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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4913, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004813

RESUMO

Reprograming of proline metabolism is critical for tumor growth. Here we show that PINCH-1 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma and promotes proline synthesis through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Knockout (KO) of PINCH-1 increases dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, which suppresses kindlin-2 mitochondrial translocation and interaction with pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), resulting in inhibition of proline synthesis and cell proliferation. Depletion of DRP1 reverses PINCH-1 deficiency-induced defects on mitochondrial dynamics, proline synthesis and cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of PYCR1 in PINCH-1 KO cells restores proline synthesis and cell proliferation, and suppresses DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation. Finally, ablation of PINCH-1 from lung adenocarcinoma in mouse increases DRP1 expression and inhibits PYCR1 expression, proline synthesis, fibrosis and tumor growth. Our results identify a signaling axis consisting of PINCH-1, DRP1 and PYCR1 that regulates mitochondrial dynamics and proline synthesis, and suggest an attractive strategy for alleviation of tumor growth.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prolina/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Pirrolina Carboxilato Redutases/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4687, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948771

RESUMO

Chemical biology strategies for directly perturbing protein homeostasis including the degradation tag (dTAG) system provide temporal advantages over genetic approaches and improved selectivity over small molecule inhibitors. We describe dTAGV-1, an exclusively selective VHL-recruiting dTAG molecule, to rapidly degrade FKBP12F36V-tagged proteins. dTAGV-1 overcomes a limitation of previously reported CRBN-recruiting dTAG molecules to degrade recalcitrant oncogenes, supports combination degrader studies and facilitates investigations of protein function in cells and mice.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Proteômica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4516, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908137

RESUMO

Acinar metaplasia is an initial step in a series of events that can lead to pancreatic cancer. Here we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing of mouse pancreas during the progression from preinvasive stages to tumor formation. Using a reporter gene, we identify metaplastic cells that originated from acinar cells and express two transcription factors, Onecut2 and Foxq1. Further analyses of metaplastic acinar cell heterogeneity define six acinar metaplastic cell types and states, including stomach-specific cell types. Localization of metaplastic cell types and mixture of different metaplastic cell types in the same pre-malignant lesion is shown. Finally, single-cell transcriptome analyses of tumor-associated stromal, immune, endothelial and fibroblast cells identify signals that may support tumor development, as well as the recruitment and education of immune cells. Our findings are consistent with the early, premalignant formation of an immunosuppressive environment mediated by interactions between acinar metaplastic cells and other cells in the microenvironment.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Biópsia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Heterogeneidade Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metaplasia/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4520, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908154

RESUMO

Tumor extracellular matrix has been associated with drug resistance and immune suppression. Here, proteomic and RNA profiling reveal increased collagen levels in lung tumors resistant to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Additionally, elevated collagen correlates with decreased total CD8+ T cells and increased exhausted CD8+ T cell subpopulations in murine and human lung tumors. Collagen-induced T cell exhaustion occurs through the receptor LAIR1, which is upregulated following CD18 interaction with collagen, and induces T cell exhaustion through SHP-1. Reduction in tumor collagen deposition through LOXL2 suppression increases T cell infiltration, diminishes exhausted T cells, and abrogates resistance to anti-PD-L1. Abrogating LAIR1 immunosuppression through LAIR2 overexpression or SHP-1 inhibition sensitizes resistant lung tumors to anti-PD-1. Clinically, increased collagen, LAIR1, and TIM-3 expression in melanoma patients treated with PD-1 blockade predict poorer survival and response. Our study identifies collagen and LAIR1 as potential markers for immunotherapy resistance and validates multiple promising therapeutic combinations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4527, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913197

RESUMO

Evasion of programmed cell death represents a critical form of oncogene addiction in cancer cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning cancer cell survival despite the oncogenic stress could provide a molecular basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we explore the role of pro-survival genes in cancer cell integrity during clonal evolution in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We identify gains of MCL-1 at high frequency in multiple independent NSCLC cohorts, occurring both clonally and subclonally. Clonal loss of functional TP53 is significantly associated with subclonal gains of MCL-1. In mice, tumour progression is delayed upon pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of MCL-1. These findings reveal that MCL-1 gains occur with high frequency in lung adenocarcinoma and can be targeted therapeutically.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Evolução Clonal , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Cultura Primária de Células , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , RNA-Seq , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esferoides Celulares , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Microtomografia por Raio-X
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(13): 1207-1217, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No therapies for targeting KRAS mutations in cancer have been approved. The KRAS p.G12C mutation occurs in 13% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and in 1 to 3% of colorectal cancers and other cancers. Sotorasib is a small molecule that selectively and irreversibly targets KRASG12C. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 trial of sotorasib in patients with advanced solid tumors harboring the KRAS p.G12C mutation. Patients received sotorasib orally once daily. The primary end point was safety. Key secondary end points were pharmacokinetics and objective response, as assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients (59 with NSCLC, 42 with colorectal cancer, and 28 with other tumors) were included in dose escalation and expansion cohorts. Patients had received a median of 3 (range, 0 to 11) previous lines of anticancer therapies for metastatic disease. No dose-limiting toxic effects or treatment-related deaths were observed. A total of 73 patients (56.6%) had treatment-related adverse events; 15 patients (11.6%) had grade 3 or 4 events. In the subgroup with NSCLC, 32.2% (19 patients) had a confirmed objective response (complete or partial response) and 88.1% (52 patients) had disease control (objective response or stable disease); the median progression-free survival was 6.3 months (range, 0.0+ to 14.9 [with + indicating that the value includes patient data that were censored at data cutoff]). In the subgroup with colorectal cancer, 7.1% (3 patients) had a confirmed response, and 73.8% (31 patients) had disease control; the median progression-free survival was 4.0 months (range, 0.0+ to 11.1+). Responses were also observed in patients with pancreatic, endometrial, and appendiceal cancers and melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Sotorasib showed encouraging anticancer activity in patients with heavily pretreated advanced solid tumors harboring the KRAS p.G12C mutation. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxic effects occurred in 11.6% of the patients. (Funded by Amgen and others; CodeBreaK100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03600883.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22407, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991469

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Several mutations are involved in the development of CRC. The prognostic significance of the KRAS mutation has been discussed in many studies. We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the number of KRAS mutations in metastatic CRC (mCRC).Patients with mutations in the KRAS gene were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups as single mutation and multiple mutations in the KRAS gene.For the study, 425 CRC patients were screened. KRAS mutation was positive in 191 patients (45%). One hundred ninety-one patients were included in the study, 171 patients (90%) had single mutations and 20 patients (10%) had multiple mutations. Median progression-free survival was 12.8 months in patients with multiple mutations, while it was 8.8 months in patients with single mutations (P: .05). The median overall survival of patients with multiple mutations was 40.7 months, while it was 22.7 months for patients with single mutations (P = .01)We found that the presence of multiple mutations in KRAS mutant patients was associated with better overall survival and progression-free survival than a single mutation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in STK11 (STK11m) and frequently co-occurring KRAS mutations (KRASm/STK11m) are associated with poor survival in metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC) immuno-oncology trials. There are limited data regarding the prognostic significance of these mutations in a real-world setting. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed de-identified electronic medical records from the Flatiron Clinico-Genomic database to identify patients with mNSCLC who had initiated first-line immunotherapy (IO; alone or in combination) or chemotherapy under routine care between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2017. The primary objectives were to assess the prevalence of STK11m and KRASm/STK11m and to determine associations of these mutations with overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS). RESULTS: Of 2407 patients with mNSCLC, STK11m and KRASm/STK11m were present in 13.6% and 6.5% of patients, respectively. Worse OS outcomes were observed in patients with STK11m versus STK11wt mNSCLC receiving IO (first-line, HR [95% CI], 1.4 [0.9-2.3; p = 0.1]; second-line [subset of first-line cohort], HR, 1.6 [1.3-2.0; p = 0.0002]) or chemotherapy (first-line, HR, 1.4 [1.2-1.6; p < 0.0001]); PFS outcomes showed similar trends. KRASm/STK11m double mutations were associated with worse OS and PFS outcomes versus KRASwt/STK11wt with IO and chemotherapy, similar to the single mutation (STK11m vs STK11wt) findings. CONCLUSIONS: This large observational genomic study among patients receiving routine care highlights the negative prognostic impact of STK11m in patients with mNSCLC treated with IO or chemotherapy. These results complement previous clinical trial data and provide further evidence in the real world of a patient population that would benefit from new treatment options.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21478, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769881

RESUMO

The aim of current study was to use Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to identify hub genes related to the incidence and prognosis of KRAS mutant (MT) lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).We involved 184 stage IIB to IV LUAD samples and 59 normal lung tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The R package "limma" was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). WGCNA and survival analyses were performed by R packages "WGCNA" and "survival," respectively. The functional analyses were performed by R package "clusterProfiler" and GSEA software. Network construction and MCODE analysis were performed by Cytoscape_v3.6.1.Totally 2590 KRAS MT specific DEGs were found between LUAD and normal lung tissues, and 10 WGCNA modules were identified. Functional analysis of the key module showed the ribosome biogenesis related terms were enriched. We observed the expression of 8 genes were positively correlated to the worse survival of KRAS MT LUAD patients, the 7 of them were validated by Kaplan-Meier plotter database (kmplot.com/) (thymosin Beta 10 [TMSB10], ribosomal Protein S16 [RPS16], mitochondrial ribosomal protein L27 [MRPL27], cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1 [COX6A1], HCLS1-associated protein X-1 [HAX1], ribosomal protein L38 [RPL38], and ATP Synthase Membrane Subunit DAPIT [ATP5MD]). The GSEA analysis found mTOR and STK33 pathways were upregulated in KRAS MT LUAD (P < .05, false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.25).In summary, our study firstly used WGCNA to identify hub genes in the development of KRAS MT LUAD. The identified prognostic factors would be potential biomarkers in clinical use. Further molecular studies are required to confirm the mechanism of those genes in KRAS MT LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Mutação , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236580, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756609

RESUMO

Lung cancer is generally treated with conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation. These methods, however, are not specific to cancer cells and instead attack every cell present, including normal cells. Personalized therapies provide more efficient treatment options as they target the individual's genetic makeup. The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of causal genetic mutations across a variety of lung cancer subtypes in the earlier stages. 833 samples of non-small cell lung cancer from 799 patients who received resection of their lung cancer, were selected for molecular analysis of six known mutations, including EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, HER2 and ALK. A SNaPshot assay was used for point mutations and fragment analysis searched for insertions and deletions. ALK was evaluated by IHC +/- FISH. Statistical analysis was performed to determine correlations between molecular and clinical/pathological patient data. None of the tested variants were identified in most (66.15%) of cases. The observed frequencies among the total samples vs. only the adenocarcinoma cases were notable different, with the highest frequency being the KRAS mutation (24.49% vs. 35.55%), followed by EGFR (6.96% vs. 10.23%), PIK3CA (1.20% vs. 0.9%), BRAF (1.08% vs. 1.62%), ALK (0.12% vs. 0.18%), while the lowest was the HER2 mutation (0% for both). The statistical analysis yielded correlations between presence of a mutation with gender, cancer type, vascular invasion and smoking history. The outcome of this study will provide data that helps stratify patient prognosis and supports development of more precise treatments, resulting in improved outcomes for future lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Prognóstico , Adenocarcinoma/classificação , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/classificação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859736

RESUMO

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have recently been reported to have a high incidence of somatic KRAS mutations suggesting potential for treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. In this case report, we describe genotype-targeted treatment of a KRAS mutant metameric AVM in a patient with Cobb syndrome using the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor trametinib. Therapeutic response was monitored with phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography to quantify AVM arterial inflow as an imaging biomarker. Treatment with trametinib resulted in a substantial decrease in blood flow to the AVM, with a >75% reduction in arterial inflow after 6 months of trametinib therapy.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/tratamento farmacológico , Genótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/genética , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 154: 103065, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsy is a novel tool in oncology. It provides minimally invasive detection of tumor specific DNA. This review summarizes data on presence of circulating tumor DNA in serum or plasma of CRC patients as a potential negative prognostic factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. RESULTS: In total 18 articles with a total of 1779 patients met the inclusion criteria. Six out of 8 studies found that presence of ctDNA in plasma/serum was associated with inferior overall survival. All 6 studies found that high concentrations of ctDNA in plasma/serum was associated with inferior overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Presence or high concentrations of KRAS mutation in plasma or serum were associated with inferior prognosis. Establishing cut-off concentrations is warranted for further clinical implementation of liquid biopsy.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
13.
Tumour Biol ; 42(7): 1010428320938492, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635826

RESUMO

Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is difficult to implement in clinical settings where hundreds of genes are involved, and resources are limited. This study aims to characterize the molecular subtypes of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer based on the three main carcinogenic pathways microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and chromosomal instability (CIN) in a Chilean population. Although several reports have characterized colorectal cancer, most do not represent Latin-American populations. Our study includes 103 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, without neoadjuvant treatment, in a private hospital between 2008 and 2017. MSI, CIN, and CIMP status were assessed. Frequent mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact and/or chi-square test. Survival curves were estimated with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. Based on our observations, we can classify the tumors in four subgroups, Group 1: MSI-high tumors (15%) are located in the right colon, occur at older age, and 60% show a BRAF mutation; Group 2: CIN-high tumors (38%) are in the left colon, and 26% have KRAS mutations. Group 3: [MSI/CIN/CIMP]-low/negative tumors (30%) are left-sided, and 39% have KRAS mutations; Group 4: CIMP-high tumors (15%) were more frequent in men and left side colon, with 27% KRAS and 7% presented BRAF mutations. Three percent of patients could not be classified. We found that CIMP-high was associated with a worse prognosis, both in MSI-high and MSI stable patients (p = 0.0452). Group 3 (Low/negative tumors) tend to have better overall survival compared with MSI-high, CIMP-high, and CIN-high tumors. This study contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors in the Chilean population being one of the few characterizations performed in Latin-America. Given the limited resources of these countries, these results allow to improve molecular characterization in Latin-American colorectal cancer populations and confirm the possibility of using the three main carcinogenic pathways to define therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Chile/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3819-3830, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Picrasma quassioides (PQ) is a traditional Asian herbal medicine with anti-tumor properties that can inhibit the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. H-Ras is often mutated in liver cancer, however, the effect of PQ treatment on H-Ras mutated liver cancer is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of PQ on ROS accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in H-ras mutated HepG2 (HepG2G12V) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PQ ethanol extract-induced HepG2G12V apoptosis was analyzed by the MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and western blotting. RESULTS: PQ treatment affected cell migration and colony formation in HepG2G12V cells. Cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9 and BCL2 associated agonist of cell death (BAD) expression levels were increased, while the levels of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) were decreased with PQ treatment. PQ treatment led to a reduction of H-Ras expression levels in liver cancer cells, thus reducing their abnormal proliferation. Furthermore, it led to increased expression levels of Peroxiredoxin VI, which regulates the redox signal in cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together these results provide a new functional significance for the role of PQ in treating HepG2G12V liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes ras , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Picrasma/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/biossíntese
15.
Ann Surg ; 272(2): 352-356, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of adjuvant hepatic artery infusion (HAI) in relation to KRAS mutational status in patients with resected colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). BACKGROUND: Patients with KRAS-mutated CRLM have worse outcomes after resection. Adjuvant HAI chemotherapy improves overall survival after liver resection. METHODS: Patients with resected CRLM treated at MSKCC with and without adjuvant HAI who had available KRAS status (wild-type, WT; mutated, MUT) were reviewed from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Correlations between KRAS status, adjuvant HAI, clinical factors, and outcomes were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: Between 1993 and 2012, 674 patients (418 KRAS-WT, 256 MUT) with a median follow up of 6.5 years after resection were evaluated. Fifty-four percent received adjuvant HAI. Tumor characteristics (synchronous disease, number of lesions, clinical-risk score, 2-stage hepatectomy) were significantly worse in the HAI group; however, there were more patients with resected extrahepatic metastases in the no-HAI group. In KRAS-WT tumors, 5-year survival was 78% for patients treated with HAI versus 57% for patients without HAI [hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, P < 0.001]. In KRAS-MUT tumors, 5-year survival was 59% for patients treated with HAI versus 40% for patients without HAI (HR 0.56, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, HAI remained associated with improved OS (HR 0.53, P < 0.002) independent of KRAS status and other clinicopathologic factors. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant HAI after resection of CRLM is independently associated with improved outcomes regardless of KRAS mutational status. Adjuvant HAI may mitigate the worse outcomes seen in patients with resectable KRAS-MUT CRLM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Artéria Hepática , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609742

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for pancreatic cancer. We focused on hyperglycemia, a main feature of diabetes mellitus, and uncovered its effect on precancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) progression. In vivo induction of hyperglycemia with 100 mg/kg streptozotocin in KrasLSL G12D Pdx1Cre (KP) mice promoted the PanIN formation and progression. Preconditioning with a high- or low-glucose medium for 28 days showed that a high-glucose environment increased cell viability and sphere formation in PANC-1, a Kras-mutant human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, and mPKC1, a Kras-mutant murine pancreatic cancer cell line. In contrast, no changes were observed in BxPC3, a Kras-wild-type human pancreatic cancer cell line. Orthotopic injection of mPKC1 into the pancreatic tails of BL6/J mice showed that cells maintained in high-glucose medium grew into larger tumors than did those maintained in low-glucose medium. Hyperglycemia strengthened the STAT3 phosphorylation, which was accompanied by elevated MYC expression in Kras-mutant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed stronger phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) and MYC staining in PanINs from diabetic KP mice than in those from euglycemic counterparts. STAT3 inhibition with 1 µM STAT3 inhibitor STATTIC in Kras-mutant pancreatic cell lines blocked the cell viability- and sphere formation-enhancing effects of the hyperglycemic environment and reversed the elevated pSTAT3 and MYC expression. MYC knockdown did not affect cell viability but did reduce sphere formation. No decrease in pSTAT3 expression was observed upon siMYC treatment. In conclusion, hyperglycemia, on a Kras-mutant background, aggravates the PanIN progression, which is accompanied by elevated pSTAT3 and MYC expression.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628708

RESUMO

Mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF (RAS/BRAF) genes are the main predictive biomarkers for the response to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This retrospective study aimed to report the mutational status prevalence of these genes, explore their possible associations with clinicopathological features, and build and validate a predictive model. To achieve these objectives, 500 mCRC Mexican patients were screened for clinically relevant mutations in RAS/BRAF genes. Fifty-two percent of these specimens harbored clinically relevant mutations in at least one screened gene. Among these, 86% had a mutation in KRAS, 7% in NRAS, 6% in BRAF, and 2% in both NRAS and BRAF. Only tumor location in the proximal colon exhibited a significant correlation with KRAS and BRAF mutational status (p-value = 0.0414 and 0.0065, respectively). Further t-SNE analyses were made to 191 specimens to reveal patterns among patients with clinical parameters and KRAS mutational status. Then, directed by the results from classical statistical tests and t-SNE analysis, neural network models utilized entity embeddings to learn patterns and build predictive models using a minimal number of trainable parameters. This study could be the first step in the prediction for RAS/BRAF mutational status from tumoral features and could lead the way to a more detailed and more diverse dataset that could benefit from machine learning methods.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102070, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711246

RESUMO

RAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, with mutations in about 30% of all cancers. RAS exists in three different isoforms (K-RAS, H-RAS and N-RAS) with high sequence homology. K-RAS is the most commonly mutated RAS isoform. The Ras protein is a membrane bound protein with inherent GTPase activity and is activated by numerous extracellular stimuli, cycling between an inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) form. When bound to GTP, it is switched "on" and activates intracellular signaling pathways, critical for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Mutated RAS is constitutively activated and persistently turned "on" thereby enhancing downstream signaling and leading to tumorigenesis. Various attempts to inhibit Kras in the past were unsuccessful. Recently, several small molecules (AMG510, MRTX849, JNJ-74699157, and LY3499446) have been developed to specifically target K-RAS G12C. Additionally, various other approaches including, SHP2, SOS1 and eIF4 inhibition, have been utilized to abrogate tumor growth in K-RAS mutant cells, resulting in a renewed interest in this pathway. In this review article, we provide an overview on the role of K-RAS in tumorigenesis, past approaches to inhibiting Kras, and current and future prospects for targeting Kras.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Animais , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21171, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Test on the KRAS somatic mutation status is necessary before cetuximab and panitumumab treatments are given to colorectal cancer patients. Metastatic colorectal cancer patients sometimes lack tumor tissue samples, and the testing of KRAS mutation in plasma samples requires highly sensitive methods. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of digital PCR in detecting KRAS mutation in plasma samples of colorectal cancer patients. DATA SOURCES: Literature research was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Database searching found 188 relevant studies. After removing duplicates, eligible studies were selected from 151 publications using the following exclusion criteria: STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS:: Data were extracted from the eligible studies by 2 independent researchers. Pooled accuracy parameters were calculated from those extracted data using Meta-DiSc and STATA software. RESULTS: Twelve eligible studies were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. After calculation, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.79-0.86) and 0.91 (95%CI: 0.88-0.93), respectively. Pooled positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 7.30 (95%CI: 4.78-11.17), 0.22 (95%CI: 0.15-0.32), and 41.00 (95%CI: 21.07-79.78), respectively. Area under curve of the summarized ROC curve was 0.9322. LIMITATIONS: Although no significant bias was identified, number of included studies was still quite small, especially in subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION OF KEY FINDINGS: Digital PCR showed high accuracy and could be a reliable detection method for KRAS mutation in plasma samples. Large-cohort prospective study is required to further confirm the usefulness of digital PCR in KRAS mutation detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/sangue , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3701, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709883

RESUMO

Despite its importance in human cancers, including colorectal cancers (CRC), oncogenic KRAS has been extremely challenging to target therapeutically. To identify potential vulnerabilities in KRAS-mutated CRC, we characterize the impact of oncogenic KRAS on the cell surface of intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that oncogenic KRAS alters the expression of a myriad of cell-surface proteins implicated in diverse biological functions, and identify many potential surface-accessible therapeutic targets. Cell surface-based loss-of-function screens reveal that ATP7A, a copper-exporter upregulated by mutant KRAS, is essential for neoplastic growth. ATP7A is upregulated at the surface of KRAS-mutated CRC, and protects cells from excess copper-ion toxicity. We find that KRAS-mutated cells acquire copper via a non-canonical mechanism involving macropinocytosis, which appears to be required to support their growth. Together, these results indicate that copper bioavailability is a KRAS-selective vulnerability that could be exploited for the treatment of KRAS-mutated neoplasms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Mutação
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