentrations in the esophageal tissue increased after acid perfusion. The microscopic esophagitis scores and the activation of NF-κB p65 in the esophagus were significantly higher in the operation + acid group than in the operation + saline group. c-fos-positive neurons significantly increased in rats receiving acid perfusion in the amygdala (AM), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)/DMV, the nucleus ambiguous (NA), the reticular nucleus of the medulla (RNM), and the area postrema (AP). After DMV destruction, c-fos expression was reduced in the AM, PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, NA, RNM, and AP, especially in the AM, PVN, NTS/DMV, RNM, and AP. Conclusions: The DMV is an important nucleus of the CAP. The DMV lesion can aggravate esophageal inflammation and injury from acid-induced acute esophagitis in a rat model. The CAP has a protective effect on the acute esophagitis rat model and could be a new therapy for reflux esophagitis (RE).


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Bulbo/patologia , Nervo Vago/patologia , Ácidos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esofagite Péptica/patologia , Esofagite Péptica/fisiopatologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Bulbo/metabolismo , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfusão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1121-1128, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270283

RESUMO

Wild animals tend to avoid novel objects that do not elicit clear avoidance behaviors in domesticated animals. We previously found that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) were larger in trapped wild rats compared with laboratory rats. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the BLA and/or dBNST would be differentially activated when wild and laboratory rats showed different avoidance behaviors towards novel objects. In this study, we placed novel objects at one end of the home cage. We measured the time spent in that half of the cage and expressed the data as a percentage of the time spent in that region with no object placement. We found that this percentage was lower in the wild rats compared with the laboratory rats. These behavioral differences were accompanied by increased Fos expression in the BLA, but not in the dBNST, of the wild rats. These results suggest that wild rats show greater BLA activation compared with laboratory rats in response to novel objects. We also found increased Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral BNST, and ventromedial hypothalamus, but not in the central amygdala of wild rats. Taken together, our data represent new information regarding differences in behavioral and neural responses towards novel objects in wild vs. laboratory rats.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Ratos/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/anatomia & histologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos/anatomia & histologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16131, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FOS gene is located on human chromosome 14q21-31 and encodes the nuclear oncoprotein c-Fos. This study analyzed the correlation between the FOS noncoding region rs7101 and rs1063169 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility and prognosis. METHODS: We analyzed the FOS genotypes in 432 colorectal cancer patients and 315 healthy subjects by PCR/Sanger sequencing. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Western blot was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein in cancer tissues and adjacent tissues in colorectal cancer patients with different genotypes. RESULTS: The presence of a T allele at rs7101 and a T allele at rs1063169 in FOS carried a higher risk of colorectal cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.237, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.131-1.346, P ≤ .001 and adjusted OR = 1.218, 95% CI = 1.111-1.327, P ≤ .001, respectively]. c-Fos protein levels were significantly higher in variant cancer tissues than in normal mucosa tissues (P < .05), and c-Fos proteins levels were also higher in homozygous variant cancer tissues than in heterozygous variant cancer tissues. The 3-year survival rate of patients with wild-type FOS was higher than that of patients with variant FOS (P < .05). CONCLUSION: The rs7101 and rs1063169 polymorphisms in the noncoding region of FOS are associated with the risk of developing colorectal cancer and the progression of colorectal cancer, which may be because the mutation enhances the expression of c-Fos protein to promote the incidence and development of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Expressão Gênica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
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