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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204592

RESUMO

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8 (NDUFS8) is a nuclear-encoded core subunit of human mitochondrial complex I. Defects in NDUFS8 are associated with Leigh syndrome and encephalomyopathy. Cell-penetrating peptide derived from the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (TAT) has been successfully applied as a carrier to bring fusion proteins into cells without compromising the biological function of the cargoes. In this study, we developed a TAT-mediated protein transduction system to rescue complex I deficiency caused by NDUFS8 defects. Two fusion proteins (TAT-NDUFS8 and NDUFS8-TAT) were exogenously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli for transduction of human cells. In addition, similar constructs were generated and used in transfection studies for comparison. The results showed that both exogenous TAT-NDUFS8 and NDUFS8-TAT were delivered into mitochondria and correctly processed. Interestingly, the mitochondrial import of TAT-containing NDUFS8 was independent of mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with TAT-NDUFS8 not only significantly improved the assembly of complex I in an NDUFS8-deficient cell line, but also partially rescued complex I functions both in the in-gel activity assay and the oxygen consumption assay. Our current findings suggest the considerable potential of applying the TAT-mediated protein transduction system for treatment of complex I deficiency.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
2.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21681, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196428

RESUMO

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expresses at the basolateral plasma membrane of the thyroid follicular cell and mediates iodide accumulation required for normal thyroid hormonogenesis. Loss-of-function NIS variants cause congenital hypothyroidism due to impaired iodide accumulation in thyroid follicular cells underscoring the significance of NIS for thyroid physiology. Here we report novel findings derived from the thorough characterization of the nonsense NIS mutant p.R636* NIS-leading to a truncated protein missing the last eight amino acids-identified in twins with congenital hypothyroidism. R636* NIS is severely mislocalized into intracellular vesicular compartments due to the lack of a conserved carboxy-terminal type 1 PDZ-binding motif. As a result, R636* NIS is barely targeted to the plasma membrane and therefore iodide transport is reduced. Deletion of the PDZ-binding motif causes NIS accumulation into late endosomes and lysosomes. Using PDZ domain arrays, we revealed that the PDZ-domain containing protein SCRIB binds to the carboxy-terminus of NIS by a PDZ-PDZ interaction. Furthermore, in CRISPR/Cas9-based SCRIB deficient cells, NIS expression at the basolateral plasma membrane is compromised, leading to NIS localization into intracellular vesicular compartments. We conclude that the PDZ-binding motif is a plasma membrane retention signal that participates in the polarized expression of NIS by selectively interacting with the PDZ-domain containing protein SCRIB, thus retaining the transporter at the basolateral plasma membrane. Our data provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate NIS expression at the plasma membrane, a topic of great interest in the thyroid cancer field considering the relevance of NIS-mediated radioactive iodide therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Códon sem Sentido , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Cães , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Domínios PDZ/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Simportadores/química , Simportadores/genética , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204265

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is overexpressed in many malignant tumors. The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has been approved for treating HER2-positive early and metastatic breast cancers. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), a bacterial toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, consists of an A-domain with enzymatic activity and a B-domain with cell binding activity. Recombinant immunotoxins comprising the HER2(scFv) single-chain Fv from trastuzumab and the PE24B catalytic fragment of PE display promising cytotoxic effects, but immunotoxins are typically insoluble when expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, and thus they require solubilization and refolding. Herein, a recombinant immunotoxin gene was fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) and overexpressed in a soluble form in E. coli. Removal of the MBP yielded stable HER2(scFv)-PE24B at 91% purity; 0.25 mg of pure HER2(scFv)-PE24B was obtained from a 500 mL flask culture. Purified HER2(scFv)-PE24B was tested against four breast cancer cell lines differing in their surface HER2 level. The immunotoxin showed stronger cytotoxicity than HER2(scFv) or PE24B alone. The IC50 values for HER2(scFv)-PE24B were 28.1 ± 2.5 pM (n = 9) and 19 ± 1.4 pM (n = 9) for high HER2-positive cell lines SKBR3 and BT-474, respectively, but its cytotoxicity was lower against MDA-MB-231 and MCF7. Thus, fusion with MBP can facilitate the soluble expression and purification of scFv immunotoxins.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas , Exotoxinas , Imunotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única , Fatores de Virulência , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/genética , Imunotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
4.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066245

RESUMO

Natural backbone-cyclized proteins have an increased thermostability and resistance towards proteases, characteristics that have sparked interest in head-to-tail cyclization as a method to stability-enhance proteins used in diagnostics and therapeutic applications, for example. In this proof-of principle study, we have produced and investigated a head-to-tail cyclized and HER2-specific ZHER2:342 Affibody dimer. The sortase A-mediated cyclization reaction is highly efficient (>95%) under optimized conditions, and renders a cyclic ZHER3:342-dimer with an apparent melting temperature, Tm, of 68 °C, which is 3 °C higher than that of its linear counterpart. Circular dichroism spectra of the linear and cyclic dimers looked very similar in the far-UV range, both before and after thermal unfolding to 90 °C, which suggests that cyclization does not negatively impact the helicity or folding of the cyclic protein. The cyclic dimer had an apparent sub-nanomolar affinity (Kd ~750 pM) to the HER2-receptor, which is a ~150-fold reduction in affinity relative to the linear dimer (Kd ~5 pM), but the anti-HER2 Affibody dimer remained a high-affinity binder even after cyclization. No apparent difference in proteolytic stability was detected in an endopeptidase degradation assay for the cyclic and linear dimers. In contrast, in an exopeptidase degradation assay, the linear dimer was shown to be completely degraded after 5 min, while the cyclic dimer showed no detectable degradation even after 60 min. We further demonstrate that a site-specifically DyLight 594-labeled cyclic dimer shows specific binding to HER2-overexpressing cells. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrate that head-to-tail cyclization can be an effective strategy to increase the stability of an Affibody dimer.


Assuntos
Aminoaciltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Ciclização , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Células MCF-7 , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810480

RESUMO

Nkx6-1 is a member of the Nkx family of homeodomain transcription factors (TFs) that regulates motor neuron development, neuron specification and pancreatic endocrine and ß-cell differentiation. To facilitate the isolation and tracking of Nkx6-1-expressing cells, we have generated a novel Nkx6-1 Venus fusion (Nkx6-1-VF) reporter allele. The Nkx6-1-VF knock-in reporter is regulated by endogenous cis-regulatory elements of Nkx6-1 and the fluorescent protein fusion does not interfere with the TF function, as homozygous mice are viable and fertile. The nuclear localization of Nkx6-1-VF protein reflects the endogenous Nkx6-1 protein distribution. During embryonic pancreas development, the reporter protein marks the pancreatic ductal progenitors and the endocrine lineage, but is absent in the exocrine compartment. As expected, the levels of Nkx6-1-VF reporter are upregulated upon ß-cell differentiation during the major wave of endocrinogenesis. In the adult islets of Langerhans, the reporter protein is exclusively found in insulin-secreting ß-cells. Importantly, the Venus reporter activities allow successful tracking of ß-cells in live-cell imaging and their specific isolation by flow sorting. In summary, the generation of the Nkx6-1-VF reporter line reflects the expression pattern and dynamics of the endogenous protein and thus provides a unique tool to study the spatio-temporal expression pattern of this TF during organ development and enables isolation and tracking of Nkx6-1-expressing cells such as pancreatic ß-cells, but also neurons and motor neurons in health and disease.


Assuntos
Técnicas Citológicas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/embriologia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
EMBO J ; 40(11): e102277, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194823

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demonstrates the continuous threat of emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) to public health. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share an otherwise non-conserved part of non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), therefore named as "SARS-unique domain" (SUD). We previously found a yeast-2-hybrid screen interaction of the SARS-CoV SUD with human poly(A)-binding protein (PABP)-interacting protein 1 (Paip1), a stimulator of protein translation. Here, we validate SARS-CoV SUD:Paip1 interaction by size-exclusion chromatography, split-yellow fluorescent protein, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and confirm such interaction also between the corresponding domain of SARS-CoV-2 and Paip1. The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV SUD ("macrodomain II", Mac2) in complex with the middle domain of Paip1, determined by X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering, provides insights into the structural determinants of the complex formation. In cellulo, SUD enhances synthesis of viral but not host proteins via binding to Paip1 in pBAC-SARS-CoV replicon-transfected cells. We propose a possible mechanism for stimulation of viral translation by the SUD of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Cromatografia em Gel , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas Luminescentes , Modelos Moleculares , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Difração de Raios X
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 558: 79-85, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193239

RESUMO

During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic affected almost 108 individuals. Quite a number of vaccines against COVID-19 were therefore developed, and a few recently received authorization for emergency use. Overall, these vaccines target specific viral proteins by antibodies whose synthesis is directly elicited or indirectly triggered by nucleic acids coding for the desired targets. Among these targets, the receptor binding domain (RBD) of COVID-19 spike protein (SP) does frequently occur in the repertoire of candidate vaccines. However, the immunogenicity of RBD per se is limited by its low molecular mass, and by a structural rearrangement of full-length SP accompanied by the detachment of RBD. Here we show that the RBD of COVID-19 SP can be conveniently produced in Escherichia coli when fused to a fragment of CRM197, a variant of diphtheria toxin currently used for a number of conjugated vaccines. In particular, we show that the CRM197-RBD chimera solubilized from inclusion bodies can be refolded and purified to a state featuring the 5 native disulphide bonds of the parental proteins, the competence in binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and a satisfactory stability at room temperature. Accordingly, our observations provide compulsory information for the development of a candidate vaccine directed against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/química , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Redobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/biossíntese , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 558: 79-85, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906110

RESUMO

During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic affected almost 108 individuals. Quite a number of vaccines against COVID-19 were therefore developed, and a few recently received authorization for emergency use. Overall, these vaccines target specific viral proteins by antibodies whose synthesis is directly elicited or indirectly triggered by nucleic acids coding for the desired targets. Among these targets, the receptor binding domain (RBD) of COVID-19 spike protein (SP) does frequently occur in the repertoire of candidate vaccines. However, the immunogenicity of RBD per se is limited by its low molecular mass, and by a structural rearrangement of full-length SP accompanied by the detachment of RBD. Here we show that the RBD of COVID-19 SP can be conveniently produced in Escherichia coli when fused to a fragment of CRM197, a variant of diphtheria toxin currently used for a number of conjugated vaccines. In particular, we show that the CRM197-RBD chimera solubilized from inclusion bodies can be refolded and purified to a state featuring the 5 native disulphide bonds of the parental proteins, the competence in binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and a satisfactory stability at room temperature. Accordingly, our observations provide compulsory information for the development of a candidate vaccine directed against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/química , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Redobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/biossíntese , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
9.
EMBO J ; 40(11): e102277, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876849

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demonstrates the continuous threat of emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) to public health. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share an otherwise non-conserved part of non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), therefore named as "SARS-unique domain" (SUD). We previously found a yeast-2-hybrid screen interaction of the SARS-CoV SUD with human poly(A)-binding protein (PABP)-interacting protein 1 (Paip1), a stimulator of protein translation. Here, we validate SARS-CoV SUD:Paip1 interaction by size-exclusion chromatography, split-yellow fluorescent protein, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and confirm such interaction also between the corresponding domain of SARS-CoV-2 and Paip1. The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV SUD ("macrodomain II", Mac2) in complex with the middle domain of Paip1, determined by X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering, provides insights into the structural determinants of the complex formation. In cellulo, SUD enhances synthesis of viral but not host proteins via binding to Paip1 in pBAC-SARS-CoV replicon-transfected cells. We propose a possible mechanism for stimulation of viral translation by the SUD of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Cromatografia em Gel , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas Luminescentes , Modelos Moleculares , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Difração de Raios X
10.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808840

RESUMO

α-l-arabinofuranosidase is a subfamily of glycosidases involved in the hydrolysis of l-arabinofuranosidic bonds, especially in those of the terminal non-reducing arabinofuranosyl residues of glycosides, from which efficient glycoside hydrolases can be screened for the transformation of ginsenosides. In this study, the ginsenoside Rc-hydrolyzing α-l-arabinofuranosidase gene, BsAbfA, was cloned from Bacilus subtilis, and its codons were optimized for efficient expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein BsAbfA fused with an N-terminal His-tag was overexpressed and purified, and then subjected to enzymatic characterization. Site-directed mutagenesis of BsAbfA was performed to verify the catalytic site, and the molecular mechanism of BsAbfA catalyzing ginsenoside Rc was analyzed by molecular docking, using the homology model of sequence alignment with other ß-glycosidases. The results show that the purified BsAbfA had a specific activity of 32.6 U/mg. Under optimal conditions (pH 5, 40 °C), the kinetic parameters Km of BsAbfA for pNP-α-Araf and ginsenoside Rc were 0.6 mM and 0.4 mM, while the Kcat/Km were 181.5 s-1 mM-1 and 197.8 s-1 mM-1, respectively. More than 90% of ginsenoside Rc could be transformed by 12 U/mL purified BsAbfA at 40 °C and pH 5 in 24 h. The results of molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis suggested that the E173 and E292 variants for BsAbfA are important in recognizing ginsenoside Rc effectively, and to make it enter the active pocket to hydrolyze the outer arabinofuranosyl moieties at C20 position. These remarkable properties and the catalytic mechanism of BsAbfA provide a good alternative for the effective biotransformation of the major ginsenoside Rc into Rd.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Bacillus subtilis , Proteínas de Bactérias , Ginsenosídeos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética
11.
SLAS Discov ; 26(6): 749-756, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136206

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a significant threat to human health. Despite its similarity to related coronaviruses, there are currently no specific treatments for COVID-19 infection, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop therapies for this and future coronavirus outbreaks. Formation of the cap at the 5' end of viral RNA has been shown to help coronaviruses evade host defenses. Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is responsible for N7-methylation of the cap guanosine in coronaviruses. This enzyme is highly conserved among coronaviruses and is a bifunctional protein with both N7-methyltransferase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities that distinguish nsp14 from its human equivalent. Mutational analysis of SARS-CoV nsp14 highlighted its role in viral replication and translation efficiency of the viral genome. In this paper, we describe the characterization and development of a high-throughput assay for nsp14 utilizing RapidFire technology. The assay has been used to screen a library of 1771 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. From this, we have validated nitazoxanide as a selective inhibitor of the methyltransferase activity of nsp14. Although modestly active, this compound could serve as a starting point for further optimization.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Exorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Capuzes de RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/virologia , Clonagem Molecular , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metilação , Nitrocompostos/química , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/química , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/farmacologia , Capuzes de RNA/genética , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009328, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115314

RESUMO

A key step to the SARS-CoV-2 infection is the attachment of its Spike receptor-binding domain (S RBD) to the host receptor ACE2. Considerable research has been devoted to the development of neutralizing antibodies, including llama-derived single-chain nanobodies, to target the receptor-binding motif (RBM) and to block ACE2-RBD binding. Simple and effective strategies to increase potency are desirable for such studies when antibodies are only modestly effective. Here, we identify and characterize a high-affinity synthetic nanobody (sybody, SR31) as a fusion partner to improve the potency of RBM-antibodies. Crystallographic studies reveal that SR31 binds to RBD at a conserved and 'greasy' site distal to RBM. Although SR31 distorts RBD at the interface, it does not perturb the RBM conformation, hence displaying no neutralizing activities itself. However, fusing SR31 to two modestly neutralizing sybodies dramatically increases their affinity for RBD and neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Our work presents a tool protein and an efficient strategy to improve nanobody potency.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009328, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657135

RESUMO

A key step to the SARS-CoV-2 infection is the attachment of its Spike receptor-binding domain (S RBD) to the host receptor ACE2. Considerable research has been devoted to the development of neutralizing antibodies, including llama-derived single-chain nanobodies, to target the receptor-binding motif (RBM) and to block ACE2-RBD binding. Simple and effective strategies to increase potency are desirable for such studies when antibodies are only modestly effective. Here, we identify and characterize a high-affinity synthetic nanobody (sybody, SR31) as a fusion partner to improve the potency of RBM-antibodies. Crystallographic studies reveal that SR31 binds to RBD at a conserved and 'greasy' site distal to RBM. Although SR31 distorts RBD at the interface, it does not perturb the RBM conformation, hence displaying no neutralizing activities itself. However, fusing SR31 to two modestly neutralizing sybodies dramatically increases their affinity for RBD and neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Our work presents a tool protein and an efficient strategy to improve nanobody potency.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(3): 2307-2314, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721170

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a vertebrate transcription factor that plays significant roles in cell cycle regulation, anti-viral response, tumor suppression and immune response. High-level expression of recombinant IRF-1 at 37 °C leads to the formation of insoluble aggregates (insoluble fraction) in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which usually devoid of biological activity. In this study, we use chemical additives such as mannitol, proline, L-arginine and CTAB (cetyl trimethly ammonium bromide) at the recommended concentration during cell lysis to aid in solubility at 37 °C. The use of additives resulted in the increased solubility of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase-linked human IRF-1, with L-arginine being most effective. Here, we developed an efficient process for the manufacturing of soluble IRF-1 with the aid of minimizing the formation of degradation products and optimizing protein purification conditions. This result was further confirmed by western blot with anti-GST and anti-IRF-1 polyclonal antibodies. The functionality of GST-huIRF-1 was attained by elerophoretic mobility shift assay study as a clear band shifting showed with virus response element-Interferon beta (VRE-IFNß) promoter region. Taken together, the biological activity of purified GST-huIRF-1 was also optimized and confirmed by supershift assay concluded that GST-huIRF-1 interacts with the VRE motif of IFNß promoter that reflected to require for IFNß gene regulation. We describe a straightforward approach for the production of absolutely soluble and biologically active IRF-1 in E. coli. This method can be further used for the study of other recombinant proteins and this study will pave way for the analysis of IRF-1 function in vitro.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade
15.
J Mol Biol ; 433(10): 166948, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744316

RESUMO

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins is involved in a growing number of cellular processes. Most proteins with LLPS harbor intrinsically disordered regions (IDR), which serve as a guideline to search for cellular proteins that potentially phase separate. Herein, we reveal that oligomerization lowers the barriers for LLPS and could act as a general mechanism to enhance LLPS of proteins domains independent of IDR. Using TDP43 as a model system, we found that deleting its IDR resulted in LLPS that was dependent on the oligomerization of the N-terminal domain (NTD). Replacing TDP43's NTD with other oligomerization domains enhanced the LLPS proportionately to the state of oligomerization. In addition to TDP43, fusing NTD to other globular proteins without known LLPS behavior also drove their phase separation in a manner dependent on oligomerization. Finally, we demonstrate that heterooligomers composed of NTD-fused proteins can be driven into droplets through NTD interactions. Our results potentiate a new paradigm for using oligomerization domains as a signature to systematically identify cellular proteins with LLPS behavior, thus broadening the scope of this exciting research field.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Sítios de Ligação , Cumarínicos/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fluoresceínas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Rodaminas/química
16.
Cancer Sci ; 112(6): 2299-2313, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735501

RESUMO

Podoplanin is a key molecule for enhancing tumor-induced platelet aggregation. Podoplanin interacts with CLEC-2 on platelets via PLatelet Aggregation-inducing domains (PLAGs). Among our generated antibodies, those targeting the fourth PLAG domain (PLAG4) strongly suppress podoplanin-CLEC-2 binding and podoplanin-expressing tumor growth and metastasis. We previously performed a single-dose toxicity study of PLAG4-targeting anti-podoplanin-neutralizing antibodies and found no acute toxicity in cynomolgus monkeys. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of podoplanin-targeting antibodies, a syngeneic mouse model that enables repeated dose toxicity tests is needed. Replacement of mouse PLAG1-PLAG4 domains with human homologous domains drastically decreased the platelet-aggregating activity. Therefore, we searched the critical domain of the platelet-aggregating activity in mouse podoplanin and found that the mouse PLAG4 domain played a critical role in platelet aggregation, similar to the human PLAG4 domain. Human/mouse chimeric podoplanin, in which a limited region containing mouse PLAG4 was replaced with human homologous region, exhibited a similar platelet-aggregating activity to wild-type mouse podoplanin. Thus, we generated knock-in mice with human/mouse chimeric podoplanin expression (PdpnKI/KI mice). Our previously established PLAG4-targeting antibodies could suppress human/mouse chimeric podoplanin-mediated platelet aggregation and tumor growth in PdpnKI/KI mice. Repeated treatment of PdpnKI/KI mice with antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity-possessing PG4D2 antibody did not result in toxicity or changes in hematological and biochemical parameters. Our results suggest that anti-podoplanin-neutralizing antibodies could be used safely as novel anti-tumor agents. Our generated PdpnKI/KI mice are useful for investigating the efficacy and toxicity of human podoplanin-targeting drugs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(5): 593-600, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686291

RESUMO

O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an essential and dynamic post-translational modification that is presented on thousands of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Interrogating the role of O-GlcNAc on a single target protein is crucial, yet challenging to perform in cells. Herein, we developed a nanobody-fused split O-GlcNAcase (OGA) as an O-GlcNAc eraser for selective deglycosylation of a target protein in cells. After systematic cellular optimization, we identified a split OGA with reduced inherent deglycosidase activity that selectively removed O-GlcNAc from the desired target protein when directed by a nanobody. We demonstrate the generality of the nanobody-fused split OGA using four nanobodies against five target proteins and use the system to study the impact of O-GlcNAc on the transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos. The nanobody-directed O-GlcNAc eraser provides a new strategy for the functional evaluation and engineering of O-GlcNAc via the selective removal of O-GlcNAc from individual proteins directly in cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Bioensaio , Domínio Catalítico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Histona Acetiltransferases/química , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Hidrólise , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transfecção/métodos
18.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(5): 585-592, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707784

RESUMO

YcaO enzymes catalyze several post-translational modifications on peptide substrates, including thioamidation, which substitutes an amide oxygen with sulfur. Most predicted thioamide-forming YcaO enzymes are encoded adjacent to TfuA, which when present, is required for thioamidation. While activation of the peptide amide backbone is well established for YcaO enzymes, the function of TfuA has remained enigmatic. Here we characterize the TfuA protein involved in methyl-coenzyme M reductase thioamidation and demonstrate that TfuA catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiocarboxylated ThiS (ThiS-COSH), a proteinaceous sulfur donor, and enhances the affinity of YcaO toward the thioamidation substrate. We also report a crystal structure of a TfuA, which displays a new protein fold. Our structural and mutational analyses of TfuA have uncovered conserved binding interfaces with YcaO and ThiS in addition to revealing a hydrolase-like active site featuring a Ser-Lys catalytic pair.


Assuntos
Proteínas Arqueais/química , Euryarchaeota/enzimologia , Methanobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Methanocaldococcus/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/química , Tioamidas/química , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Euryarchaeota/genética , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Histidina/química , Histidina/genética , Histidina/metabolismo , Cinética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/química , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Methanobacteriaceae/genética , Methanocaldococcus/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Tioamidas/metabolismo
19.
SLAS Discov ; 26(6): 749-756, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724070

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a significant threat to human health. Despite its similarity to related coronaviruses, there are currently no specific treatments for COVID-19 infection, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop therapies for this and future coronavirus outbreaks. Formation of the cap at the 5' end of viral RNA has been shown to help coronaviruses evade host defenses. Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is responsible for N7-methylation of the cap guanosine in coronaviruses. This enzyme is highly conserved among coronaviruses and is a bifunctional protein with both N7-methyltransferase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities that distinguish nsp14 from its human equivalent. Mutational analysis of SARS-CoV nsp14 highlighted its role in viral replication and translation efficiency of the viral genome. In this paper, we describe the characterization and development of a high-throughput assay for nsp14 utilizing RapidFire technology. The assay has been used to screen a library of 1771 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. From this, we have validated nitazoxanide as a selective inhibitor of the methyltransferase activity of nsp14. Although modestly active, this compound could serve as a starting point for further optimization.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Exorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Capuzes de RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/virologia , Clonagem Molecular , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metilação , Nitrocompostos/química , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/química , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/farmacologia , Capuzes de RNA/genética , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 553: 72-77, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756348

RESUMO

Germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are a broad family of extracellular glycoproteins ubiquitously distributed in plants. Overexpression of Oryza sativa root germin like protein 1 (OsRGLP1) enhances superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in transgenic plants. Here, we report bioinformatic analysis and heterologous expression of OsRGLP1 to study the role of glycosylation on OsRGLP1 protein stability and activity. Sequence analysis of OsRGLP1 homologs identified diverse N-glycosylation sequons, one of which was highly conserved. We therefore expressed OsRGLP1 in glycosylation-competent Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) fusion. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified OsRGLP1 showed it was expressed by S. cerevisiae in both N-glycosylated and unmodified forms. Glycoprotein thermal profiling showed little difference in the thermal stability of the glycosylated and unmodified protein forms. Circular Dichroism spectroscopy of MBP-OsRGLP1 and a N-Q glycosylation-deficient variant showed that both glycosylated and unmodified MBP-OsRGLP1 had similar secondary structure, and both forms had equivalent SOD activity. Together, we concluded that glycosylation was not critical for OsRGLP1 protein stability or activity, and it could therefore likely be produced in Escherichia coli without glycosylation. Indeed, we found that OsRGLP1 could be efficiently expressed and purified from K12 shuffle E. coli with a specific activity of 1251 ± 70 Units/mg. In conclusion, we find that some highly conserved N-glycosylation sites are not necessarily required for protein stability or activity, and describe a suitable method for production of OsRGLP1 which paves the way for further characterization and use of this protein.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Glicosilação , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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