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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5253, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489471

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many disease-associated variants, yet mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. To understand obesity-associated variants, we generate gene regulatory annotations in adipocytes and hypothalamic neurons across cellular differentiation stages. We then test variants in 97 obesity-associated loci using a massively parallel reporter assay and identify putatively causal variants that display cell type specific or cross-tissue enhancer-modulating properties. Integrating these variants with gene regulatory information suggests genes that underlie obesity GWAS associations. We also investigate a complex genomic interval on 16p11.2 where two independent loci exhibit megabase-range, cross-locus chromatin interactions. We demonstrate that variants within these two loci regulate a shared gene set. Together, our data support a model where GWAS loci contain variants that alter enhancer activity across tissues, potentially with temporally restricted effects, to impact the expression of multiple genes. This complex model has broad implications for ongoing efforts to understand GWAS.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Pleiotropia Genética , Obesidade/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gigantismo/genética , Gigantismo/patologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 5/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 446, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are among the largest druggable family of signaling proteins, involved in various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite their clinical relevance, nearly 30% of the 545 human protein kinases remain highly understudied. Comparative genomics is a powerful approach for predicting and investigating the functions of understudied kinases. However, an incomplete knowledge of kinase orthologs across fully sequenced kinomes severely limits the application of comparative genomics approaches for illuminating understudied kinases. Here, we introduce KinOrtho, a query- and graph-based orthology inference method that combines full-length and domain-based approaches to map one-to-one kinase orthologs across 17 thousand species. RESULTS: Using multiple metrics, we show that KinOrtho performed better than existing methods in identifying kinase orthologs across evolutionarily divergent species and eliminated potential false positives by flagging sequences without a proper kinase domain for further evaluation. We demonstrate the advantage of using domain-based approaches for identifying domain fusion events, highlighting a case between an understudied serine/threonine kinase TAOK1 and a metabolic kinase PIK3C2A with high co-expression in human cells. We also identify evolutionary fission events involving the understudied OBSCN kinase domains, further highlighting the value of domain-based orthology inference approaches. Using KinOrtho-defined orthologs, Gene Ontology annotations, and machine learning, we propose putative biological functions of several understudied kinases, including the role of TP53RK in cell cycle checkpoint(s), the involvement of TSSK3 and TSSK6 in acrosomal vesicle localization, and potential functions for the ULK4 pseudokinase in neuronal development. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, KinOrtho presents a novel query-based tool to identify one-to-one orthologous relationships across thousands of proteomes that can be applied to any protein family of interest. We exploit KinOrtho here to identify kinase orthologs and show that its well-curated kinome ortholog set can serve as a valuable resource for illuminating understudied kinases, and the KinOrtho framework can be extended to any protein-family of interest.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genômica , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Proteínas
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 382, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) represent a large subfamily of receptor-like kinases and play vital roles in diverse physiological processes in regulating plant growth and development. RESULTS: CaCRK5 transcripts were induced in pepper upon the infection of Ralstonia solanacearum and treatment with salicylic acid. The fusions between CaCRK5 and green fluorescence protein were targeted to the plasma membrane. Suppression of CaCRK5 via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) made pepper plants significantly susceptible to R. solanacearum infection, which was accompanied with decreased expression of defense related genes CaPR1, CaSAR8.2, CaDEF1 and CaACO1. Overexpression of CaCRK5 increased resistance against R. solanacearum in Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that a homeodomain zipper I protein CaHDZ27 can active the expression of CaCRK5 through directly binding to its promoter. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses suggested that CaCRK5 heterodimerized with the homologous member CaCRK6 on the plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that CaCRK5 played a positive role in regulating immune responses against R. solanacearum infection in pepper.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/microbiologia , Cisteína/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Capsicum/fisiologia , China , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
4.
Theriogenology ; 174: 160-168, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455243

RESUMO

Vitrification is an effective technique for fertility preservation, but is known to lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in porcine oocytes. Mitophagy is induced to rebalance mitochondrial function, a process in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a role. In this study, vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes were incubated for 4 h with the oxidant AAPH or antioxidant α-tocopherol to alter ROS levels. A series of tests suggested that vitrification damaged mitochondrial structure and caused dysfunction, including blurred mitochondrial cristae, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased mtDNA copy number and increased ROS generation. This dysfunction resulted in mitophagy and the loss of embryonic developmental potential. Incubation with AAPH or α-tocopherol altered mitochondrial function and mitophagy flux status in vitrified oocytes. The PINK1/Parkin pathway was involved in oxidative stress regulation in vitrified oocytes. Under AAPH-induced oxidative stress, increased fluorescence intensity of Parkin, increased expression of PINK1, Parkin, and LC3B-II, and decreased expression of MFN2 and p62 were observed, whereas the opposite effects were induced under α-tocopherol treatment. The inhibition of ROS by α-tocopherol benefitted mitochondrial homeostasis and alleviated PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, resulting in the recovery of embryonic developmental potential in vitrified porcine oocytes. Therefore, this study provides a new mechanism for the application of antioxidants to aid the cryopreservation of porcine oocytes.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia , Animais , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Suínos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
5.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 469-477, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213093

RESUMO

Mutations of PTEN-induced kinase I (PINK1) cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) with selective neurodegeneration in humans. However, current PINK1 knockout mouse and pig models are unable to recapitulate the typical neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in PD patients. This suggests that generating PINK1 disease models in non-human primates (NHPs) that are close to humans is essential to investigate the unique function of PINK1 in primate brains. Paired single guide RNA (sgRNA)/Cas9-D10A nickases and truncated sgRNA/Cas9, both of which can reduce off-target effects without compromising on-target editing, are two optimized strategies in the CRISPR/Cas9 system for establishing disease animal models. Here, we combined the two strategies and injected Cas9-D10A mRNA and two truncated sgRNAs into one-cell-stage cynomolgus zygotes to target the PINK1 gene. We achieved precise and efficient gene editing of the target site in three newborn cynomolgus monkeys. The frame shift mutations of PINK1 in mutant fibroblasts led to a reduction in mRNA. However, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining confirmed the PINK1 protein levels were comparable to that in wild-type fibroblasts. We further reprogramed mutant fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which showed similar ability to differentiate into dopamine (DA) neurons. Taken together, our results showed that co-injection of Cas9-D10A nickase mRNA and sgRNA into one-cell-stage cynomolgus embryos enabled the generation of human disease models in NHPs and target editing by pair truncated sgRNA/Cas9-D10A in PINK1 gene exon 2 did not impact protein expression.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Transferência Embrionária , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macaca fascicularis/embriologia , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA Guia
6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 661, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210956

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the urinary system. The development and improvement of treatment efficiency require the deepening of the understanding of its molecular mechanism. This study investigated the role of ALPK2, which is rarely studied in malignant tumors, in the development of bladder cancer. Our results showed the upregulation of ALPK2 in bladder cancer, and data mining of TCGA database showed the association between ALPK2 and pathological parameters of patients with bladder cancer. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that knockdown of ALPK2 could inhibit bladder cancer development through regulating cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell migration. Additionally, DEPDC1A is identified as a potential downstream of ALPK2 with direct interaction, whose overexpression/downregulation can inhibit/promote the malignant behavioral of bladder cancer cells. Moreover, the overexpression of DEPDC1A can rescue the inhibitory effects of ALPK2 knockdown on bladder cancer. In conclusion, ALPK2 exerts a cancer-promoting role in the development of bladder cancer by regulating DEPDC1A, which may become a promising target to improve the treatment strategy of bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
7.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(7): 796-807, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239062

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases present with elevated levels of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death, which compromises the gut barrier, activating immune cells and triggering more IEC death. The endogenous signals that prevent IEC death and break this vicious cycle, allowing resolution of intestinal inflammation, remain largely unknown. Here we show that prostaglandin E2 signalling via the E-type prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) on IECs represses epithelial necroptosis and induces resolution of colitis. We found that EP4 expression correlates with an improved IBD outcome and that EP4 activation induces a transcriptional signature consistent with resolution of intestinal inflammation. We further show that dysregulated necroptosis prevents resolution, and EP4 agonism suppresses necroptosis in human and mouse IECs. Mechanistically, EP4 signalling on IECs converges on receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 to suppress tumour necrosis factor-induced activation and membrane translocation of the necroptosis effector mixed-lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase. In summary, our study indicates that EP4 promotes the resolution of colitis by suppressing IEC necroptosis.


Assuntos
Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Necroptose , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/agonistas , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/genética , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(32): 3063-3073, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263907

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of heterozygous truncating ALPK3 variants (ALPK3tv) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and confirm their pathogenicity using burden testing in independent cohorts and family co-segregation studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a discovery cohort of 770 index patients with HCM, 12 (1.56%) were heterozygous for ALPK3tv [odds ratio(OR) 16.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.94-30.02, P = 8.05e-11] compared to the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) population. In a validation cohort of 2047 HCM probands, 32 (1.56%) carried heterozygous ALPK3tv (OR 16.17, 95% CI 10.31-24.87, P < 2.2e-16, compared to gnomAD). Combined logarithm of odds score in seven families with ALPK3tv was 2.99. In comparison with a cohort of genotyped patients with HCM (n = 1679) with and without pathogenic sarcomere gene variants (SP+ and SP-), ALPK3tv carriers had a higher prevalence of apical/concentric patterns of hypertrophy (60%, P < 0.001) and of a short PR interval (10%, P = 0.009). Age at diagnosis and maximum left ventricular wall thickness were similar to SP- and left ventricular systolic impairment (6%) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (31%) at baseline similar to SP+. After 5.3 ± 5.7 years, 4 (9%) patients with ALPK3tv died of heart failure or had cardiac transplantation (log-rank P = 0.012 vs. SP- and P = 0.425 vs. SP+). Imaging and histopathology showed extensive myocardial fibrosis and myocyte vacuolation. CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygous ALPK3tv are pathogenic and segregate with a characteristic HCM phenotype.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Sarcômeros
10.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(5): 1135-1145, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196769

RESUMO

Nik1 orthologs or group III hybrid histidine kinases (HHK3) represent a unique cytoplasmic osmosensor that act upstream of HOG/p38 MAPK pathway in fungi. It is an important molecular target for developing new antifungal agents against human pathogens. HHK3 orthologs contain a linear array of alternative HAMP and HAMP-like linker domains (poly-HAMP) in the N-terminal region. HAMP domains are quite common in prokaryotic histidine kinases where it mostly functions as signal transducer mediating conformational changes in the kinase domains. In contrast, poly-HAMP in HHK3 acts as a sensor and signal transducer to regulate histidine kinase activity. However, the mechanistic detail of this is poorly understood. Interestingly, recent studies indicate that the poly-HAMP-mediated regulation of the kinase activity varies among the orthologs. Hik1 is an important HHK3 ortholog from fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In this paper, we aimed to decipher the role HAMP and HAMP-like linker domains in regulating the activity of Hik1p. We show that Hik1p acts as a bona fide osmosensor and negatively regulates the downstream HOG/p38 MAPK pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data suggest a differential role of the HAMP domains in the functionality of Hik1p. Most interestingly, the deletion of individual domains in poly-HAMP resulted in distinct active forms of Hik1p and thereby indicating that the poly-HAMP domain, instead of acting as on-off switch, regulates the histidine kinase activity by transition through multiple conformational states.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Histidina Quinase/química , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/enzimologia , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Teste de Complementação Genética , Histidina Quinase/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Pirróis/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4472, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294691

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors; thus, brain epigenomic alterations may provide insights into AD pathogenesis. Multiple array-based Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWASs) have identified robust brain methylation changes in AD; however, array-based assays only test about 2% of all CpG sites in the genome. Here, we develop EWASplus, a computational method that uses a supervised machine learning strategy to extend EWAS coverage to the entire genome. Application to six AD-related traits predicts hundreds of new significant brain CpGs associated with AD, some of which are further validated experimentally. EWASplus also performs well on data collected from independent cohorts and different brain regions. Genes found near top EWASplus loci are enriched for kinases and for genes with evidence for physical interactions with known AD genes. In this work, we show that EWASplus implicates additional epigenetic loci for AD that are not found using array-based AD EWASs.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/enzimologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4194, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234144

RESUMO

Photomorphogenesis, light-mediated development, is an essential feature of all terrestrial plants. While chloroplast development and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling are known players in photomorphogenesis, proteins that regulate both pathways have yet to be identified. Here we report that DE-ETIOLATION IN THE DARK AND YELLOWING IN THE LIGHT (DAY), a membrane protein containing DnaJ-like domain, plays a dual-role in photomorphogenesis by stabilizing the BR receptor, BRI1, as well as a key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis, POR. DAY localizes to both the endomembrane and chloroplasts via its first transmembrane domain and chloroplast transit peptide, respectively, and interacts with BRI1 and POR in their respective subcellular compartments. Using genetic analysis, we show that DAY acts independently on BR signaling and chlorophyll biogenesis. Collectively, this work uncovers DAY as a factor that simultaneously regulates BR signaling and chloroplast development, revealing a key regulator of photomorphogenesis that acts across cell compartments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/isolamento & purificação , Luz , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204880

RESUMO

Dysregulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders ranging from idiopathic autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to syndromes caused by single gene defects. This suggests that maintaining mTOR activity levels in a physiological range is essential for brain development and functioning. Upon activation, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes such as cell growth, autophagy, and metabolism. On a molecular level, however, the consequences of mTOR activation in the brain are not well understood. Low levels of cholesterol are associated with a wide variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. We here describe numerous genes of the sterol/cholesterol biosynthesis pathway to be transcriptionally regulated by mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in vitro in primary neurons and in vivo in the developing cerebral cortex of the mouse. We find that these genes are shared targets of the transcription factors SREBP, SP1, and NF-Y. Prenatal as well as postnatal mTORC1 inhibition downregulated expression of these genes which directly translated into reduced cholesterol levels, pointing towards a substantial metabolic function of the mTORC1 signaling cascade. Altogether, our results indicate that mTORC1 is an essential transcriptional regulator of the expression of sterol/cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the developing brain. Altered expression of these genes may be an important factor contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with dysregulated mTOR signaling.


Assuntos
Colesterol/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Colesterol/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Neurogênese/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204950

RESUMO

The dysregulation of autophagy is important in the development of many cancers, including thyroid cancer, where V600EBRAF is a main oncogene. Here, we analyse the effect of V600EBRAF inhibition on autophagy, the mechanisms involved in this regulation and the role of autophagy in cell survival of thyroid cancer cells. We reveal that the inhibition of V600EBRAF activity with its specific inhibitor PLX4720 or the depletion of its expression by siRNA induces autophagy in thyroid tumour cells. We show that V600EBRAF downregulation increases LKB1-AMPK signalling and decreases mTOR activity through a MEK/ERK-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we demonstrate that PLX4720 activates ULK1 and increases autophagy through the activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway, but not by the inhibition of mTOR. In addition, we find that autophagy blockade decreases cell viability and sensitize thyroid cancer cells to V600EBRAF inhibition by PLX4720 treatment. Finally, we generate a thyroid xenograft model to demonstrate that autophagy inhibition synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of V600EBRAF inhibition in vivo. Collectively, we uncover a new role of AMPK in mediating the induction of cytoprotective autophagy by V600EBRAF inhibition. In addition, these data establish a rationale for designing an integrated therapy targeting V600EBRAF and the LKB1-AMPK-ULK1-autophagy axis for the treatment of V600EBRAF-positive thyroid tumours.


Assuntos
Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205396

RESUMO

Members of the lectin receptor-like kinase (LecRLKs) family play a vital role in innate plant immunity. Few members of the LecRLKs family have been characterized in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. However, little literature is available about LecRLKs and their role against fungal infection in cucumber. In this study, 60 putative cucumber LecRLK (CsLecRLK) proteins were identified using genome-wide analysis and further characterized into L-type LecRLKs (24) and G-type LecRLKs (36) based on domain composition and phylogenetic analysis. These proteins were allocated to seven cucumber chromosomes and found to be involved in the expansion of the CsLecRLK gene family. Subcellular localization of CsaLecRLK9 and CsaLecRLK12 showed green fluorescence signals in the plasma membrane of leaves. The transcriptional profiling of CsLecRLK genes showed that L-type LecRLKs exhibited functional redundancy as compared to G-type LecRLKs. The qRT-PCR results indicated that both L- and G-type LecRLKs showed significant response against plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF-Trichoderma harzianum Rifai), powdery mildew pathogen (PPM-Golovinomyces orontii (Castagne) V.P. Heluta), and combined (PGPF+PPM) treatments. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the role of cucumber CsLecRLK genes in response to PGPF, PPM, and PGPF+PPM treatments and lay the basis for the characterization of this important functional gene family.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/enzimologia , Erysiphe/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
16.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21771, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275172

RESUMO

Impaired mitochondrial fusion, due in part to decreased mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, contributes to unrestricted cell proliferation and apoptosis-resistance in hyperproliferative diseases like pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that Mfn2 levels are reduced due to increased proteasomal degradation of Mfn2 triggered by its phosphorylation at serine 442 (S442) and investigated the potential kinase mediators. Mfn2 expression was decreased and Mfn2 S442 phosphorylation was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from PAH patients and in NSCLC cells. Mfn2 phosphorylation was mediated by PINK1 and protein kinase A (PKA), although only PINK1 expression was increased in these diseases. We designed a S442 phosphorylation deficient Mfn2 construct (PD-Mfn2) and a S442 constitutively phosphorylated Mfn2 construct (CP-Mfn2). The effects of these modified Mfn2 constructs on Mfn2 expression and biological function were compared with those of the wildtype Mfn2 construct (WT-Mfn2). WT-Mfn2 increased Mfn2 expression and mitochondrial fusion in both PAH and NSCLC cells resulting in increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. Compared to WT-Mfn2, PD-Mfn2 caused greater Mfn2 expression, suppression of proliferation, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle arrest. Conversely, CP-Mfn2 caused only a small increase in Mfn2 expression and did not restore mitochondrial fusion, inhibit cell proliferation, or induce apoptosis. Silencing PINK1 or PKA, or proteasome blockade using MG132, increased Mfn2 expression, enhanced mitochondrial fusion and induced apoptosis. In a xenotransplantation NSCLC model, PD-Mfn2 gene therapy caused greater tumor regression than did therapy with WT-Mfn2. Mfn2 deficiency in PAH and NSCLC reflects proteasomal degradation triggered by Mfn2-S442 phosphorylation by PINK1 and/or PKA. Inhibiting Mfn2 phosphorylation has potential therapeutic benefit in PAH and lung cancer.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteólise , Células A549 , Animais , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299248

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence of approximately 0.5-1% among those aged 65-70 years. Although most of its clinical manifestations are due to a loss of dopaminergic neurons, the PD etiology is largely unknown. PD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and the exact interplay between genes and the environment is still debated. Several biological processes have been implicated in PD, including mitochondrial or lysosomal dysfunctions, alteration in protein clearance, and neuroinflammation, but a common molecular mechanism connecting the different cellular alterations remains incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence underlines a significant role of lipids in the pathological pathways leading to PD. Beside the well-described lipid alteration in idiopathic PD, this review summarizes the several lipid alterations observed in experimental models expressing PD-related genes and suggests a possible scenario in relationship to the molecular mechanisms of neuronal toxicity. PD could be considered a lipid-induced proteinopathy, where alteration in lipid composition or metabolism could induce protein alteration-for instance, alpha-synuclein accumulation-and finally neuronal death.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Glucosilceramidase/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/metabolismo , Humanos , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 630, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145219

RESUMO

Mitophagy alleviates neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia by selectively removing dysfunctional mitochondria. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is the most well-known type of mitophagy. However, little is known about the role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in ischemic tolerance induced by hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) with 8% O2 against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). Hence, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HPC-mediated PINK1/Parkin-induced mitochondrial ubiquitination and promotes mitophagy, thus exerting neuroprotection in the hippocampal CA1 subregion against tGCI. We found that mitochondrial clearance was disturbed at the late phase of reperfusion after tGCI, which was reversed by HPC, as evidenced by the reduction of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 homologs (TOMM20), translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23 (TIMM23) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in CA1 after HPC. In addition, HPC further increased the ratio of LC3II/I in mitochondrial fraction and promoted the formation of mitophagosomes in CA1 neurons after tGCI. The administration of lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) intraperitoneally or mitophagy inhibitor (Mdivi-1) intracerebroventricularly abrogated HPC-induced mitochondrial turnover and neuroprotection in CA1 after tGCI. We also found that HPC activated PINK1/Parkin pathway after tGCI, as shown by the augment of mitochondrial PINK1 and Parkin and the promotion of mitochondrial ubiquitination in CA1. In addition, PINK1 or Parkin knockdown with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the activation of PINK1/Parkin pathway and hampered mitochondrial clearance and attenuated neuroprotection induced by HPC, whereas PINK1 overexpression promoted PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and ameliorated neuronal damage in CA1 after tGCI. Taken together, the new finding in this study is that HPC-induced neuroprotection against tGCI through promoting mitophagy mediated by PINK1/Parkin-dependent pathway.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/enzimologia , Hipóxia/enzimologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitofagia , Neurônios/enzimologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/patologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/genética , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Transporte Proteico , Ratos Wistar , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 632, 2021 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148057

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is essential to Parkinson's disease. Although important progress has been made in previous researches, the biochemical reagents that induce global and significant mitochondrial damage may still hinder deeper insights into the mechanisms of mitophagy. The origin of PINK1/Parkin pathway activation in mitophagy remains elusive. In this study, we develop an optical method, ultra-precise laser stimulation (UPLaS) that delivers a precise and noninvasive stimulation onto a submicron region in a single mitochondrial tubular structure. UPLaS excites localized mitochondrial Ca2+ (mitoCa2+) oscillations with tiny perturbation to mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. The UPLaS-induced mitoCa2+ oscillations can directly induce PINK1 accumulation and Parkin recruitment on mitochondria. The Parkin recruitment by UPLaS requires PINK1. Our results provide a precise and noninvasive technology for research on mitophagy, which stimulates target mitochondria with little damage, and reveal mitoCa2+ oscillation directly initiates the PINK1-Parkin pathway for mitophagy without MMP depolarization.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitofagia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Tempo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 638, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158471

RESUMO

MLKL phosphorylation by RIP3 is the commitment step of necroptosis execution, which could induce MLKL activation featured as MLKL monomer-oligomer transition. Here, we reported that the dimerization of the MLKL kinase-like domain was the direct consequence of RIP3 triggered MLKL-phosphorylation. Two inter-dimer interfaces were found in the crystal structure of human MLKL. Mutations destroying both interfaces could prevent RIP3-induced MLKL oligomerization and necroptosis efficiently. Moreover, we confirmed MLKL self-assembly by the internal coiled-coil region is necessary for MLKL oligomerization and function. The mutations disrupting coiled-coil self-assembly repressed necroptosis, but it did not prevent RIP3-induced dimerization of the MLKL kinase-like domain. So that, MLKL activation is a sequential process, which begins with kinase-like domain dimerization, and followed by internal coiled-coil region self-assembly to form a proper MLKL oligomer. Besides human MLKL, structural and functional analysis showed the kinase-like domain dimerization was conserved among mammalian species, suggesting it is a general step of the RIP3-induced MLKL activation process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Necroptose , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ativação Enzimática , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Mutação , Fosforilação , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Multimerização Proteica , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Células Sf9 , Transdução de Sinais , Spodoptera
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