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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011739

Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/química , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Digoxina/química , Digoxina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/genética , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813983

Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/química , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Digoxina/química , Digoxina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/genética , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 164-174.e4, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877642

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infections are rapidly spreading around the globe. The rapid development of therapies is of major importance. However, our lack of understanding of the molecular processes and host cell signaling events underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection hinders therapy development. We use a SARS-CoV-2 infection system in permissible human cells to study signaling changes by phosphoproteomics. We identify viral protein phosphorylation and define phosphorylation-driven host cell signaling changes upon infection. Growth factor receptor (GFR) signaling and downstream pathways are activated. Drug-protein network analyses revealed GFR signaling as key pathways targetable by approved drugs. The inhibition of GFR downstream signaling by five compounds prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, assessed by cytopathic effect, viral dsRNA production, and viral RNA release into the supernatant. This study describes host cell signaling events upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals GFR signaling as a central pathway essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication. It provides novel strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Células CACO-2 , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 164-174.e4, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709380

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infections are rapidly spreading around the globe. The rapid development of therapies is of major importance. However, our lack of understanding of the molecular processes and host cell signaling events underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection hinders therapy development. We use a SARS-CoV-2 infection system in permissible human cells to study signaling changes by phosphoproteomics. We identify viral protein phosphorylation and define phosphorylation-driven host cell signaling changes upon infection. Growth factor receptor (GFR) signaling and downstream pathways are activated. Drug-protein network analyses revealed GFR signaling as key pathways targetable by approved drugs. The inhibition of GFR downstream signaling by five compounds prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, assessed by cytopathic effect, viral dsRNA production, and viral RNA release into the supernatant. This study describes host cell signaling events upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals GFR signaling as a central pathway essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication. It provides novel strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Células CACO-2 , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008996, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841242

RESUMO

The utilization of different carbon sources in filamentous fungi underlies a complex regulatory network governed by signaling events of different protein kinase pathways, including the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways. This work unraveled cross-talk events between these pathways in governing the utilization of preferred (glucose) and non-preferred (xylan, xylose) carbon sources in the reference fungus Aspergillus nidulans. An initial screening of a library of 103 non-essential protein kinase (NPK) deletion strains identified several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) to be important for carbon catabolite repression (CCR). We selected the MAPKs Ste7, MpkB, and PbsA for further characterization and show that they are pivotal for HOG pathway activation, PKA activity, CCR via regulation of CreA cellular localization and protein accumulation, as well as for hydrolytic enzyme secretion. Protein-protein interaction studies show that Ste7, MpkB, and PbsA are part of the same protein complex that regulates CreA cellular localization in the presence of xylan and that this complex dissociates upon the addition of glucose, thus allowing CCR to proceed. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) A was also identified as part of this protein complex and shown to potentially phosphorylate two serine residues of the HOG MAPKK PbsA. This work shows that carbon source utilization is subject to cross-talk regulation by protein kinases of different signaling pathways. Furthermore, this study provides a model where the correct integration of PKA, HOG, and GSK signaling events are required for the utilization of different carbon sources.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Quinases da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Aspergillus nidulans/enzimologia , Repressão Catabólica/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Fosforilação/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Xilose/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3494, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661402

RESUMO

Cellular processes are inherently noisy, and the selection for accurate responses in presence of noise has likely shaped signalling networks. Here, we investigate the trade-off between accuracy of information transmission and its energetic cost for a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade. Our analysis of the pheromone response pathway of budding yeast suggests that dose-dependent induction of the negative transcriptional feedbacks in this network maximizes the information per unit energetic cost, rather than the information transmission capacity itself. We further demonstrate that futile cycling of MAPK phosphorylation and dephosphorylation has a measurable effect on growth fitness, with energy dissipation within the signalling cascade thus likely being subject to evolutionary selection. Considering optimization of accuracy versus the energetic cost of information processing, a concept well established in physics and engineering, may thus offer a general framework to understand the regulatory design of cellular signalling systems.


Assuntos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/genética , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407323

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/enzimologia , Cucumis melo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7257, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350357

RESUMO

Coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are speculated to have originated in bats. The mechanisms by which these viruses are maintained in individuals or populations of reservoir bats remain an enigma. Mathematical models have predicted long-term persistent infection with low levels of periodic shedding as a likely route for virus maintenance and spillover from bats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bat cells and MERS coronavirus (CoV) can co-exist in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we established a long-term coronavirus infection model of bat cells that are persistently infected with MERS-CoV. We infected cells from Eptesicus fuscus with MERS-CoV and maintained them in culture for at least 126 days. We characterized the persistently infected cells by detecting virus particles, protein and transcripts. Basal levels of type I interferon in the long-term infected bat cells were higher, relative to uninfected cells, and disrupting the interferon response in persistently infected bat cells increased virus replication. By sequencing the whole genome of MERS-CoV from persistently infected bat cells, we identified that bat cells repeatedly selected for viral variants that contained mutations in the viral open reading frame 5 (ORF5) protein. Furthermore, bat cells that were persistently infected with ΔORF5 MERS-CoV were resistant to superinfection by wildtype virus, likely due to reduced levels of the virus receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and higher basal levels of interferon in these cells. In summary, our study provides evidence for a model of coronavirus persistence in bats, along with the establishment of a unique persistently infected cell culture model to study MERS-CoV-bat interactions.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Insetívoros/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Mutação Puntual , Animais , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Insetívoros/anatomia & histologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Transfecção , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7257, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154662

RESUMO

Coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are speculated to have originated in bats. The mechanisms by which these viruses are maintained in individuals or populations of reservoir bats remain an enigma. Mathematical models have predicted long-term persistent infection with low levels of periodic shedding as a likely route for virus maintenance and spillover from bats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bat cells and MERS coronavirus (CoV) can co-exist in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we established a long-term coronavirus infection model of bat cells that are persistently infected with MERS-CoV. We infected cells from Eptesicus fuscus with MERS-CoV and maintained them in culture for at least 126 days. We characterized the persistently infected cells by detecting virus particles, protein and transcripts. Basal levels of type I interferon in the long-term infected bat cells were higher, relative to uninfected cells, and disrupting the interferon response in persistently infected bat cells increased virus replication. By sequencing the whole genome of MERS-CoV from persistently infected bat cells, we identified that bat cells repeatedly selected for viral variants that contained mutations in the viral open reading frame 5 (ORF5) protein. Furthermore, bat cells that were persistently infected with ΔORF5 MERS-CoV were resistant to superinfection by wildtype virus, likely due to reduced levels of the virus receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and higher basal levels of interferon in these cells. In summary, our study provides evidence for a model of coronavirus persistence in bats, along with the establishment of a unique persistently infected cell culture model to study MERS-CoV-bat interactions.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Insetívoros/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Mutação Puntual , Animais , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Insetívoros/anatomia & histologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Transfecção , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 322: 108576, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240921

RESUMO

Aflatoxin contamination in food and feed products has been brought into sharp focus over the last few decades in the world. However, there is no effective strategy for solving the problem thus far. Therefore, basic research on the aflatoxin-producer Aspergillus flavus is an urgent need. The vital role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in signal transduction has been documented in various pathogenic fungi, but their functions in A. flavus have rarely been investigated. Herein, we characterized the detailed function of one of these MAPKs, AflSlt2. Targeted deletion of AflSlt2 gene indicates that this kinase is required for vegetative growth, conidia generation, and sclerotium formation. The analysis of AflSlt2 deletion mutant revealed hypersensitivity to cell wall-damaging chemicals and resistance against hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the ability of the ΔAflSlt2 mutant to generate aflatoxins in medium was significantly increased compared to wild type. However, a pathogenicity assay indicated that the ΔAflSlt2 mutant was deficient in peanut infection. Site-directed mutation study uncovered that the function of AflSlt2 was dependent on the phosphorylated residues (Thr-186 and Tyr-188) within the activation loop and the phosphotransfer residue (Lys-52) within the subdomain II. Interestingly, an autophosphorylation mutant of AflSlt2 (AflSlt2R66S) displayed wild type-like phenotypes. Bringing these observations together, we propose that Slt2-MAPK pathway is involved in development, stress response, aflatoxin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity in A. flavus. This study may be useful to unveil the regulation mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis and provide strategy to control A. flavus contamination.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/patogenicidade , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10246-10253, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327610

RESUMO

The evolution of insect resistance to pesticides poses a continuing threat to agriculture and human health. While much is known about the proximate molecular and biochemical mechanisms that confer resistance, far less is known about the regulation of the specific genes/gene families involved, particularly by trans-acting factors such as signal-regulated transcription factors. Here we resolve in fine detail the trans-regulation of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 that confers resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-directed activation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Reporter gene assays were used to identify the putative promoter of CYP6CM1, but no consistent polymorphisms were observed in the promoter of a resistant strain of B. tabaci (imidacloprid-resistant, IMR), which overexpresses this gene, compared to a susceptible strain (imidacloprid-susceptible, IMS). Investigation of potential trans-acting factors using in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the bZIP transcription factor CREB directly regulates CYP6CM1 expression by binding to a cAMP-response element (CRE)-like site in the promoter of this gene. CREB is overexpressed in the IMR strain, and inhibitor, luciferase, and RNA interference assays revealed that a signaling pathway of MAPKs mediates the activation of CREB, and thus the increased expression of CYP6CM1, by phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction. Collectively, these results provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of xenobiotic responses in insects and implicate both the MAPK-signaling pathway and a transcription factor in the development of pesticide resistance.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Fosforilação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008401, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302366

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNAs in plants is an important mechanism of gene regulation in environmental stress tolerance but plant signals involved are essentially unknown. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases and the majority of PTI defense genes are regulated by MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. These responses have been mainly analyzed at the transcriptional level, however many splicing factors are direct targets of MAPKs. Here, we studied alternative splicing induced by the PAMP flagellin in Arabidopsis. We identified 506 PAMP-induced differentially alternatively spliced (DAS) genes. Importantly, of the 506 PAMP-induced DAS genes, only 89 overlap with the set of 1950 PAMP-induced differentially expressed genes (DEG), indicating that transcriptome analysis does not identify most DAS events. Global DAS analysis of mpk3, mpk4, and mpk6 mutants in the absence of PAMP treatment showed no major splicing changes. However, in contrast to MPK3 and MPK6, MPK4 was found to be a key regulator of PAMP-induced DAS events as the AS of a number of splicing factors and immunity-related protein kinases is affected, such as the calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28, the cysteine-rich receptor like kinases CRK13 and CRK29 or the FLS2 co-receptor SERK4/BKK1. Although MPK4 is guarded by SUMM2 and consequently, the mpk4 dwarf and DEG phenotypes are suppressed in mpk4 summ2 mutants, MPK4-dependent DAS is not suppressed by SUMM2, supporting the notion that PAMP-triggered MPK4 activation mediates regulation of alternative splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flagelina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Life Sci ; 248: 117475, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119963

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver fibrosis is a crucial pathological feature which could result in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. But until now, there is no favourable treatment for it. Apigenin (APG) is a flavonoid, which exhibits efficient anti-liver fibrosis activity, but its underlying mechanisms were rarely studied. So this work aims to estimate the potential therapeutic action of APG on liver fibrosis rats and to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats, and APG was given in the light of the regimen. Biochemical indexes, histopathological change and immunohistochemistry of liver were evaluated. The optimal effect group of APG was selected for further transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. KEY FINDINGS: APG ameliorated liver fibrosis via reducing the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Hyp, TP, TB, DB, HA, LN, PCIII and IV-C, mitigating fibrosis and inflammation of liver in H&E and Masson staining. Mechanistically, APG elevated the activity of ALB, SOD and GSH-PX with reducing the level of MDA. The results of microarray and TMT revealed that 4919 genes and 4876 proteins were differentially expressed in the APG and model groups. Besides, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses unfolded 120 overlapped proteins, enriched in 111 GO terms containing apoptotic process, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, etc. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 pathways containing HIF-1/MAPK/eNOS/VEGF/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion mostly. SIGNIFICANCE: APG can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via VEGF-mediated FAK phosphorylation through the MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, HIF-1, ROS, and eNOS pathways, which may hopefully become the anti-liver fibrosis activity of natural product.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 6869856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042311

RESUMO

Objectives: To observe the effect of avß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. Background: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is currently the preferred method for the treatment of coronary heart disease. However, vascular restenosis still occurs after PTCA treatment, severely affecting the clinical efficacy of PTCA. Integrin avß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. Methods: In this experiment, we used systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) to screen out avß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. ß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. ß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. ß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. Results: In the present study, we found that avß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. P < 0.05). Avß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. P < 0.05). AvP < 0.05). Av. Conclusions: The findings suggest that avß3 ssDNA inhibited the proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the activation of Ras-PI3K/MAPK signaling.ß3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Células Cultivadas , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Integrina alfaVbeta3/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Osteopontina/genética , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosforilação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/genética
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2648-2663, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064872

RESUMO

Nutritional regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression is considered a promising nonantibiotic approach to suppressing intestinal infection of pathogen. The current study investigated the effects of l-arginine on LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. The results revealed that l-arginine attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory response, inhibited the downregulation of tight junction proteins (TJP) (p < 0.05) by LPS, and maintained intestinal integrity. In porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), l-arginine obviously suppressed (p < 0.05) the levels of IL-6 (220.63 ± 2.82), IL-8 (333.95 ± 3.75), IL-1ß (693.08 ± 2.38), and TNF-α (258.04 ± 4.14) induced by LPS. Furthermore, l-arginine diminished the LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibited activation of TLR4-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Importantly, we proposed a new mechanism that l-arginine had the ability to stimulate the expression of porcine epithelial ß-defensins through activating the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which exerts anti-inflammatory influence. Moreover, pBD-1 gene overexpression decreased (p < 0.05) the TNF-α level stimulated by LPS in IPEC-J2 cells (4.22 ± 1.64). The present study indicated that l-arginine enhanced disease resistance through inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB and MAPK pathways and partially, possibly through increasing the intestinal ß-defensin expression.


Assuntos
Arginina/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , beta-Defensinas/genética , Animais , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Suínos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , beta-Defensinas/imunologia
16.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 8, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014061

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that contribute to host immune response as post-transcriptional regulation. The current study investigated the biological role of the chicken (Gallus gallus) microRNA-200a-3p (gga-miR-200a-3p), using 2 necrotic enteritis (NE) afflicted genetically disparate chicken lines, 6.3 and 7.2, as well as the mechanisms underlying the fundamental signaling pathways in chicken. The expression of gga-miR-200a-3p in the intestinal mucosal layer of NE-induced chickens, was found to be upregulated during NE infection in the disease-susceptible chicken line 7.2. To validate the target genes, we performed an overexpression analysis of gga-miR-200a-3p using chemically synthesized oligonucleotides identical to gga-miR-200a-3p, reporter gene analysis including luciferase reporter assay, and a dual fluorescence reporter assay in cultured HD11 chicken macrophage cell lines. Gga-miR-200a-3p was observed to be a direct transcriptional repressor of ZAK, MAP2K4, and TGFß2 that are involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by targeting the 3'-UTR of their transcripts. Besides, gga-miR-200a-3p may indirectly affect the expression of protein kinases including p38 and ERK1/2 at both transcriptional and translational levels, suggesting that this miRNA may function as an important regulator of the MAPK signaling pathway. Proinflammatory cytokines consisting of IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-17A, and LITAF belonging to Th1 and Th17-type cytokines, were upregulated upon gga-miR-200a-3p overexpression. These findings have enhanced our knowledge of the immune function of gga-miR-200a-3p mediating the chicken immune response via regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and indicate that this miRNA may serve as an important biomarker of diseases in domestic animals.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Enterite/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Enterite/genética , Enterite/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Necrose/genética , Necrose/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087536

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can form a symbiotic relationships with most terrestrial plants and play an important role in plant growth and adaptation to various stresses. To study the role of AMF in regulating drought resistance in apple, the effects of drought stress on Malus hupehensis inoculated with AMF were investigated. Inoculation of AMF enhanced apple plants growth. Mycorrhizal plants had higher total chlorophyll concentrations but lower relative electrolyte leakage under drought stress. Mycorrhizal plants increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate under drought stress, however, they showed lower inhibition in the quantum yield of PSII photochemistry. Mycorrhizal plants also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities under drought conditions. Thus, mycorrhizal plants had lower accumulated MDA, H2O2, and O2- than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Total sugar and proline concentrations also significantly increased, helping maintain the osmotic balance. Furthermore, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which participate in the regulation of responses of plants and microorganisms to biotic and abiotic stress, were up-regulated in apple plants and AMF during drought. We saw that there were at least two motifs that were identical in MAPK proteins and many elements that responded to hormones and stress from these MAPK genes. In summary, our results showed that mycorrhizal colonization enhanced apple drought tolerance by improving gas exchange capacity, increasing chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, creating a greater osmotic adjustment capacity, increasing scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and using MAPK signals for interactions between AMF and their apple plant hosts.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Micorrizas , Estresse Fisiológico , Malus/enzimologia , Malus/genética , Malus/microbiologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
18.
J Pathol ; 250(5): 532-540, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073140

RESUMO

Capicua, encoded by the gene CIC, is an evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group-box transcription factor downstream of the receptor tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. It was initially discovered and studied in Drosophila. Recurrent mutations in CIC were first identified in oligodendroglioma, a subtype of low-grade glioma. Subsequent studies have identified CIC aberrations in multiple types of cancer and have established CIC as a potent tumour suppressor involved in regulating pathways related to cell growth and proliferation, invasion and treatment resistance. The most well-known and studied targets of mammalian CIC are the oncogenic E-Twenty Six transcription factors ETV1/4/5, which have been found to be elevated in cancers with CIC aberrations. Here, we review the role of CIC in normal mammalian development, oncogenesis and tumour progression, and the functional interactors that mediate them. © 2020 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor/fisiologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019798

RESUMO

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus can cause a distinct set of clinical disorders in humans. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common life-threatening fungal disease of immunocompromised humans. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are essential to the adaptation to the human host. Fungal cell survival is highly dependent on the organization, composition, and function of the cell wall. Here, an evaluation of the global A. fumigatus phosphoproteome under cell wall stress caused by the cell wall-damaging agent Congo red (CR) revealed 485 proteins potentially involved in the cell wall damage response. Comparative phosphoproteome analyses with the ΔsakA, ΔmpkC, and ΔsakA ΔmpkC mutant strains from the osmotic stress MAPK cascades identify their additional roles during the cell wall stress response. Our phosphoproteomics allowed the identification of novel kinases and transcription factors (TFs) involved in osmotic stress and in the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Our global phosphoproteome network analysis showed an enrichment for protein kinases, RNA recognition motif domains, and the MAPK signaling pathway. In contrast to the wild-type strain, there is an overall decrease of differentially phosphorylated kinases and phosphatases in ΔsakA, ΔmpkC, and ΔsakA ΔmpkC mutants. We constructed phosphomutants for the phosphorylation sites of several proteins differentially phosphorylated in the wild-type and mutant strains. For all the phosphomutants, there is an increase in the sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents and a reduction in the MpkA phosphorylation upon CR stress, suggesting these phosphosites could be important for the MpkA modulation and CWI pathway regulation.IMPORTANCE Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen causing allergic reactions or systemic infections, such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are essential for fungal adaptation to the human host. Fungal cell survival, fungicide tolerance, and virulence are highly dependent on the organization, composition, and function of the cell wall. Upon cell wall stress, MAPKs phosphorylate multiple target proteins involved in the remodeling of the cell wall. Here, we investigate the global phosphoproteome of the ΔsakA and ΔmpkC A. fumigatus and high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway MAPK mutants upon cell wall damage. This showed the involvement of the HOG pathway and identified novel protein kinases and transcription factors, which were confirmed by fungal genetics to be involved in promoting tolerance of cell wall damage. Our results provide understanding of how fungal signal transduction networks modulate the cell wall. This may also lead to the discovery of new fungicide drug targets to impact fungal cell wall function, fungicide tolerance, and virulence.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/enzimologia , Caspofungina/farmacologia , Parede Celular/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glicerol/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Concentração Osmolar , Pressão Osmótica , Fosforilação , Proteoma , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(4): 876-882, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057359

RESUMO

Sepsis is a progressive disease characterized by excessive inflammatory responses, severe tissue injury and organ dysfunction, ultimately leading to mortality. In this study, we demonstrated that thioredoxin-2 (TRX-2) expression is reduced in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Overexpression of TRX-2 significantly attenuated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production induced by LPS. TRX-2 inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses through suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, TRX-2 induced a significant decrease in mortality in mouse sepsis models in association with reduced inflammatory cytokine production and attenuation of organ injury. Our data collectively support a role of TRX-2 as a critical regulator of sepsis that influences survival by protecting the host from excessive inflammatory damage.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Choque Séptico/genética , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Choque Séptico/induzido quimicamente , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Tioglicolatos/farmacologia , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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