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1.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372579

RESUMO

Numerous viruses have evolved sophisticated countermeasures to hijack the early programmed cell death of host cells in response to infection, including the use of proteins homologous in sequence or structure to Bcl-2. Orf virus, a member of the parapoxviridae, encodes for the Bcl-2 homolog ORFV125, a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis in the host. ORFV125 acts by directly engaging host proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins including Bak and Bax as well as the BH3-only proteins Hrk and Puma. Here, we determined the crystal structures of ORFV125 bound to the BH3 motif of proapoptotic proteins Puma and Hrk. The structures reveal that ORFV125 engages proapoptotic BH3 motif peptides using the canonical ligand binding groove. An Arg located in the structurally equivalent BH1 region of ORFV125 forms an ionic interaction with the conserved Asp in the BH3 motif in a manner that mimics the canonical ionic interaction seen in host Bcl-2:BH3 motif complexes. These findings provide a structural basis for Orf virus-mediated inhibition of host cell apoptosis and reveal the flexibility of virus encoded Bcl-2 proteins to mimic key interactions from endogenous host signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Vírus do Orf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/ultraestrutura , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/ultraestrutura , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Vírus do Orf/metabolismo , Parapoxvirus/genética , Parapoxvirus/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/genética , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371875

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized to cause neurobehavioral dysfunctions and disorder of cognition and behavioral patterns in childhood. Momordica charantia L. (MC) has been widely known for its nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. To date, the effect of MC for the prevention and handling of PAHs-induced neurotoxicity has not been reported. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of MC and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22); moreover, in silico analysis was performed with the phytochemicals MC to decipher their potential function as neuroprotectants. MC was demonstrated to possess neuroprotective effect by reducing reactive oxygen species' (ROS') production and down-regulating cyclin D1, p53, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expressions, resulting in the inhibition of cell apoptosis and the normalization of cell cycle progression. Additionally, 28 phytochemicals of MC and their competence on inhibiting cytochrome P450 (CYP: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) functions were resolved. In silico analysis of vitamin E and stigmasterol revealed that their binding to either CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 was more efficient than the binding of each positive control (alizarin or purpurin). Together, MC is potentially an interesting neuroprotectant including vitamin E and stigmasterol as probable active components for the prevention for PAHs-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica charantia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Momordica charantia/química , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estigmasterol/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina E/isolamento & purificação
3.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2621-2630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique for evaluating patients with primary and metastatic tumors. The contrast agents improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI. Large quantities of a contrast agent must be administrated into the patient to obtain useful images, which leads to cell injury. Gadolinium has been reported to cause central lobular necrosis of the liver and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, the toxicity caused on brain tissue is uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study mainly aimed on the in vitro study of high concentration (2 and 5-fold of normal concentration) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), gadodiamide (Omniscan®), on normal brain glial SVG P12 cells. MTT assay, DAPI staining, immunofluorescent staining, LysoTracker Red staining, and western blotting analysis were applied on the cells. RESULTS: The viability of gadodiamide (1.3, 2.6, 5.2, 13 and 26 mM)-treated SVG P12 cells was significantly reduced after 24 h of incubation. Gadodiamide caused significant autophagic flux at 2.6, 5.2 and 13.0 mM as seen by acridine orange (AO) staining, LC-3-GFP and LysoTracker Red staining. The expression levels of autophagy-related proteins such as beclin-1, ATG-5, ATG-14 and LC-3 II were up-regulated after 24 h of gadodiamide incubation. Autophagy inhibitors including 3-methyladenine (3-MA), chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf) significantly alleviated the autophagic cell death effect of gadodiamide on normal brain glial SVG P12 cells. Gadodiamide induced significant apoptotic effects at 5.2 mM and 13.0 mM as seen by DAPI staining and the pan-caspase inhibitor significantly alleviated the apoptotic effect. Gadodiamide at 5.2 mM and 13.0 mM inhibited antiapoptotic protein expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, while promoted pro-apoptotic protein expression levels of Bax, BAD, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3. CONCLUSION: Normal brain glial SVG P12 cells treated with high concentrations of gadodiamide can undergo autophagy and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Gadolínio DTPA , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gadolínio DTPA/toxicidade , Humanos
4.
Science ; 373(6557): 882-889, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413232

RESUMO

Eukaryotic genomes contain domesticated genes from integrating viruses and mobile genetic elements. Among these are homologs of the capsid protein (known as Gag) of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and retroviruses. We identified several mammalian Gag homologs that form virus-like particles and one LTR retrotransposon homolog, PEG10, that preferentially binds and facilitates vesicular secretion of its own messenger RNA (mRNA). We showed that the mRNA cargo of PEG10 can be reprogrammed by flanking genes of interest with Peg10's untranslated regions. Taking advantage of this reprogrammability, we developed selective endogenous encapsidation for cellular delivery (SEND) by engineering both mouse and human PEG10 to package, secrete, and deliver specific RNAs. Together, these results demonstrate that SEND is a modular platform suited for development as an efficient therapeutic delivery modality.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Retroelementos , Transfecção , Regiões não Traduzidas , Regulação para Cima
5.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21837, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383985

RESUMO

Overwhelming evidence indicates that excessive stimulation of innate immune receptors of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family causes significant damage to multiple tissues, yet the role of these proteins in bone metabolism is not well known. Here, we studied the interaction between the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes in bone homeostasis and disease. We found that loss of NLRP3 or NLRC4 inflammasome attenuated osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the tissue level, lack of NLRP3, or NLRC4 to a lesser extent, resulted in higher baseline bone mass compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and conferred protection against LPS-induced inflammatory osteolysis. Bone mass accrual in mutant mice correlated with lower serum IL-1ß levels in vivo. Unexpectedly, the phenotype of Nlrp3-deficient mice was reversed upon loss of NLRC4 as bone mass was comparable between WT mice and Nlrp3;Nlrc4 knockout mice. Thus, although bone homeostasis is perturbed to various degrees by the lack of NLRP3 or NLRC4, this tissue appears to function normally upon compound loss of the inflammasomes assembled by these receptors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteólise/metabolismo
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e11156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378676

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of human esophageal fibroblast-derived exosomal miR-21 on cisplatin sensitivity against esophageal squamous EC9706 cells. EC9706 cells were co-cultured indirectly with human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF) or miR-21 mimics transfected-HEF in the transwell system. The exosomes in HEF-culture conditioned medium were extracted by differential ultracentrifugation. EC9706 cells were co-cultured with HEF-derived exosomes directly. The cisplatin sensitivity against EC9706 cells was revealed via half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values using MTT assay. The expressions of miR-21, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) mRNA, and gene of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) mRNA were determined by qRT-PCR. The changes of the protein level were detected using western blot assay. IC50 values of cisplatin against EC9706 cells were increased after EC9706 cells were co-cultured with either HEF or exosomes derived from miR-21 mimics-transfected HEF. Following the increased level of miR-21, the mRNA expression and protein levels of PTEN and PDCD4 were decreased in EC9706 cells. The cisplatin sensitivity to EC9706 cells was reduced by HEF-derived exosomal miR-21 through targeting PTEN and PDCD4. This study suggested that non-tumor cells in the tumor micro-environment increased the tumor anti-chemotherapy effects through their exosomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Esofágicas , MicroRNAs , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209905

RESUMO

Both non-immune "natural" and antigen-induced "immune" IgM are important for protection against pathogens and for regulation of immune responses to self-antigens. Since the bona fide IgM Fc receptor (FcµR) was identified in humans by a functional cloning strategy in 2009, the roles of FcµR in these IgM effector functions have begun to be explored. In this short essay, we describe the differences between human and mouse FcµRs in terms of their identification processes, cellular distributions and ligand binding activities with emphasis on our recent findings from the mutational analysis of human FcµR. We have identified at least three sites of human FcµR, i.e., Asn66 in the CDR2, Lys79 to Arg83 in the DE loop and Asn109 in the CDR3, responsible for its constitutive IgM-ligand binding. Results of computational structural modeling analysis are consistent with these mutational data and a model of the ligand binding, Ig-like domain of human FcµR is proposed. Serendipitously, substitution of Glu41 and Met42 in the CDR1 of human FcµR with mouse equivalents Gln and Leu, either single or more prominently in combination, enhances both the receptor expression and IgM binding. These findings would help in the future development of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting FcµR.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Ligantes , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4402, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285231

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is morphologically characterized by a synchronized plasma membrane rupture of cells in a specific section of a nephron, referred to as acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Whereas the involvement of necroptosis is well characterized, genetic evidence supporting the contribution of ferroptosis is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (Fsp1) or the targeted manipulation of the active center of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4cys/-) sensitize kidneys to tubular ferroptosis, resulting in a unique morphological pattern of tubular necrosis. Given the unmet medical need to clinically inhibit AKI, we generated a combined small molecule inhibitor (Nec-1f) that simultaneously targets receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and ferroptosis in cell lines, in freshly isolated primary kidney tubules and in mouse models of cardiac transplantation and of AKI and improved survival in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Based on genetic and pharmacological evidence, we conclude that GPX4 dysfunction hypersensitizes mice to ATN during AKI. Additionally, we introduce Nec-1f, a solid inhibitor of RIPK1 and weak inhibitor of ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HT29 , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/etiologia , Necrose/patologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111521, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311525

RESUMO

Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix (EP) is effective in treating various diseases, but it's toxicity is a major obstacle in use in clinical. Although EP was processed with vinegar to reduce it's toxicity, the detailed mechanism of toxicity in EP have not been clearly delineated. This study investigate the toxicity attenuation-mechanism of Euphorbiae pekinensis after being processed with vinegar (VEP) and the toxic mechanism of four compounds from EP on zebrafish embryos. The contents of four compounds decreased obviously in VEP. Correspondingly, slower development on embryos can be seen as some symptoms like reduction of heart rate, liver area and gastrointestinal peristalsis after exposed to the compounds. Some obvious pathological signals such as pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were observed. Furthermore, the compounds could increase the contents of MDA and GSH-PX and induce oxidative damage by inhibiting the activity of SOD. Also, four compounds could provoke apoptosis by up-regulating the expression level of p53, MDM2, Bax, Bcl-2 and activating the activity of caspase-3, caspase-9. In conclusion, the four compounds play an important role in the toxicity attenuation effects of VEP, which may be related to the apoptosis induction and oxidative damage. This would contribute to the clinical application and further toxicity-reduction mechanism research.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Euphorbia/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/embriologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Coração/embriologia , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111532, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311531

RESUMO

Fufang Zhenzhu Tiaozhi formula (FTZ), a preparation of Chinese herbal medicine, has various pharmacological properties, such as hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anticoagulant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and contributes to liver injury, fibrosis, and inflammation. Given the multiple effects of FTZ, we investigated whether FTZ can be a therapeutic agent for NASH and its mechanism. In the present study, we observed that FTZ treatment had an obviously favorable influence on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in the histopathologic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) with NASH minipigs. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of the fibrotic marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and a TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptotic positive hepatic cells in the liver tissues of the model group. Furthermore, FTZ administration reduced the increased expression of α-SMA, and FTZ inhibited apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2/Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Mechanistically, our data suggested that FTZ treatment attenuated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis via the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. In vitro studies showed that FTZ also attenuated intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). FTZ upregulated the expression levels of P-AMPK and BCL-2 and downregulated BAX. The changes induced by FTZ were reversed by Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK. In conclusion, FTZ attenuated NASH by ameliorating steatosis and hepatocyte apoptosis, which is attributable to the regulation of the AMPK pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/enzimologia , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
11.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1363-1365, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260881

RESUMO

CARD8 senses pathogen-associated protease activity and assembles a pyroptosis-inducing inflammasome, but detailed regulatory mechanisms have remained elusive. In this issue of Immunity, Sharif et al. use cryo-EM and biochemical assays to unveil how DPP9 sequesters the inflammasome-forming C-terminal fragment of CARD8 to suppress its activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD , Inflamassomos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Piroptose
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105957, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1- propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) is a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor which can protect against cerebral ischemic injury in middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model. However, the effects and potential mechanisms of TPPU on mitochondrial dysfunction are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced cortical neurons, the effect of TPPU on cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL assay. Mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy and Mitotracker green staining assay, mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by JC-1 staining assay, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (MRCC) I-IV and ATPase were measured by MRCC Activity Assay Kits and spectrophotometer. Western blot was used to investigate the effects of TPPU on apoptosis-related proteins. RESULTS: TPPU treatment demonstrated significant protective effect on the OGD/R-induced cortical neurons by reducing cell death and number of apoptotic cells, stabilizing mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology, increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and activities of MRCC I-IV and ATPase. Furthermore, TPPU treatment might effectively reverse the upregulation of caspase-3, Bax, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), alleviate the inhibition of Bcl-2 in OGD/R-induced cortical neurons. CONCLUSIONS: TPPU exerts a marked neuroprotective effect against mitochondrial dysfunction after cerebral ischemia potentially via suppressing JNK/p38 MAPK-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis signal pathway, it may be a promising neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemia.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/enzimologia , Córtex Cerebral/ultraestrutura , AVC Isquêmico/enzimologia , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/enzimologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299056

RESUMO

The glycolytic modulator TP53-Inducible Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator (TIGAR) is overexpressed in several types of cancer and has a role in metabolic rewiring during tumor development. However, little is known about the role of this enzyme in proliferative tissues under physiological conditions. In the current work, we analysed the role of TIGAR in primary human lymphocytes stimulated with the mitotic agent Concanavalin A (ConA). We found that TIGAR expression was induced in stimulated lymphocytes through the PI3K/AKT pathway, since Akti-1/2 and LY294002 inhibitors prevented the upregulation of TIGAR in response to ConA. In addition, suppression of TIGAR expression by siRNA decreased the levels of the proliferative marker PCNA and increased cellular ROS levels. In this model, TIGAR was found to support the activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), since the inhibition of TIGAR reduced G6PDH activity and increased autophagy. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that TIGAR is upregulated in stimulated human lymphocytes through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which contributes to the redirection of the carbon flux to the PPP.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Autofagia , Glicólise , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102058, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218200

RESUMO

Tripartite motif (TRIM) 31 has been implicated in diverse biological and pathological conditions. However, whether TRIM31 plays a role in ischemic stroke progression is not clarified. Here we demonstrated that TRIM31 was significantly downregulated in the ischemic brain and the deficiency of TRIM31 alleviated brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion by reducing reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Mechanistically, we found that TRIM31 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR), which confers protection against brain ischemia by increasing the pentose phosphate pathway flux and preserving mitochondria function. TRIM31 interacted with TIGAR and promoted the polyubiquitination of TIGAR, consequently facilitated its degradation in a proteasome-dependent pathway. Furthermore, TIGAR knockdown effectively abolished the protective effect of TRIM31 deficiency after cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, we identified that TRIM31 was a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase for TIGAR, played a critical role in regulating its protein level, and subsequently involved in the ischemic brain injury, suggesting TRIM31 as a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Glicólise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105987, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 10-O-(N N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methane-sulfonate (XQ-1H) is an effective novel drug for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease derived from Ginkgolide B, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, whether XQ-1H exerts neuroprotective effect via regulating neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanism remain to be elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of XQ-1H in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced neuronal apoptosis on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. RESULTS: The results showed that administration of XQ-1H at different dosage (7.8, 15.6, 31.2 mg/kg) reduced the brain infarct and edema, attenuated the neuro-behavioral dysfunction, and improved cell morphology in brain tissue after MCAO/R in rats. Moreover, incubation with XQ-1H (1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM) could increase the cell viability, and showed no toxic effect to PC-12 cells. XQ-1H at following 1 µM, 10 µM, 100 µM decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and suppressed the cell apoptosis in PC-12 cells exposed to OGD/R. In addition, XQ-1H treatment could significantly inhibit caspase-3 activation both in vivo and in vitro, reciprocally modulate the expression of apoptosis related proteins, bcl-2, and bax via activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. For mechanism verification, LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K/Akt pathway was introduced the expressions of bcl-2 and phosphorylated Akt were down-regulated, the expression of bax was up-regulated, indicating that XQ-1H could alleviate the cell apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that XQ-1H treatment could provide a neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro through regulating neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptosis. The findings of the study confirmed that XQ-1H could be develop as a potential drug for treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Edema Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Células PC12 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Gen Virol ; 102(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269675

RESUMO

Rabies virus (RABV) infection can initiate the host immune defence response and induce an antiviral state characterized by the expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), among which the family of genes of IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (Ifits) are prominent representatives. Herein, we demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of Ifit1, Ifit2 and Ifit3 were highly increased in cultured cells and mouse brains after RABV infection. Recombinant RABV expressing Ifit3, designated rRABV-Ifit3, displayed a lower pathogenicity than the parent RABV in C57BL/6 mice after intramuscular administration, and Ifit3-deficient mice exhibited higher susceptibility to RABV infection and higher mortality during RABV infection. Moreover, compared with their individual expressions, co-expression of Ifit2 and Ifit3 could more effectively inhibit RABV replication in vitro. These results indicate that murine Ifit3 plays an essential role in restricting the replication and reducing the pathogenicity of RABV. Ifit3 acts synergistically with Ifit2 to inhibit RABV replication, providing further insight into the function and complexity of the Ifit family.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Raiva/virologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Transcriptoma , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
17.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299435

RESUMO

KRIBB11, an HSF1 inhibitor, was shown to sensitize various types of cancer cells to treatment with several anticancer drugs. However, the exclusive effects of KRIBB11 in preventing the growth of glioblastoma cells and the related mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Herein, we aimed to examine the potential of KRIBB11 as an anticancer agent for glioblastoma. Using MTT and colony formation assays and Western blotting for c-PARP, we demonstrated that KRIBB11 substantially inhibits the growth of A172 glioma cells by inducing apoptosis. At the molecular level, KRIBB11 decreased anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 levels, which was attributable to the increase in MULE ubiquitin ligase levels. However, the constitutive activity of HSF1 in A172 cells was not influenced by the exclusive treatment with KRIBB11. Additionally, based on cycloheximide chase assay, we found that KRIBB11 markedly retarded the degradation of MULE. In conclusion, stabilization of MULE upon KRIBB11 treatment is apparently an essential step for degradation of MCL-1 and the subsequent induction of apoptosis in A172 cells. Our results have expanded the knowledge on molecular pathways controlled by KRIBB11 and could be potentially effective for developing an inhibitory therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Indazóis/farmacologia , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Aminopiridinas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Indazóis/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ubiquitina , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 659, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193827

RESUMO

Cellular stress can lead to several human disease pathologies due to aberrant cell death. The p53 family (tp53, tp63, and tp73) and downstream transcriptional apoptotic target genes (PUMA/BBC3 and NOXA/PMAIP1) have been implicated as mediators of stress signals. To evaluate the importance of key stress response components in vivo, we have generated zebrafish null alleles in puma, noxa, p53, p63, and p73. Utilizing these genetic mutants, we have deciphered that the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress requires p53 and puma, but not p63, p73, or noxa. We also identified a delayed secondary wave of genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis that is p53/puma independent. Contrary to genotoxic stress, ER stress-induced apoptosis requires p63 and puma, but not p53, p73, or noxa. Lastly, the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic response requires p63, and both noxa and puma. Our data also indicate that while the neural tube is poised for apoptosis due to genotoxic stress, the epidermis is poised for apoptosis due to ER and oxidative stress. These data indicate there are convergent as well as unique molecular pathways involved in the different stress responses. The commonality of puma in these stress pathways, and the lack of gross or tumorigenic phenotypes with puma loss suggest that a inhibitor of Puma may have therapeutic application. In addition, we have also generated a knockout of the negative regulator of p53, mdm2 to further evaluate the p53-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that the p53 null allele completely rescues the mdm2 null lethality, while the puma null completely rescues the mdm2 null apoptosis but only partially rescues the phenotype. Indicating Puma is the key mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly the p53 homozygous null zebrafish develop tumors faster than the previously described p53 homozygous missense mutant zebrafish, suggesting the missense allele may be hypomorphic allele.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Tapsigargina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Raios X , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(7): 758-770, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226698

RESUMO

The YAP/TAZ transcriptional programme is not only a well-established driver of cancer progression and metastasis but also an important stimulator of tissue regeneration. Here we identified Cerebral cavernous malformations 3 (CCM3) as a regulator of mechanical cue-driven YAP/TAZ signalling, controlling both tumour progression and stem cell differentiation. We demonstrate that CCM3 localizes to focal adhesion sites in cancer-associated fibroblasts, where it regulates mechanotransduction and YAP/TAZ activation. Mechanistically, CCM3 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mutually compete for binding to paxillin to fine-tune FAK/Src/paxillin-driven mechanotransduction and YAP/TAZ activation. In mouse models of breast cancer, specific loss of CCM3 in cancer-associated fibroblasts leads to exacerbated tissue remodelling and force transmission to the matrix, resulting in reciprocal YAP/TAZ activation in the neighbouring tumour cells and dissemination of metastasis to distant organs. Similarly, CCM3 regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells. In conclusion, CCM3 is a gatekeeper in focal adhesions that controls mechanotransduction and YAP/TAZ signalling.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/genética , Adesões Focais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Metástase Neoplásica , Paxilina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Estresse Mecânico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 663, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230456

RESUMO

A majority of mesothelioma specimens were defective of p14 and p16 expression due to deletion of the INK4A/ARF region, and the p53 pathway was consequently inactivated by elevated MDM2 functions which facilitated p53 degradaton. We investigated a role of p53 elevation by MDM2 inhibitors, nutlin-3a and RG7112, in cytotoxicity of replication-competent adenoviruses (Ad) lacking the p53-binding E1B55kDa gene (Ad-delE1B). We found that a growth inhibition by p53-activating Ad-delE1B was irrelevant to p53 expression in the infected cells, but combination of Ad-delE1B and the MDM2 inhibitor produced synergistic inhibitory effects on mesothelioma with the wild-type but not mutated p53 genotype. The combination augmented p53 phosphorylation, activated apoptotic but not autophagic pathway, and enhanced DNA damage signals through ATM-Chk2 phosphorylation. The MDM2 inhibitors facilitated production of the Ad progenies through augmented expression of nuclear factor I (NFI), one of the transcriptional factors involved in Ad replications. Knocking down of p53 with siRNA did not increase the progeny production or the NFI expression. We also demonstrated anti-tumor effects by the combination of Ad-delE1B and the MDM2 inhibitors in an orthotopic animal model. These data collectively indicated that upregulation of wild-type p53 expression contributed to cytotoxicity by E1B55kDa-defective replicative Ad through NFI induction and suggested that replication-competent Ad together with augmented p53 levels was a therapeutic strategy for p53 wild-type mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Proteínas E1 de Adenovirus/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazolinas/farmacologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Neurofibromina 1/metabolismo , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Replicação Viral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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