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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5515-5524, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Administration of cisplatin in cancer patients is limited by the kidney-related adverse effects; however, a protective strategy is absent. We hypothesized that fucoidan protects the proximal tubule epithelial (TH-1) cells against the effects of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the effect of fucoidan, its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, DNA damage response (DDR), apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest in TH-1 cells was investigated. RESULTS: Cisplatin increased the accumulation of ROS, leading to excessive ER stress. In presence of cisplatin, treatment of TH-1 cells with fucoidan significantly reduced the ER stress by maintaining the complex of GRP78 with PERK and IRE1α. In particular, fucoidan enhanced the antioxidative capacity through up-regulation of PrPC Furthermore, fucoidan suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, whereas silencing of PRNP blocked these effects of fucoidan. CONCLUSION: Fucoidan may be a potential adjuvant therapy for cancer patients treated with cisplatin as it preserves renal functionality.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2413-2422, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates centriole duplication. PLK4 deregulation causes centrosome number abnormalities, mitotic defects, chromosomal instability and, consequently, tumorigenesis. Therefore, PLK4 has emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple cancers. In this review, we summarize the critical role of centrosome amplification and PLK4 in cancer. We also highlight recent advances in the development of PLK4 inhibitors and discuss potential combination therapies for cancer. METHODS: The relevant literature from PubMed is reviewed in this article. The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for clinical trials related to the specific topic. RESULTS: PLK4 is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers and has prognostic value. Targeting PLK4 with inhibitors suppresses tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: PLK4 plays an important role in centrosome amplification and tumor progression. PLK4 inhibitors used alone or in combination with other drugs have shown significant anticancer efficacy, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer. The results of relevant clinical trials await evaluation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9757-9771, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373492

RESUMO

BAK1 effects on plant stress responses have been well documented, but little is known regarding its effects on plant growth. In this study, we functionally characterized MdBAK1. Overexpressing MdBAK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana and apple trees promoted growth. Longitudinal stem cells were longer in transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. The size and number of cells and the area of the transverse stem were greater in the transgenic lines than in the wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic A. thaliana and apple plants were more sensitive to an exogenous brassinosteroid. A transcriptome analysis of wild-type and transgenic apple revealed that MdBAK1 overexpression activated the brassinosteroid and ethylene signals, xylem production, and stress responses. Trend and Venn analyses indicated that carbohydrate, energy, and hormone metabolic activities were greater in transgenic plants during different periods. Moreover, a weighted gene coexpression network analysis proved that carbohydrate, hormone, and xylem metabolism as well as cell growth may be critical for MdBAK1-mediated apple tree growth and development. Compared with the corresponding levels in wild-type plants, the endogenous brassinosteroid, cytokinin, starch, sucrose, trehalose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar contents were considerably different in transgenic plants. Our results imply that MdBAK1 helps to regulate the growth of apple tree through the above-mentioned pathways. These findings provide new information regarding the effects of MdBAK1 onplant growth and development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3005, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285450

RESUMO

How the stressosome, the epicenter of the stress response in bacteria, transmits stress signals from the environment has remained elusive. The stressosome consists of multiple copies of three proteins RsbR, RsbS and RsbT, a kinase that is important for its activation. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the atomic organization of the Listeria monocytogenes stressosome at 3.38 Å resolution. RsbR and RsbS are organized in a 60-protomers truncated icosahedron. A key phosphorylation site on RsbR (T209) is partially hidden by an RsbR flexible loop, whose "open" or "closed" position could modulate stressosome activity. Interaction between three glutamic acids in the N-terminal domain of RsbR and the membrane-bound mini-protein Prli42 is essential for Listeria survival to stress. Together, our data provide the atomic model of the stressosome core and highlight a loop important for stressosome activation, paving the way towards elucidating the mechanism of signal transduction by the stressosome in bacteria.


Assuntos
Complexos Multienzimáticos/ultraestrutura , Fosfoproteínas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/ultraestrutura , Estresse Fisiológico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fator sigma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(6): 750-755, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Hippo pathway on differentiation, proliferation, and migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro. METHODS: BMSCs of C57BL/6 mice were identified using fluorescence-activated cellsorting analysis and the capabilities of osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation were evaluated. The differentiation of BMSCs to type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) was induced by indirect co-culture with mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-12) and small airway epithelial cell growth medium (SAGM). The Hippo pathway was regulated by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 9E1, the effects of 2-DG and 9E1 on the expression of BMSCs surface proteins (SPB, SPC and SPD) mRNA and pro-SPC protein were detected by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western Blot. The effect of Hippo pathway on differentiation of BMSCs to AEC II cells was evaluated. The effect of Hippo pathway on the proliferation of BMSCs was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay (intervention of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mmol/L 2-DG). The scratch test and Transwell chamber test were used to analyze the effect of Hippo pathway on migration ability of BMSCs to conditioned medium of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) lung tissue. RESULTS: 2-DG could activate Hippo pathway in a dose-dependent manner and promote the differentiation to AEC II and proliferation of BMSCs, the maximum effects were observed after 5 mmol/L of 2-DG treatment [SPB mRNA (2-ΔΔCT): 2.42±0.28 vs. 1.89±0.11, SPC mRNA (2-ΔΔCT): 8.06±0.68 vs. 6.59±0.79, SPD mRNA (2-ΔΔCT): 6.45±0.37 vs. 5.27±0.28, pro-SPC/ß-actin: 5.80±1.86 vs. 4.93±1.18, proliferation rate: (145.46±18.18)% vs. (98.91±4.36)%, all P < 0.05], but 9E1 could reverse those effects through inhibition of Hippo pathway [SPB mRNA (2-ΔΔCT): 1.32±0.17 vs. 1.89±0.11, SPC mRNA (2-ΔΔCT): 3.91±0.34 vs. 6.59±0.79, SPD mRNA (2-ΔΔCT): 3.38±0.25 vs. 5.27±0.28, pro-SPC/ß-actin: 2.48±0.17 vs. 4.93±1.18, proliferation rate: (80.00±7.27)% vs. (98.91±4.36)%, all P < 0.05]. The ability of horizontal migration [wound healing: (27.17±3.53)% vs. (52.45±6.52)%, P < 0.05] and homing BMSCs to conditioned medium of ARDS lung tissue [cell count (fold, relative to control): 2.77±0.21 vs. 1.90±0.19, P < 0.05] were increased after activation of Hippo pathway by 2-DG treatment, but those effects were reversed after inhibition of Hippo pathway by 9E1 treatment [wound healing: (79.89±8.42)% vs. (52.45±6.52)%, cell count (fold, relative to control): 1.69±0.13 vs. 1.90±0.19, both P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of Hippo pathway could enhance differentiation of BMSCs to AEC II, promote proliferation and ability of horizontal migration and homing BMSCs to conditioned medium of ARDS lung tissue in vitro.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3317-3321, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262852

RESUMO

Hippo signaling is a key regulator of organ size, tissue hemostasis and regeneration. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway has been recognized in a variety of human cancers, including pancreatic cancer. YES-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are the two major downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP and TAZ have been found to promote pancreatic tumor development and progression, even in the absence of mutant Kirsten RAS (KRAS). Pancreatic cancer is associated with an abundant stromal reaction leading to tumor growth and immune escape. It has been found that YAP and TAZ modulate behavior of pancreatic stellate cells and recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Moreover, YAP and TAZ are associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. This review dissects the role of Hippo signaling in pancreatic cancer, focusing on molecular mechanisms and prospects for future intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116615, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260686

RESUMO

AIM: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer globally. Bufothionine is a major active constituent of Cinobufacini (Huachansu), which is extracted from the skin and parotid venom gland of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. It exhibits anti-cancer activities in vitro. However, whether bufothionine exerts anti-cancer activities against GC is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of bufothionine in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MKN28 and AGS cells were chosen as cell models to study the anti-cancer effect of bufothionine. Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay, while the effect of bufothionine on cell membrane integrity was examined by LDH assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst/PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. The expression levels of proteins involved were examined using western blotting. I-Traq analysis was conducted to identify the differentially expressed genes in AGS cells following bufothionine treatment. The anti-growth effect of bufothionine was validated in vivo using a GC xenograft model. KEY FINDINGS: The results revealed that bufothionine prevented the growth, destroyed cell membrane and promoted apoptotic cell death of GC cells. iTRAQ analysis revealed thatPIM3 might be a molecular target responsible for the anti-cancer effects of bufothionine. It was also found that PIM3 knockdown significantly augmented the anti-growth and pro-apoptotic effects of bufothionine in GC cells. In contrast, ectopic PIM3 expression markedly dampened the anti-neoplastic activities of bufothionine. The expression of PIM3 was also suppressed by bufothionine treatment in xenograft tumor tissue. SIGNIFICANCE: Bufothionine exhibited anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo in GC via downregulating PIM3.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Compostos de Quinolínio/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Anfíbios/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
9.
Nature ; 571(7765): 355-360, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270458

RESUMO

Defining the transcriptomic identity of malignant cells is challenging in the absence of surface markers that distinguish cancer clones from one another, or from admixed non-neoplastic cells. To address this challenge, here we developed Genotyping of Transcriptomes (GoT), a method to integrate genotyping with high-throughput droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing. We apply GoT to profile 38,290 CD34+ cells from patients with CALR-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms to study how somatic mutations corrupt the complex process of human haematopoiesis. High-resolution mapping of malignant versus normal haematopoietic progenitors revealed an increasing fitness advantage with myeloid differentiation of cells with mutated CALR. We identified the unfolded protein response as a predominant outcome of CALR mutations, with a considerable dependency on cell identity, as well as upregulation of the NF-κB pathway specifically in uncommitted stem cells. We further extended the GoT toolkit to genotype multiple targets and loci that are distant from transcript ends. Together, these findings reveal that the transcriptional output of somatic mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms is dependent on the native cell identity.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Mutação , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/patologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Calreticulina/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/classificação , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/classificação , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/classificação , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/classificação , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 141, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) are important to both plant defense and symbiosis. Previous studies described three clades of LysM-RLKs: LysM-I/LYKs (10+ exons per gene and containing conserved kinase residues), LysM-II/LYRs (1-5 exons per gene, lacking conserved kinase residues), and LysM-III (two exons per gene, with a kinase unlike other LysM-RLK kinases and restricted to legumes). LysM-II gene products are presumably not functional as conventional receptor kinases, but several are known to operate in complexes with other LysM-RLKs. One aim of our study was to take advantage of recently mapped wild tomato transcriptomes to evaluate the evolutionary history of LysM-RLKs within and between species. The second aim was to place these results into a broader phylogenetic context by integrating them into a sequence analysis of LysM-RLKs from other functionally well-characterized model plant species. Furthermore, we sought to assess whether the Group III LysM-RLKs were restricted to the legumes or found more broadly across Angiosperms. RESULTS: Purifying selection was found to be the prevailing form of natural selection within species at LysM-RLKs. No signatures of balancing selection were found in species-wide samples of two wild tomato species. Most genes showed a greater extent of purifying selection in their intracellular domains, with the exception of SlLYK3 which showed strong purifying selection in both the extracellular and intracellular domains in wild tomato species. The phylogenetic analysis did not reveal a clustering of microbe/functional specificity to groups of closely related proteins. We also discovered new putative LysM-III genes in a range of Rosid species, including Eucalyptus grandis. CONCLUSIONS: The LysM-III genes likely originated before the divergence of E. grandis from other Rosids via a fusion of a Group II LysM triplet and a kinase from another RLK family. SlLYK3 emerges as an especially interesting candidate for further study due to the high protein sequence conservation within species, its position in a clade of LysM-RLKs with distinct LysM domains, and its close evolutionary relationship with LYK3 from Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2378, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147541

RESUMO

Developmental plasticity of root system architecture is crucial for plant performance in nutrient-poor soils. Roots of plants grown under mild nitrogen (N) deficiency show a foraging response characterized by increased root length but mechanisms underlying this developmental plasticity are still elusive. By employing natural variation in Arabidopsis accessions, we show that the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling kinase BSK3 modulates root elongation under mild N deficiency. In particular, a proline to leucine substitution in the predicted kinase domain of BSK3 enhances BR sensitivity and signaling to increase the extent of root elongation. We further show that low N specifically upregulates transcript levels of the BR co-receptor BAK1 to activate BR signaling and stimulate root elongation. Altogether, our results uncover a role of BR signaling in root elongation under low N. The BSK3 alleles identified here provide targets for improving root growth of crops growing under limited N conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Solo/química , Regulação para Cima
12.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2689-2697, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177103

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most prevalent type of cancer among males and the third among females. CRC recurrence and poor prognosis may be related to the prevalence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent studies have indicated the role of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) protein as a marker of CSC in CRC. This review focuses on the role of DCLK1 in CRC. Long-lived DCLK1-positive tuft cells can function as cancer-initiating cells. Numerous studies have shown DCLK1 overexpression to be significantly correlated with the stage of disease, the presence of metastasis and poor survival rate. DCLK1 may also be used to identify patients at high risk and those with chemotherapy-resistant tumors. DCLK1-specific drugs are examined as potential cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 284, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis plays a critical role in the embryonic development, homeostasis of immune system and host defense against intracellular microbial pathogens. Infection by the obligate intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii can both inhibit and induce host cell apoptosis; however, the parasitic factors involved remain unclear. The T. gondii virulence factor ROP18 (TgROP18) has been reported to regulate host cell apoptosis; nevertheless, results for this regulation have been rarely reported or have provided contradictory findings. Human purinergic receptor 1 (P2X1) is an ATP-gated ion channel that responds to ATP stimulation and functions in cell apoptosis mediation. The precise roles of TgROP18 in T. gondii pathogenesis, and the relationship between TgROP18 and host P2X1 in host cell apoptosis are yet to be revealed. METHODS: Apoptosis rates were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL assay. The interaction between TgROP18 and the host P2X1 was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay. Calcium influx and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were determined by FCM after JC-1 staining. The translocation of cytochrome C (Cyt C), Bax and Bcl2 proteins, expression of the apoptotic proteins PARP and caspase activation were detected by western blotting. RESULTS: The apoptosis rates of glial or immune cells (human SF268, mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 cells) infected by any T. gondii strain (RH-type I, ME49-type II and VEG-type III) were significantly inhibited compared with their uninfected controls. TgROP18 inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis of SF268 with P2X1 expression, but had no effect on RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells without detectable P2X1 expression. It was further identified that TgROP18 interacted with P2X1, and overexpression of ROP18 in COS7 cells significantly inhibited cell apoptosis mediated by P2X1. Moreover, TgROP18 also inhibited P2X1-mediated Ca2+ influx, translocation of cytochrome C from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and ATP-triggered caspase activation. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection inhibits ATP-induced host cell apoptosis, regardless of strain virulence and host cell lines. TgROP18 targets the purinergic receptor P2X1 of the SF268 human neural cells and inhibits ATP-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting a sensor role for the host proapoptotic protein P2X1 in this process.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Células THP-1 , Toxoplasma
14.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160894

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary edema is one of the pathological characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is thought to be the rate-limiting factor for alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) during pulmonary edema. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone was shown to stimulate ENaC-mediated salt absorption in the kidney. However, its role in the lung remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the PPARγ agonist in the lung to find out whether it can regulate AFC during acute lung injury (ALI). We also attempted to elucidate the mechanism for this. Methods: Our ALI model was established through intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C57BL/6 J mice. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10. The control group underwent a sham operation and received an equal quantity of saline. The three experimental groups underwent intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg LPS, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone, 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone plus 1 mg/kg GW9662, or only equal quantity of saline. The histological morphology of the lung, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the level of AFC, and the expressions of αENaC and serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK1) were determined. Type 2 alveolar (AT II) cells were incubated with rosiglitazone (15 µM) with or without GW9662 (10 µM). The expressions of αENaC and SGK1 were determined 24 h later. Results: A mouse model of ALI was successfully established. Rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated the lung injury, decreasing the TNF-α and IL-1ß levels in the BALF, enhancing AFC, and promoting the expressions of αENaC and SGK1 in ALI mice, which were abolished by the specific PPARγ blocker GW9662. In vitro, rosiglitazone increased the expressions of αENaC and SGK1. This increase was prevented by GW9662. Conclusions: Rosiglitazone ameliorated the lung injury and promoted ENaC-mediated AFC via a PPARγ/SGK1-dependent signaling pathway, alleviating pulmonary edema in a mouse model of ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Life Sci ; 229: 277-287, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150687

RESUMO

AIMS: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, (SPARC), is a matricellular protein implicated in the modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mitochondrial proteins expression. MAIN METHODS: To study the mechanism through which SPARC is involved in the possible link between ECM and mitochondria, C2C12 myoblasts were cultured with/without the exogenous addition/inhibition of SPARC as well as activation/inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Electrical pulse stimulation (EPS), was applied for 2 days in myotubes. KEY FINDINGS: The expressions of ECM-related (integrin-linked kinase (ILK), glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3ß), phosphorylated-GSK-3ß (p-GSK-3ß) and collagen 1a1), mitochondrial-related (AMPK, phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc1α)) and SPARC proteins and/or genes were measured after modulation of SPARC and/or AMPK as well as with or without EPS. The addition of SPARC in C2C12 myoblast increased the expression of ILK, p-GSK-3ß and p-AMPK whereas anti-SPARC antibody decreased them at different incubation times (0, 10, and 30 min, and 6 h). The AMPK activation increased SPARC, collagen 1a1, p-AMPK and SDHB proteins level, however, AMPK inhibition blunted the effects. EPS induced Sparc and Pgc1a genes expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Sparc, an EPS-induced gene, may be involved in the link between ECM remodeling and mitochondrial function in muscle via its interaction with ILK/AMPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Osteonectina/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estimulação Elétrica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mioblastos/citologia , Osteonectina/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
16.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2471-2484, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187548

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis and development of tumors and protects tumor cells from radiation damage and drug-induced stress. We previously demonstrated that EGFR confers radioresistance in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative human oropharyngeal carcinoma by activating ERS signaling through PERK and IRE1α. In addition, PERK confers radioresistance by activating the inflammatory cytokine NF-κB. However, the effect of IRE1 on radiosensitivity has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we clarified that IRE1 overexpression was associated with poor outcome in HPV-negative patients treated with radiotherapy (P = 0.0001). In addition, a significantly higher percentage of radioresistant HPV-negative patients than radiosensitive HPV-negative patients exhibited high IRE expression (66.7% vs 27.8%, respectively; P = 0.001). Silencing IRE1 and XBP1 increased DNA double-strand break (DSB) and radiation-induced apoptosis, thereby increasing the radiosensitivity of HPV-negative oropharyngeal carcinoma cells. IRE1-XBP1 silencing also inhibited radiation-induced IL-6 expression at both the RNA and protein levels. The regulatory effect of IRE1-XBP1 silencing on DNA DSB-induced and radiation-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with IL-6. These data indicate that IRE1 regulates radioresistance in HPV-negative oropharyngeal carcinoma through IL-6 activation, enhancing X-ray-induced DNA DSB and cell apoptosis.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação/fisiologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(3): 405-414, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218331

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate the expression relationship of Hippo signaling molecules and ovarian germline stem cell (OGSC) markers in the development schedule of OGSCs during ovarian aging in women and mice. The ovaries of 2-month-old mature (normal control) and 12-month-old (physiological ovarian aging) KM mice were sampled, and the ovarian cortex samples of young (postpuberty to 35 years old), middle age (36-50 years old) and menopausal period (51-60 years old) women were obtained with consent. The mice model of pathological ovarian aging was established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide/busulfan (CY/BUS). HE staining was used to detect the changes of follicles at different stages, and the localization and expression changes of Hippo signaling molecules and OGSCs related factors (MVH/OCT4) were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of the major molecules in the Hippo signaling pathway and OGSCs related factors. The results showed that there were not any normal follicles, but a few atresia follicles in the ovaries from physiological and pathological ovarian aging mice. Compared with the normal control mice, both the physiological and pathological ovarian aging mice showed decreased protein expression levels of the main Hippo signaling molecules (pYAP1) and MVH/OCT4; Whereas only the pathological ovarian aging mice showed increased ratio of pYAP1/YAP1. In comparison with the young women, the middle age and menopausal women showed looser structure of ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and less ovarian cortical cells. The protein expression level of LATS2 in the OSE was the highest in young women, MST1 expression was the lowest in the menopausal period women, and the expression levels of YAP1 and pYAP1 were the highest in middle age women. Compared with the young women, the middle age and menopausal period women exhibited significantly decreased ratio of OSE pYAP1/YAP1, whereas there was no significant difference between them. The expression level of MVH protein in OSE from the young women was significantly higher than those of the middle age and menopausal period women. These results indicate that there is an expression relationship between the main molecules of Hippo signaling pathway and OGSCs related factors, which suggests that Hippo signaling pathway may regulate the expression levels of OGSCs related factors, thus participating in the process of physiological and pathological degeneration of ovarian.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Células-Tronco de Oogônios/metabolismo , Ovário , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Epitélio , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish an arterial remodeling model of rats and to investigate the expression and role of Hippo signaling pathway in this model. METHODS: In the model group (n=40), the left common carotid artery was removed through the median incision of the neck. The 6-0 non-absorbable line was used to ligate the carotid artery near the proximal end as far as possible, completely blocking the blood flow. The common carotid artery of rats in control group (n=20) was not ligated using the operative line. After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed and the common carotid arteries were separated through the original surgical pathway and the arteries from the ligature to the distal end were collected. Arterial morphology and fibrosis were observed by HE and MASSON staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of anti-α smooth muscle actin (α-MSA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the carotid artery. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of yes associated protein (YAP), transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), TEAD1, Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the HE staining showed that the vascular remodeling was obvious, the ratio of the neointima/middle membrane was increased significantly, and the MASSON staining indicated that the fibrosis was significantly increased in model group. The immunohistochemical staining suggested that the expressions of α-SMA and PCNA were increased significantly; Western blot suggested that the expressions of YAP, TAZ, TEAD1, and Bcl-2 were increased in carotid artery of the model group. While the expression of Bax and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were decreased. CONCLUSION: A rat model of arterial remodeling mediated by carotid artery ligation was established successfully in this study. Hippo signaling pathway was proved to be activated in the arterial remodeling model induced by carotid artery ligation in rats, and might regulate the change of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio related to proliferation and apoptosis, and subsequently involved in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells to promote vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Artéria Carótida Primitiva , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia
19.
Life Sci ; 231: 116569, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202841

RESUMO

AIM: The IRE1 signaling pathway is implicated in I/R injury. However, little is known about the involvement of this pathway in low-dose LPS treatment of myocardial I/R injury. Thus, an attempt was made to determine the relationship between the IRE1 pathway and I/R injury using rats or in vitro H9C2 cell myocardial I/R injury models. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured H9C2 cells were pretreated with low-dose LPS and subjected to myocardial I/R injury models. KEY FINDINGS: Low-dose LPS did not affect normal rat or cellular function. Compared with the I/R group, treatment with LPS attenuated myocardial apoptosis, decreased plasma LDH and CK-MB activities, reduced myocardium infarct size, and downregulated caspase-3 expression. Moreover, the protein or mRNA expression levels of the IRE1 signaling pathway-related proteins Grp78, IRE1, p-ASK1, ASK1, p-JNK, and JNK were notably increased during I/R injury but significantly decreased by low-dose LPS treatment both in rats and in H9C2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Low-dose LPS exhibited therapeutic effects in myocardial I/R injury. Most importantly, the cardioprotective mechanism of low-dose LPS may be associated with the IRE1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2861, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253795

RESUMO

Centromeres provide a pivotal function for faithful chromosome segregation. They serve as a foundation for the assembly of the kinetochore complex and spindle connection, which is essential for chromosome biorientation. Cells lacking Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) activity suffer severe chromosome alignment defects, which is believed primarily due to unstable kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Here, we reveal a previously undescribed mechanism named 'centromere disintegration' that drives chromosome misalignment in PLK1-inactivated cells. We find that PLK1 inhibition does not necessarily compromise metaphase establishment, but instead its maintenance. We demonstrate that this is caused by unlawful unwinding of DNA by BLM helicase at a specific centromere domain underneath kinetochores. Under bipolar spindle pulling, the distorted centromeres are promptly decompacted into DNA threadlike molecules, leading to centromere rupture and whole-chromosome arm splitting. Consequently, chromosome alignment collapses. Our study unveils an unexpected role of PLK1 as a chromosome guardian to maintain centromere integrity for chromosome biorientation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos/fisiologia , Mitose/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Pareamento Cromossômico/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinetocoros , Interferência de RNA , Timidina/farmacologia
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