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1.
Science ; 373(6558): 984-991, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446600

RESUMO

Protein kinase activity must be precisely regulated, but how a cell governs hyperactive kinases remains unclear. In this study, we generated a constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase DYF-5 (DYF-5CA) in Caenorhabditis elegans that disrupted sensory cilia. Genetic suppressor screens identified that mutations of ADR-2, an RNA adenosine deaminase, rescued ciliary phenotypes of dyf-5CA We found that dyf-5CA animals abnormally transcribed antisense RNAs that pair with dyf-5CA messenger RNA (mRNA) to form double-stranded RNA, recruiting ADR-2 to edit the region ectopically. RNA editing impaired dyf-5CA mRNA splicing, and the resultant intron retentions blocked DYF-5CA protein translation and activated nonsense-mediated dyf-5CA mRNA decay. The kinase RNA editing requires kinase hyperactivity. The similar RNA editing-dependent feedback regulation restricted the other ciliary kinases NEKL-4/NEK10 and DYF-18/CCRK, which suggests a widespread mechanism that underlies kinase regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/enzimologia , Cílios/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Edição de RNA , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cílios/enzimologia , Ativação Enzimática , Fenótipo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA de Helmintos/genética , RNA de Helmintos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
2.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 23, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344467

RESUMO

The Ras family of small Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) represents one of the main components of intracellular signal transduction required for normal cardiac growth, but is also critically involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The present review provides an update on the role of the H-, K- and N-Ras genes and their related pathways in cardiac diseases. We focus on cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, where Ras has been studied the most. We also review other cardiac diseases, like genetic disorders related to Ras. The scope of the review extends from fundamental concepts to therapeutic applications. Although the three Ras genes have a nearly identical primary structure, there are important functional differences between them: H-Ras mainly regulates cardiomyocyte size, whereas K-Ras regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation. N-Ras is the least studied in cardiac cells and is less associated to cardiac defects. Clinically, oncogenic H-Ras causes Costello syndrome and facio-cutaneous-skeletal syndromes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. On the other hand, oncogenic K-Ras and alterations of other genes of the Ras-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway, like Raf, cause Noonan syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndromes characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and septal defects. We further review the modulation by Ras of key signaling pathways in the cardiomyocyte, including: (i) the classical Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway, which leads to a more physiological form of cardiac hypertrophy; as well as other pathways associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy, like (ii) The SAPK (stress activated protein kinase) pathways p38 and JNK; and (iii) The alternative pathway Raf-Calcineurin-Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT). Genetic alterations of Ras isoforms or of genes in the Ras-MAPK pathway result in Ras-opathies, conditions frequently associated with cardiac hypertrophy or septal defects among other cardiac diseases. Several studies underline the potential role of H- and K-Ras as a hinge between physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy, and as potential therapeutic targets in cardiac hypertrophy and failure.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Síndrome de Noonan , Cardiomegalia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4713, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354054

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cold-sensitive species that often faces chilling stress, which adversely affects growth and reproduction. However, the genetic basis of low-temperature adaptation in maize remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that natural variation in the type-A Response Regulator 1 (ZmRR1) gene leads to differences in chilling tolerance among maize inbred lines. Association analysis reveals that InDel-35 of ZmRR1, encoding a protein harboring a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) phosphorylation residue, is strongly associated with chilling tolerance. ZmMPK8, a negative regulator of chilling tolerance, interacts with and phosphorylates ZmRR1 at Ser15. The deletion of a 45-bp region of ZmRR1 harboring Ser15 inhibits its degradation via the 26 S proteasome pathway by preventing its phosphorylation by ZmMPK8. Transcriptome analysis indicates that ZmRR1 positively regulates the expression of ZmDREB1 and Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes to enhance chilling tolerance. Our findings thus provide a potential genetic resource for improving chilling tolerance in maize.


Assuntos
Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Alelos , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26779, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397726

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Angiosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor originating from endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels. The molecular mechanisms of scalp and face angiosarcoma still need to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-like protein (pMAPK), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in scalp and face angiosarcoma and to assess tumor tissue apoptosis.The expression and intracellular distribution of PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 proteins in 21 specimens of human scalp and face angiosarcoma and 16 specimens of human benign hemangioma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.Significantly lower PTEN but higher PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 immunostaining were detected in the angiosarcoma specimens than in the benign hemangioma specimens(P < .01). The angiosarcoma tissues exhibited significantly higher apoptosis indices than the benign hemangioma tissues (P < .01). The positive expression rates of PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 were correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation in the human scalp and face angiosarcoma.The PI3K, MAPK, and TP53 pathways might be involved in angiosarcoma tumorigenesis in humans and may serve as therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of this malignancy.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Hemangiossarcoma/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200464

RESUMO

Due to lifespan extension and changes in global climate, the increase in mycoses caused by primary and opportunistic fungal pathogens is now a global concern. Despite increasing attention, limited options are available for the treatment of systematic and invasive mycoses, owing to the evolutionary similarity between humans and fungi. Although plants produce a diversity of chemicals to protect themselves from pathogens, the molecular targets and modes of action of these plant-derived chemicals have not been well characterized. Using a reverse genetics approach, the present study revealed that thymol, a monoterpene alcohol from Thymus vulgaris L., (Lamiaceae), exhibits antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans by regulating multiple signaling pathways including calcineurin, unfolded protein response, and HOG (high-osmolarity glycerol) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. Thymol treatment reduced the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ by controlling the expression levels of calcium transporter genes in a calcineurin-dependent manner. We demonstrated that thymol decreased N-glycosylation by regulating the expression levels of genes involved in glycan-mediated post-translational modifications. Furthermore, thymol treatment reduced endogenous ergosterol content by decreasing the expression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes in a HOG MAPK pathway-dependent manner. Collectively, this study sheds light on the antifungal mechanisms of thymol against C. neoformans.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Criptococose/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymus (Planta)/química
6.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210851

RESUMO

Synthetic biological networks comprising fast, reversible reactions could enable engineering of new cellular behaviors that are not possible with slower regulation. Here, we created a bistable toggle switch in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a cross-repression topology comprising 11 protein-protein phosphorylation elements. The toggle is ultrasensitive, can be induced to switch states in seconds, and exhibits long-term bistability. Motivated by our toggle's architecture and size, we developed a computational framework to search endogenous protein pathways for other large and similar bistable networks. Our framework helped us to identify and experimentally verify five formerly unreported endogenous networks that exhibit bistability. Building synthetic protein-protein networks will enable bioengineers to design fast sensing and processing systems, allow sophisticated regulation of cellular processes, and aid discovery of endogenous networks with particular functions.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199294

RESUMO

Cold and freezing stresses severely affect plant growth, development, and survival rate. Some plant species have evolved a process known as cold acclimation, in which plants exposed to temperatures above 0 °C trigger biochemical and physiological changes to survive freezing. During this response, several signaling events are mediated by transducers, such as mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a key enzyme for the plant cell life under regular and stress conditions. Using wild type and mpk3 and mpk6 knock out mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we explored the transcriptional, translational, and 14-3-3 protein regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity under the acclimation process. The kinetic analysis revealed a differential profiling of the H+-ATPase activity depending on the presence or absence of MPK3 or MPK6 under non-acclimated or acclimated conditions. Negative regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity was found to be exerted by MPK3 in non-acclimated conditions and by MPK6 in acclimated conditions, describing a novel form of regulation of this master ATPase. The MPK6 regulation involved changes in plasma membrane fluidity. Moreover, our results indicated that MPK6 is a critical regulator in the process of cold acclimation that leads to freezing tolerance and further survival.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Congelamento , Cinética , Fluidez de Membrana , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Transcrição Genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208343

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is a gaseous environmental pollutant that can enter leaves through stomatal pores and cause damage to foliage. It can induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that can actively participate in stomatal closing or opening in plants. A number of phytohormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) are involved in stomatal regulation in plants. The effects of ozone on these phytohormones' ability to regulate the guard cells of stomata have been little studied, however, and the goal of this paper is to explore and understand the effects of ozone on stomatal regulation through guard cell signaling by phytohormones. In this review, we updated the existing knowledge by considering several physiological mechanisms related to stomatal regulation after response to ozone. The collected information should deepen our understanding of the molecular pathways associated with response to ozone stress, in particular, how it influences stomatal regulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, and phytohormone signaling. After summarizing the findings and noting the gaps in the literature, we present some ideas for future research on ozone stress in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ozônio/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4290, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257288

RESUMO

Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are an abundant population of tissue-resident T cells that protect and maintain the intestinal barrier. IEL respond to epithelial cell-derived IL-15, which is complexed to the IL-15 receptor α chain (IL-15/Rα). IL-15 is essential both for maintaining IEL homeostasis and inducing IEL responses to epithelial stress, which has been associated with Coeliac disease. Here, we apply quantitative mass spectrometry to IL-15/Rα-stimulated IEL to investigate how IL-15 directly regulates inflammatory functions of IEL. IL-15/Rα drives IEL activation through cell cycle regulation, upregulation of metabolic machinery and expression of a select repertoire of cell surface receptors. IL-15/Rα selectively upregulates the Ser/Thr kinases PIM1 and PIM2, which are essential for IEL to proliferate, grow and upregulate granzyme B in response to inflammatory IL-15. Notably, IEL from patients with Coeliac disease have high PIM expression. Together, these data indicate PIM kinases as important effectors of IEL responses to inflammatory IL-15.


Assuntos
Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Granzimas/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-15/genética , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281163

RESUMO

Erythropoietin (EPO) acts on multiple tissues through its receptor EPOR, a member of a cytokine class I receptor superfamily with pleiotropic effects. The interaction of EPO and EPOR triggers the activation of several signaling pathways that induce erythropoiesis, including JAK2/STAT5, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK. The canonical EPOR/JAK2/STAT5 pathway is a known regulator of differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival of erythroid progenitors. In addition, its role in the protection of other cells, including cancer cells, is under intense investigation. The involvement of EPOR/JAK2/STAT5 in other processes such as mRNA splicing, cytoskeleton reorganization, and cell metabolism has been recently described. The transcriptomics, proteomics, and epigenetic studies reviewed in this article provide a detailed understanding of EPO signalization. Advances in this area of research may be useful for improving the efficacy of EPO therapy in hematologic disorders, as well as in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenômica/métodos , Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoetina/fisiologia , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores da Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Receptores da Eritropoetina/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4651, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330898

RESUMO

The integrated stress response (ISR) is an essential stress-support pathway increasingly recognized as a determinant of tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrate that ISR is pivotal in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) development, the most common histological type of lung cancer and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Increased phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2 (p-eIF2α), the focal point of ISR, is related to invasiveness, increased growth, and poor outcome in 928 LUAD patients. Dissection of ISR mechanisms in KRAS-driven lung tumorigenesis in mice demonstrated that p-eIF2α causes the translational repression of dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), resulting in increased phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). Treatments with ISR inhibitors, including a memory-enhancing drug with limited toxicity, provides a suitable therapeutic option for KRAS-driven lung cancer insofar as they substantially reduce tumor growth and prolong mouse survival. Our data provide a rationale for the implementation of ISR-based regimens in LUAD treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Fosfatase 6 de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208655

RESUMO

The RTK-RAS-MAPK axis is one of the most extensively studied signaling cascades and is related to the development of both cancers and RASopathies. In the last 30 years, many ideas and approaches have emerged for directly targeting constituent members of this cascade, predominantly in the context of cancer treatment. These approaches are still insufficient due to undesirable drug toxicity, resistance, and low efficacy. Significant advances have been made in understanding the spatiotemporal features of the constituent members of the RTK-RAS-MAPK axis, which are linked and modulated by many accessory proteins. Given that the majority of such modulators are now emerging as attractive therapeutic targets, a very small number of accessory inhibitors have yet to be discovered.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201004

RESUMO

Cadmium is a carcinogen that can induce ER stress, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death. The yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways paly crucial roles in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway are all essential for yeast cells to defend against the cadmium-induced toxicity, including the elevated ROS and cell death levels induced by cadmium. We show that the UPR pathway is required for the cadmium-induced phosphorylation of HOG_MAPK Hog1 but not for CWI_MAPK Slt2, while Slt2 but not Hog1 is required for the activation of the UPR pathway through the transcription factors of Swi6 and Rlm1. Moreover, deletion of HAC1 and IRE1 could promote the nuclear accumulation of Hog1, and increase the cytosolic and bud neck localisation of Slt2, indicating crucial roles of Hog1 and Slt2 in regulating the cellular process in the absence of UPR pathway. Altogether, our findings highlight the significance of these two MAPK pathways of HOG and CWI and their interrelationship with the UPR pathway in responding to cadmium-induced toxicity in budding yeast.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Parede Celular/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Fosforilação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111657, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243626

RESUMO

Cancer remains one of the debilitating health threats to mankind in view of its incurable nature. Many factors are complicit in the initiation, progression and establishment of cancers. Early detection of cancer is the only window of hope that allows for appreciable management and possible limited survival. However, understanding of cancer biology and knowledge of the key factors that interplay at multi-level in the initiation and progression of cancer may hold possible avenues for cancer treatment and management. In particular, dysregulation of growth factor signaling such as that of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) and its downstream mediators play key roles in various cancer subtypes. Expanded understanding of the context/cell type-dependent roles of TGF-ß and its downstream signaling mediators in cancer may provide leads for cancer pharmacotherapy. Reliable information contained in original articles, reviews, mini-reviews and expert opinions on TGF-ß, cancer and the specific roles of TGF-ß signaling in various cancer subtypes were retrieved from major scientific data bases including PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Web of Science core collections just to mention but a sample by using the following search terms: TGF-ß in cancer, TGF-ß and colorectal cancer, TGF-ß and brain cancer, TGF-ß in cancer initiation, TGF-ß and cell proliferation, TGF-ß and cell invasion, and TGF-ß-based cancer therapy. Retrieved information and reports were carefully examined, contextualized and synchronized into a coherent scientific content to highlight the multiple roles of TGF-ß signaling in normal and cancerous cells. From a conceptual standpoint, development of pharmacologically active agents that exert non-specific inhibitory effects on TGF-ß signaling on various cell types will undoubtedly lead to a plethora of serious side effects in view of the multi-functionality and pleiotropic nature of TGF-ß. Such non-specific targeting of TGF-ß could derail any beneficial therapeutic intention associated with TGF-ß-based therapy. However, development of pharmacologically active agents designed specifically to target TGF-ß signaling in cancer cells may improve cancer pharmacotherapy. Similarly, specific targeting of downstream mediators of TGF-ß such as TGF-ß type 1 and II receptors (TßRI and TßRII), receptor-mediated Smads, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and importing proteins in cancer cells may be crucial for cancer pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199025

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rk1 and Rg5 are minor ginseng saponins that have received more attention recently because of their high oral bioavailability. Each of them can effectively inhibit the survival and proliferation of human liver cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 yielded 142 potential targets, and shared 44 putative targets associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Enrichment analysis of the overlapped genes showed that G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 may induce apoptosis of liver cancer cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to confirm the inhibition of cell viability with G-Rk1 or G-Rg5 in highly metastatic human cancer MHCC-97H cells. We evaluated the apoptosis of MHCC-97H cells by using flow cytometry and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The translocation of Bax/Bak led to the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c and Smac. A sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed after that. The levels of anti-apoptotic proteins were decreased after treatment of G-Rk1 or G-Rg5 in MHCC-97H cells. Taken together, G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 promoted the endogenous apoptotic pathway in MHCC-97H cells by targeting and regulating some critical liver cancer related genes that are involved in the signal pathways associated with cell survival and proliferation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
16.
Development ; 148(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121117

RESUMO

The Ciona larva has served as a unique model for understanding the development of dopaminergic cells at single-cell resolution owing to the exceptionally small number of neurons in its brain and its fixed cell lineage during embryogenesis. A recent study suggested that the transcription factors Fer2 and Meis directly regulate the dopamine synthesis genes in Ciona, but the dopaminergic cell lineage and the gene regulatory networks that control the development of dopaminergic cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we reveal that the dopaminergic cells in Ciona are derived from a bilateral pair of cells called a9.37 cells at the center of the neural plate. The a9.37 cells divide along the anterior-posterior axis, and all of the descendants of the posterior daughter cells differentiate into the dopaminergic cells. We show that the MAPK pathway and the transcription factor Otx are required for the expression of Fer2 in the dopaminergic cell lineage. Our findings establish the cellular and molecular framework for fully understanding the commitment to dopaminergic cells in the simple chordate brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Ciona/genética , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Ciona/citologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Placa Neural/citologia , Placa Neural/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064664

RESUMO

Rutin is a flavonoid with antioxidant property. It has been shown to exert cardioprotection against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, studies regarding its antihypertrophic property are still lacking, whether it demonstrates similar antihypertrophic effect to its metabolite, quercetin. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effects of both flavonoids on oxidative stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes that were exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce hypertrophy. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to Ang II (600 nM) with or without quercetin (331 µM) or rutin (50 µM) for 24 h. A group given vehicle served as the control. The concentration of the flavonoids was chosen based on the reported effective concentration to reduce cell hypertrophy or cardiac injury in H9c2 cells. Exposure to Ang II increased cell surface area, intracellular superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities, and reduced cellular superoxide dismutase activity and nitrite level, which were similarly reversed by both rutin and quercetin. Rutin had no significant effects on phosphorylated proteins of extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 but downregulated phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2), which were induced by Ang II. Quercetin, on the other hand, had significantly downregulated the phosphorylated proteins of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. The quercetin inhibitory effect on JNK1/2 was stronger than the rutin. In conclusion, both flavonoids afford similar protective effects against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but they differently modulate MAPK pathway.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mioblastos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Rutina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Hipertrofia/induzido quimicamente , Hipertrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mioblastos Cardíacos/citologia , Mioblastos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/toxicidade
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 696, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103645

RESUMO

Health and disease are directly related to the RTK-RAS-MAPK signalling cascade. After more than three decades of intensive research, understanding its spatiotemporal features is afflicted with major conceptual shortcomings. Here we consider how the compilation of a vast array of accessory proteins may resolve some parts of the puzzles in this field, as they safeguard the strength, efficiency and specificity of signal transduction. Targeting such modulators, rather than the constituent components of the RTK-RAS-MAPK signalling cascade may attenuate rather than inhibit disease-relevant signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Neoplasias/metabolismo
19.
Phytomedicine ; 88: 153609, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126414

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine for liver protection, can significantly improve liver fibrosis. However, it is still unclear which active components in Schisandra chinensis play an anti-fibrosis role. PURPOSE: The purpose of present study was to observe the anti-fibrosis effect of schisantherin A (SCA) on liver fibrosis and explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: The liver fibrosis model of mice was constructed by the progressive intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA), and SCA (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) was administered by gavage for 5 weeks. The biochemical indicators and inflammatory cytokines were measured, changes in the pathology of the mice liver were observed by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Masson stainings for studying the anti-fibrosis effect of SCA. A hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) activation model induced by transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) was established, and the effect of SCA on the HSCs proliferation was observed by MTT assay. The expressions of target proteins related to transforming growth factor-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways were evaluated by western blotting, immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence analysis, to explore the potential mechanism of SCA. RESULTS: SCA could significantly ameliorate the pathological changes of liver tissue induced by TAA, and reduce the serum transaminase level, the hydroxyproline level and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen 1A1 (COL1A1) proteins in the liver tissue. SCA could significantly lower the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the serum and liver tissue, and down-regulate the expression of target proteins related to TAK1/MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the liver tissue. The in vitro studies demonstrated that SCA significantly inhibited the proliferation and activation of HCS-T6 cells induced by TGF-ß1, decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and inhibited the TAK1 activation induced by TGF-ß1 and then the expression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway-related proteins. CONCLUSION: Together, SCA can ameliorate the liver fibrosis induced by TAA and the HSC-T6 cell activation induced by TGF-ß1 in mice, and its mechanism may be to inhibit the HSCs activation and inflammatory response by inhibiting TGF-ß1 mediated TAK1/MAPK and signal pathways.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
20.
Cell Prolif ; 54(8): e13084, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases which lose the immunological tolerance to self-antigens. It is well recognized that irregularly provoked T cells participate in the pathological immune responses. As a novel nanomaterial with promising applications, tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (TFNA) nanostructure was found to have immune regulatory effects on T cells in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To verify the successful fabrication of TFNA, the morphology of TFNA was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The regulatory effect of TFNA was evaluated by flow cytometry after cocultured with CD3+ T cells isolated from healthy donors. Moreover, the associated signaling pathways were investigated. Finally, we verified our results on the T cells from patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), which is a typical autoimmune disease induced by T cells. RESULTS: We revealed the alternative regulatory functions of TFNA in human primary T cells with steady status via the JNK signaling pathway. Moreover, by inhibiting both JNK and ERK phosphorylation, TFNA exhibited significant suppressive effects on IFNγ secretion from provoking T cells without affecting TNF secretion. Similar immune regulatory effects of TFNA were also observed in autoreactive T cells from patients with NMOSD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results revealed a potential application of TFNA in regulating the adaptive immune system, as well as shed a light on the treatment of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos/farmacologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanoestruturas/química , Neuromielite Óptica/metabolismo , Neuromielite Óptica/patologia , Ácidos Nucleicos/síntese química , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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