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1.
Life Sci ; 234: 116743, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408660

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of bone repair mediated by recombination BMP-2 (rhBMP-2)/recombination CXC chemokine ligand-13 (rhCXCL13)-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres/chitosan (CS) composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the biological activity of rhBMP-2 and rhCXCL13 released from the complex was investigated. Secondly, the effect of rhBMP-2 sustained release solution on ALP activity and rhCXCL13 sustained release solution on cell migration of rat bone marrow mesenchyme stem cells was tested. Thirdly, osteoblasts differentiation test, X-ray scoring and three-point bending test were performed. Finally, the mRNAs expression of osteogenic marker genes and the protein expression of Runx2 was tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting (WB), respectively. KEY FINDINGS: RhBMP-2 could significantly promote the proliferation and differentiation, and RhCXCL13 could promote the migration of rat bone marrow MSCs. Detection of ALP activity and calcium salt deposition showed that rhBMP-2 and rhCXCL13 could significantly improve the biological activity and promote cell differentiation ability. X-ray scoring of radius and flexural strength test showed that rhBMP-2 and rhCXCL13 could promote bone healing and improve the bending resistance of bone tissue. The in vitro molecular experiments including RT-PCR and WB further demonstrated the roles of rhBMP-2 and rhCXCL13 in bone formation and bone repair. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that the hollow HA microspheres/CS composite could be effective as a delivery vehicle for rhBMP-2 and rhCXCL13 in bone regeneration and bone repair. In this process, rhBMP-2 may promote bone regeneration by regulating bone marrow MSCs cells recruited by rhCXCL13.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/administração & dosagem , Quimiocina CXCL13/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Durapatita/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/administração & dosagem , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL13/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
2.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 146, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396727

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CTB-001, a recently developed generic version of bivalirudin, an FDA-approved anticoagulant used for prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, has shown good efficacy and safety in clinical trials. We characterized the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of CTB-001 by modeling and simulation analysis. METHODS: PK/PD data were collected from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation phase 1 study conducted in 24 healthy Korean male subjects. PK/PD analysis was conducted sequentially by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling implemented in NONMEM®. Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted for PK, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). RESULTS: The CTB-101 PK was best described by a three-compartment linear model with a saturable binding peripheral compartment. All PD endpoints showed dose-response relationship, and their changes over time paralleled those of CTB-101 concentrations. A simple maximum effect model best described the aPTT, PT in INR, PT in seconds, and TT, whereas an inhibitory simple maximum effect model best described PT in percentages. The maximum duration of effect of CTB-001 on aPTT prolongation was 52.1 s. CONCLUSIONS: The modeling and simulation analysis well-characterized the PK and PD of CTB-001 in healthy Koreans, which will be valuable for identifying optimal dosing regimens of CBT-001.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos Genéricos , Hirudinas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Tempo de Protrombina , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacocinética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(8): 773-785, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339741

RESUMO

Pierisin-5 protein (pie-5) belongs to a family of proteins possessing DNA-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, which can induce apoptotic cell death. The baculovirus-mediated expression vector system (BEVS) has been commonly used for in vitro expression of heterologous protein subunits for basic scientific research, in addition to the development and production of diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, a new method for the in vitro expression of the cytotoxic protein was established using the baculovirus expression system. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of the novel recombinant pierisin-5 protein (rpie-5) was investigated in different human cancer cell lines, such as HeLa, HepG2, and AGS. Cloning, in vitro overexpression, and purification of the rpie-5 protein were performed by using BEVS in Sf21 (Spodoptera frugiperda) insect cell line. The rpie-5 protein exhibits cytotoxicity in all the cell lines, but HeLa (IC50 0.6 µg/mL) was more sensitive when compared with HepG2 (IC50 1.9 µg/mL) and AGS (IC50 3.7 µg/mL) cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of rpie-5 lead to apoptotic cell death in cancer cells and resulted in nuclear fragmentation, enlargement of the nucleus, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and finally release of lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme from the cell membrane. This study reports the molecular mechanism of apoptotic cell death through the upregulation of Bax (Bcl-2 family activating protein-X), Bad, APAF-1 (apoptotic protease activating factor-1), Cyt-c, and caspase-3/9 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) in rpie-5-treated cancer cells. The study concludes that rpie-5 has p53-independent apoptosis in HepG2 cells and p53-dependent apoptosis in HeLa and AGS cell lines. In the future, this study helps to understand the molecular mechanism of rpie-5 to induction of apoptosis and cell death.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Baculoviridae/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clonagem Molecular , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Células Sf9 , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
5.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 47(3): 113-122, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317796

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) include dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inhibitor, and specific inhibitors of activated coagulation factor X (FXa; e.g. apixaban, betrixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban). DOACs are associated with lower rates of major and fatal bleeding events compared with warfarin. Clinicians may need to achieve rapid reversal of anticoagulation effects of the DOACs in an emergency setting. Idarucizumab and andexanet alfa, which reverse the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and FXa inhibitors, respectively, are DOAC reversal agents available in the US. Other reversal agents (e.g. ciraparantag for heparins, DOACs) are in development. Alternative nonspecific agents (e.g. fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrate) are available. Nonspecific prohemostatic agents can counteract the anticoagulant action of DOACs in emergency situations, when specific reversal agents are unavailable. However, specific reversal agents are efficacious and safe and should be preferred when available. In this review, we discuss practical issues in the initiation of DOAC therapy, situations where reversal may be needed, coagulation assays, reversal agents, and post-reversal complications in the context of published evidence and guidelines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Dabigatrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator X/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Xa/farmacologia , Pacientes Internados , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fator Xa/agonistas , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar
6.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 505-511, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292054

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on the cytoskeleton and morphology of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods Morphological and cytoskeleton changes of BMSCs were observed by scanning electron microscopy and rhodamine-phalloidin staining in TranswellTM co-culture system of rat vascular endothelial cells (RAECs) and BMSCs. The content of FGF-2 in cell supernatants were detected by ELISA, and the mRNA expression of FGF-2 in both conventional and co-cultured cells were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. NVP-BGJ398, an inhibitor of FGF-2 receptor was added into the co-culture system to block FGF-2 signal and its effect on BMSCs skeleton was observed. Recombinant FGF-2 was supplemented into the conventional medium of BMSCs to further verify the effect of exogenous FGF-2. Results After co-cultured with RAECs, BMSCs gradually stretched, contracted and formed a large number of filopodia. The content of FGF-2 increased in the co-culture system and was mainly secreted by RAECs. Cytoskeleton remodeling of BMSCs was significantly blocked by the inhibitor of FGF-2 receptor and the cells were mostly short spindle-shaped and arranged in a spiral pattern. Exogenous FGF-2 promoted the contraction and edge stretching of BMSCs, forming filopodia with staggered distribution. Conclusion FGF-2 secreted by RAECs induces cytoskeletal remodeling of BMSCs.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 622, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-surface mucins are expressed in apical epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, and contribute a crucial part of the innate immune system. Despite anti-inflammatory or antiviral functions being revealed for certain cell-surface mucins such as MUC1, the roles of other mucins are still poorly understood, especially in viral infections. METHODS: To further identify mucins significant in influenza infection, we screened the expression of mucins in human nasal epithelial cells infected by H3N2 influenza A virus. RESULTS: We found that the expression of MUC15 was significantly upregulated upon infection, and specific only to active infection. While MUC15 did not interact with virus particles or reduce viral replication directly, positive correlations were observed between MUC15 and inflammatory factors in response to viral infection. Given that the upregulation of MUC15 was only triggered late into infection when immune factors (including cytokines, chemokines, EGFR and phosphorylated ERK) started to peak and plateau, MUC15 may potentially serve an immunomodulatory function later during influenza viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that MUC15 was one of the few cell-surface mucins induced during influenza infection. While MUC15 did not interact directly with influenza virus, we showed that its increase coincides with the peak of immune activation and thus MUC15 may serve an immunomodulatory role during influenza infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Mucinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cães , Células Epiteliais/classificação , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Mucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Mucinas/genética , Cavidade Nasal/citologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(6): 627-636, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238862

RESUMO

The cytokine TRAIL induces apoptosis in tumor cells of various origin without affecting normal cells. Clinical trials of TRAIL-receptor (DR4 and DR5) agonists (recombinant TRAIL or death receptors antibodies) have largely failed because most human tumors were resistant to them. Currently, a second generation of agents targeted at TRAIL-R with increased efficiency has been developed. To this end, we have developed DR5-B, a variant of TRAIL selectively interacting with DR5. We have developed a new efficient method for production of TRAIL and DR5-B using expression of these proteins in Escherichia coli strain SHuffle B. The proteins were isolated from the cytoplasmic fraction of cells and purified to a high degree of homogeneity using metal-affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein yield was 211 and 173 mg from one liter of cell culture for DR5-B and TRAIL, respectively, which significantly exceeded the results obtained by other methods. DR5-B killed tumor cells of different origin more efficiently and rapidly compared with TRAIL. The resulting preparations can be used for the study of TRAIL signaling pathways and in preclinical and clinical trials as antitumor agents.


Assuntos
Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/biossíntese , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/biossíntese , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/isolamento & purificação , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia
9.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 87-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Different components of the tumor microenvironment can be either tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressive agents depending on factors which are not fully understood. Fibulins are components of the extracellular matrix from different tissues and constitute a clear example of this dual function. In fact, fibulins may either support tumor growth or abolish progression of malignant cells depending on the crosstalk between tumor cells and their surrounding stroma through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. Among all fibulins, fibulin-5 contains a particular structural hallmark which consists in the presence of a RGD motif within its architecture. Previous reports have highlighted the importance of the interaction of this motif with integrins, and not only in normal functions but also in a tumor context. METHODS: Site-Directed Mutagenesis technique was employed to introduce the change RGD to RGE (RGD-to-RGE) within Fbln5 cDNA sequence. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay or by counting Ki-67 positive cell nuclei. Cell adhesion was analysed using culture plates coated with different extracellular matrix components. Cell invasion was evaluated using 24-well Matrigel-coated invasion chambers, and mammosphere formation was monitored using ultralow attachment culture plates. BALB/c mice were employed to induce subcutaneous tumors. RESULTS: The RGD-to-RGE change alters the capacity of breast cancer cells to adhere to different extracellular matrix proteins as well as to αvß3 and α5ß1 integrins, and promotes protumor effects using different cell-based assays. Moreover, 4T1 cells, a mouse breast cancer cell line model, shows an increased capacity to generate tumors when exogenously expresses fibulin-5 with a RGD-to-RGE change, and such capacity is similar to that shown for 4T1 cells with an interfered Fbln5 gene. CONCLUSION: These data highlight the importance of the RGD motif of fibulin-5 to induce antitumor effects and provide new insights into the involvement of fibulins in tumor processes.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Transplante Homólogo , Vimentina/metabolismo
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 279, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of hepatic stellate cells is the dominant pathogenic event during the process of liver fibrosis. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-7 has recently been identified as an anti-fibrotic factor and leads to phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in activated hepatic stellate cells. Its expression can be upregulated by the transcriptional activator, Y-Box protein-1 (YB1). Previous studies have found that the recombinant Schistosoma japonicum protein p40 (rSjp40) can inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells, and based on this evidence we attempted to investigate whether or not BMP-7 is involved in rSjp40's inhibition. METHODS: A human hepatic stellate cell line, the LX-2 cell line, was cultured and treated with rSjp40. The role of BMP-7 was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Our findings testified that knockdown of BMP-7 impaired rSjp40-induced downregulation of α-SMA and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in LX-2 cells. Furthermore, rSjp40 upregulated expression of BMP-7 at both mRNA and protein levels depending on YB1. Interestingly, YB1 was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon treatment of rSjp40. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rSjp40 inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells by promoting nuclear translocation of YB1 and inducing BMP-7/Smad1/5/8 pathway, which provide a new clue to guide ongoing research into the anti-fibrosis of rSjp40.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Schistosoma japonicum , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo , Proteína Smad8/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética
11.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(8): 800-806, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156029

RESUMO

In this study, azurin, a bacteriocin with anticancer property, was produced by food-grade Lactococcus lactis using the Nisin Controlled Gene Expression (NICE) System. In addition, the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of recombinant azurin in the culture supernatant were also investigated. Azurin gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cloned into the pNZ8149 vector and the resulting recombinant DNA was transformed into food grade L. lactis NZ3900. The expression of azurin protein was induced by the optimum concentration of nisin for 3 h. Inhibition zones for Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were observed at 5.0 and 10 mg/mL concentrations of lyophilized supernatants containing azurin, but no inhibition zone at azurin-free lyophilized supernatants. When HUVEC, HT29, HCT116, and MCF7 cell lines were treated with lyophilized culture supernatants with azurin or without azurin, cell viability decreased with increasing concentrations of the supernatant. Furthermore, the supernatants containing azurin showed more anti-proliferative effect than the azurin-free supernatants. This work provides a practicable method to produce recombinant azurin in the food grade L. lactis strain. As a result, the recombinant L. lactis strain, producing azurin, can be used in the investigation of food biopreservatives and in the development of a therapeutic probiotic.


Assuntos
Azurina/genética , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azurina/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transformação Genética
12.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(2): 186-195, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Andexanet alfa (andexanet) reverses the anticoagulant effects of factor Xa inhibitors, but it has not been assessed in clinical studies for apixaban reversal in trauma. This study evaluated andexanet for reversing apixaban anticoagulation in a porcine polytrauma model. METHODS: Oral apixaban (20 mg q.d., n=21) or placebo (n=7; sham group) was administered to male pigs for 4 days before blunt liver injury and bi-lateral femur fracture. After trauma, animals were randomised 1:1:1 to a single andexanet bolus (1000 mg), a bolus (1000 mg) plus infusion (1200 mg over 2 h), or vehicle (control). Haemodynamic and coagulation variables were monitored for 5 h or until death. The primary endpoint was blood loss. RESULTS: Mean blood loss in sham animals was 472 (standard deviation, 58) ml 12 min after injury and 658 (98) ml at 300 min, with 100% survival. Anticoagulation with apixaban significantly increased blood loss 12 min after injury [888 (133) ml, P<0.01]. Controls exhibited total blood loss of 3403 (766) ml, with 100% mortality. Andexanet bolus or bolus plus infusion significantly reduced blood loss to 1264 (205) and 1202 (95) ml, respectively), and increased survival to 100%. Haemodynamic parameters and markers of shock recovered to pre-trauma levels in andexanet-treated animals. CONCLUSION: Andexanet effectively reversed apixaban anticoagulation and reduced blood loss induced by severe trauma. Andexanet bolus alone had a similar impact on survival and blood loss as bolus plus infusion. Therefore, a 2 h andexanet infusion after the bolus may not be necessary to restore normal haemostatic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Fator Xa/farmacologia , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Suínos
13.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e30, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161748

RESUMO

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus and anti-GnRH antibodies are not formed under normal conditions. However, administration an excess of recombinant GnRH protein results in the formation of anti-GnRH. We evaluated the efficacy of the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2)-GnRH vaccine in inducing infertility in 17 intact male cats. The first vaccination and a boosting vaccine was injected for examination. Serum was obtained from blood collected at monthly intervals and anti-GnRH antibodies and testosterone concentrations were determined. Six months after the vaccination, testicular samples are obtained and used for histological examination. Compared with sham control group, the injection groups showed an increase in anti-GnRH antibody titers and testosterone concentrations tended to be reduced in the injection groups and increased in the control group. Histological evaluations and Johnsen's testicular biopsy scores revealed testicular hypoplasia in the 2 injection groups. Consequently, normal sexual maturation with sperm production was observed in the control group. In contrast, the cats that received the GnRH vaccine showed weak (2 of 7 cats) or moderate (4 out of 7 cats) dose-dependent infertility effects. On the basis of the results, the STF2-GnRH vaccine was identified to be effective in inducing infertility in male cats. The results of this study thus indicate the possibility of immunological castration targeting feral cats.


Assuntos
Flagelina/imunologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/imunologia , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/normas , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Gatos , Escherichia coli/genética , Flagelina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/farmacologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/farmacologia
14.
Life Sci ; 231: 116563, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200003

RESUMO

AIMS: In the present study, we investigated the roles of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation and imbalance of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in cold-induced stroke during chronic hypertension, as well as the protective effects of captopril and recombinant human TIMP-1 (rhTIMP-1). MAIN METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to sham; 2-kidney, 2-clip (2K-2C); 2K-2C + captopril, and 2K-2C + rhTIMP-1 groups. After blood pressure values had stabilized, each group was randomly divided into an acute cold exposure (ACE) group (12-h light at 22 °C/12-h dark at 4 °C) and a non-acute cold exposure (NACE) group (12-h light/12-h dark at 22 °C), each of which underwent three cycles of exposure. Captopril treatment was administered via gavage (50 mg/kg/d), while rhTIMP-1 treatment was administered via the tail vein (60 µg/kg/36 h). KEY FINDINGS: In the 2K-2C group, angiotensin II (AngII) and MMP-9 levels increased in both the plasma and cortex, while no such changes in TIMP-1 expression were observed. Cold exposure further upregulated AngII and MMP-9 levels and increased stroke incidence. Captopril and rhTIMP-1 treatment inhibited MMP-9 expression and activation and decreased stroke incidence in response to cold exposure. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study is the first to demonstrate that cold exposure exacerbates imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by activating the RAS, which may be critical in the initiation of stroke during chronic hypertension. In addition, our results suggest that captopril and rhTIMP-1 exert protective effects against cold-induced stroke by ameliorating MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Captopril/metabolismo , Captopril/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/farmacologia
15.
Int J Oncol ; 54(6): 2237-2249, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081057

RESUMO

Cytotoxic chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, this treatment can cause transient and prolonged neutropenia, which can result in fatal infection. Three recombinant human colony­stimulating factors (CSFs), granulocyte CSF (G­CSF), granulocyte­macrophage CSF (GM­CSF), and macrophage CSF (M­CSF), are currently available to reduce the duration and degree of neutropenia. The present study investigated the pro­ and anti­tumor effects of these three CSFs and the changes in molecular profiles. Xenograft tumors in athymic mice were generated by subcutaneously inoculating the human bladder cancer cell lines MGH­U3 and UM­UC­3. A total of 2 weeks after cell inoculation, mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, G­CSF, GM­CSF and M­CSF) and treated thrice a week for 2 weeks. Tumor growth during monitoring and tumor weight at the time of euthanization were significantly higher in mice treated with G­CSF and lower in mice treated with GM­CSF compared with the control mice. Tumors were examined by immunostaining with antibodies against proteins associated tumor proliferation (Ki­67), angiogenesis [CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], anti­immunity (CD204) and epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT; E­cadherin). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of M2 macrophages and EMT were promoted by G­CSF, whereas lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages were inhibited by GM­CSF. Treatment­associated changes in serum pro­ and anti­tumoral cytokines and chemokines were evaluated by enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)­based arrays. In the ELISA for serum, the levels of cytokines associated with angiogenesis (interleukin­6 and VEGF), and EMT (transforming growth factor­ß1 and ­ß2) were elevated in mice treated with G­CSF. Treatment with GM­CSF and M­CSF also affected the level of these cytokines characteristically. The current results indicate that administration of exogenous G­CSF to patients with bladder cancer promotes tumor growth through promotion of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of M2 macrophages and enhancement of EMT through the modulation of the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Mol Histol ; 50(3): 273-283, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049797

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that IGF-1 modulates the pluripotent differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Although mTOR pathway activation has been showed as responsible for IGF-1 induced pluripotent differentiation, the mechanism that the IGF-1-mTOR pathway induces the neural differentiation of DPSCs is still unclear. In our research, we have demonstrated that 0-10 ng/mL IGF-1 had no obvious effect on the proliferation of DPSCs, but IGF-1 nonetheless enhances the neural differentiation of DPSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneously, we found that phosphorylated mTOR was up-regulated, which indicated the involvement of mTOR in the process. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR activity, can reverse the effect of DPSCs stimulated by IGF-1. Next, we studied the role of mTORC1 and mTORC2, two known mTOR complexes, in the neural differentiation of DPSCs. We found that inhibition of mTORC1 can severely restricts the neural differentiation of DPSCs. However, inhibition of mTORC2 has the opposite effect. This latter effect disappears when both rictor and mTOR are inhibited, showing that the mTORC2 effect is mTORC1 dependent. This study has expanded the role of mTOR in DPSCs neural differentiation regulated by IGF-1.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Polpa Dentária/enzimologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(8): 735-743, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135267

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFNs) are homologous cytokines that bind to a cell surface receptor and establish signaling pathways that motivate immune responses. The purpose of the current study is to assess the activity of a novel-engineered IFN-α2b. The crystallographic structure of IFN-α2b and its receptors was acquired from Protein Data Bank. Various amino acid substitutions were designed based on structural properties and other biological characteristics of residues to find the most effective amino acid on IFN affinity to advanced activities. The IFN-α2b mutants and receptors have been modeled and the interactions between two proteins have been studied as in silico by protein-protein docking for both mutants and native forms. The proper nucleic acid sequence IFN-α2 (T79Q) has been prepared based on the selected mutant. The modified IFN gene was cloned in pcDNA 3.1(-) and introduced to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line. Antiviral and antiproliferative assays of native and IFN-α2 (T79Q) proteins were performed in vitro. The results showed two-fold increasing in IFN-α2 (T79Q) activity (antiviral and antiproliferative activity) in comparison to native IFN-α2b. This engineered IFN-α2b may have significant novel therapeutic applications and in silico studies can be an influential method for practical research function and structure of these molecules.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Receptores de Interferon/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Células CHO , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetulus , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/química , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3199-3211, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The processes of mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) triggers the release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a prominent damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) family member, which can cause damage to pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. We aimed to determine whether propofol protected against endothelial cell injury induced by HMGB1 in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS ICR mice (male) were mechanically ventilated for 4 h after anesthetization at both low tidal volume (LVT, 6 ml/kg) and high tidal volume (HVT, 30 ml/kg). A propofol bolus (10 mg/kg) was administered to the animals prior to the onset of ventilation, followed by infusion at 5 mg/(kg·h). We obtained confluent cultures of mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs) and then performed cyclic stretching at 20% stretch for 4 h with or without propofol. RESULTS HMGB1 reduced the expression of tight junctions between endothelial cells, including VE-cadherin and ZO-1, and increased endothelial permeability, and both were blocked by propofol. We found that MLVECs exhibited mitochondrial oxidative damage by HMGB1, which was successfully suppressed through administration of MnTBAP as well as propofol. Propofol ameliorated HVT-associated lung vascular hyperpermeability and HMGB1 production in vivo. Propofol also inhibited HMBG1 release caused by cyclic stretching in MLVECs in vitro. CONCLUSIONS Our results prove that the cyto-protective function of propofol protects against lung ventilation-induced dysfunction of the lung endothelial barrier. This function of propofol is mediated through inhibition of HMGB1 release caused by mechanical stretching and mitochondrial oxidative damage triggered by HMGB1.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Propofol/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Catálise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Proteína HMGB1/farmacologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/patologia
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 154-159, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955803

RESUMO

Pigs suffer enteritis induced by pathogenic bacteria infection and toxins in the moldy feed, which cause intestinal epithelial damage and diarrhea through the whole breeding cycle. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal mucosal barrier function through repairing intestinal epithelial damage. However, little was known about the effects of IL-22 against apoptosis caused by toxins and infection of intestinal pathogens in the intestinal epithelium, especially in pigs. In this study, we had successfully used prokaryotic expression system to produce recombinant porcine interleukin-22. Meanwhile, purified rIL-22 could activate STAT3 signal pathway and have been demonstrated to be safe to IPEC-J2 cells by increasing E-cadherin expression, without proinflammatory cytokines changes. Furthermore, rIL-22 reversed apoptosis induced by deoxynivalenol (DON) and played a vital part in repairing the intestinal injury. We also found that rIL-22 stimulated epithelial cells to secrete pBD-1 against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) K88 infection, as well as alleviating apoptosis ratio. This study provided a theoretical basis for curing intestinal inflammation caused by ETEC infection and epithelial apoptosis induced by DON with rIL-22 in pigs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Interleucinas/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos
20.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 484(1): 9-12, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012002

RESUMO

An effective bacterial system for the production of ß-toxin Ts1, the main component of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom, was developed. Recombinant toxin and its 15N-labeled analogue were obtained via direct expression of synthetic gene in Escherichia coli with subsequent folding from the inclusion bodies. According to NMR spectroscopy data, the recombinant toxin is structured in an aqueous solution and contains a significant fraction of ß-structure. The formation of a stable disulfide-bond isomer of Ts1, having a disordered structure, has also been observed during folding. Recombinant Ts1 blocks Na+ current through NaV1.5 channels without affecting the processes of activation and inactivation. At the same time, the effect upon NaV1.4 channels is associated with a shift of the activation curve towards more negative membrane potentials.


Assuntos
Venenos de Escorpião , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/metabolismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Venenos de Escorpião/biossíntese , Venenos de Escorpião/química , Venenos de Escorpião/isolamento & purificação , Venenos de Escorpião/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/isolamento & purificação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xenopus laevis
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