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1.
Cell Prolif ; 53(10): e12907, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for repair of large bone defect. However, the immune system reactions to biological scaffold are increasingly being recognized as a crucial factor influencing regeneration efficacy. In this study, a bone-bioactive hydrogel bead loaded with interleukin-4 (IL-4) was used to regulate macrophages polarization and accelerate bone regeneration. METHODS: IL-4-loaded calcium-enriched gellan gum (Ca-GG + IL-4) hydrogel beads were synthesised. And the effect on cell behaviour was detected. Furthermore, the effect of the Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead on macrophage polarization and the effect of macrophage polarization on bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) apoptosis and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: BMSCs were able to survive in the hydrogel regardless of whether IL-4 was incorporated. Immunofluorescence staining and qPCR results revealed that Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead could promote M2 macrophage polarization and increase transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 expression level, which activates the TGF-ß1/Smad signalling pathway in BMSCs and promotes osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead could promote M2 macrophage polarization and reduce cell apoptosis in vivo. In addition, micro-CT and immunohistochemical analysis at 12 weeks post-surgery showed that Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead could achieve superior bone defect repair efficacy in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead effectively promoted bone defect regeneration via regulating macrophage polarization, reducing cell apoptosis and promoting BMSCs osteogenesis through TGF-ß1/Smad pathway. Therefore, it is a promising strategy for repair of bone defect.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/química , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/química , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000825, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886690

RESUMO

Microbial dysbiosis in the upper digestive tract is linked to an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Overabundance of Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with shorter survival of ESCC patients. We investigated the molecular mechanisms driving aggressive progression of ESCC by P. gingivalis. Intracellular invasion of P. gingivalis potentiated proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis abilities of ESCC cells via transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß)-dependent Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic homologs (Smads)/Yes-associated protein (YAP)/Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) activation. Smads/YAP/TAZ/TEA domain transcription factor1 (TEAD1) complex formation was essential to initiate downstream target gene expression, inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features. Furthermore, P. gingivalis augmented secretion and bioactivity of TGFß through glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) up-regulation. Accordingly, disruption of either the GARP/TGFß axis or its activated Smads/YAP/TAZ complex abrogated the tumor-promoting role of P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis signature genes based on its activated effector molecules can efficiently distinguish ESCC patients into low- and high-risk groups. Targeting P. gingivalis or its activated effectors may provide novel insights into clinical management of ESCC.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/metabolismo , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/mortalidade , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Drosophila , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/microbiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776961

RESUMO

It has been reported that Bach1-deficient mice show reduced tissue injuries in diverse disease models due to increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)that possesses an antioxidant function. In contrast, we found that Bach1 deficiency in mice exacerbated skeletal muscle injury induced by cardiotoxin. Inhibition of Bach1 expression in C2C12 myoblast cells using RNA interference resulted in reduced proliferation, myotube formation, and myogenin expression compared with control cells. While the expression of HO-1 was increased by Bach1 silencing in C2C12 cells, the reduced myotube formation was not rescued by HO-1 inhibition. Up-regulations of Smad2, Smad3 and FoxO1, known inhibitors of muscle cell differentiation, were observed in Bach1-deficient mice and Bach1-silenced C2C12 cells. Therefore, Bach1 may promote regeneration of muscle by increasing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Regeneração , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810161

RESUMO

In human lung cancer progression, the EMT process is characterized by the transformation of cancer cells into invasive forms that migrate to other organs. Targeting to EMT-related molecules is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as an anti-proliferative target molecule to regulate the Wnt signaling pathway in several types of cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and the integrin-αⅤß3 targeted cyclic peptide (cRGDfK) on EMT in human lung cancer cells. Sunitinib strongly inhibited the TGF-ß1-activated EMT through suppression of Wnt signaling, Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. In addition, the cRGDfK also inhibited the expression of TGFß1-induced mesenchymal marker genes and proteins. The anti-EMT effect of sunitinib was enhanced when cRGDfK was treated together. When sunitinib was treated with cRGDfK, the mRNA and protein expression levels of mesenchymal markers were decreased compared to the treatment with sunitinib alone. Co-treatment of cRGDfK has shown the potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer agents in combination with therapeutic agents that may be toxic at high concentrations. These results provide new and improved therapies for treating and preventing EMT-related disorders, such as lung fibrosis and cancer metastasis, and relapse.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118178, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739468

RESUMO

AIMS: Gentamicin (GEN) is one of the most valuable aminoglycoside antibiotics utilized against life-threatening bacterial infections. Unfortunately, GEN-induced nephrotoxicity limited its clinical utility. The pathologic process of nephrotoxicity caused by GEN may involve epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resveratrol (RES) is a natural compound was revealed to inhibit EMT in kidney. The present work was conducted to explore the potential renoprotective role of RES on GEN-induced EMT. Moreover, the underlying signaling pathway of this inhibition was investigated. MAIN METHODS: Mice were treated with GEN by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route daily for 15 days to identify EMT onset with regard to GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. To assess the ameliorative role of RES against GEN-induced EMT, RES was i.p. administrated in high and low doses before and concurrently with GEN treatment. KEY FINDINGS: GEN administration significantly deteriorated kidney functions. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in the content of kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) after GEN treatment. Histological changes and deposition of collagen were extensive in renal corpuscles and tubules. Increased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2 were observed after GEN administration, while E-cadherin expression was decreased. On the contrary, pretreatment with both doses of RES reversed the modifications caused by GEN administration. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that EMT contributes to pathogenesis of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. RES has a protective effect on GEN-induced EMT via suppressing oxidative stress and a possible involvement of TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fibrose , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153294, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is considered integral to the progression of chronic liver diseases, as it leads to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the dominant event in hepatic fibrogenesis. The transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathways play a pivotal role in HSC activation, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis progression. Therefore, targeting the TGF-ß/Smad and YAP signaling pathways is a promising strategy for antifibrotic therapy. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the protective effects of Physalin D (PD), a withanolide isolated from Physalis species (Solanaceae), against liver fibrosis and further elucidated the mechanisms involved in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted a series of experiments using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- and bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced fibrotic mice and cultured LX-2 cells. Serum markers of liver injury, and the morphology, histology and fibrosis of liver tissue were investigated. Western blot assays and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the antifibrotic effects of PD. RESULT: PD decreased TGF-ß1-induced COL1A1 promoter activity. PD inhibited TGF-ß1-induced expression of Collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in human hepatic stellate LX-2 cells. PD significantly ameliorated hepatic injury, including transaminase activities, histology, collagen deposition and α-SMA, in CCl4- or BDL-induced mice. Moreover, PD markedly decreased the expression of phosphorylated Smad2/3 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PD significantly decreased YAP protein levels, and YAP knockdown did not further enhance the effects of PD, namely α-SMA inhibition, Collagen I expression and YAP target gene expression in LX-2 cells. CONCLUSION: These results clearly show that PD ameliorated experimental liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-ß/Smad and YAP signaling pathways, indicating that PD has the potential to effectively treat liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Secoesteroides/farmacologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
7.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153298, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive inflammatory disorder driven by a fibrotic cascade of events such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, extracellular matrix production and collagen formation in the lungs in a sequential manner. IPF incidences were raising rapidly across the world. FDA approved pirfenidone and nintedanib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) are being used as a first-line treatment drugs for IPF, however, neither the quality of life nor survival rates have been improved because of patient noncompliance due to multiple side effects. Thus, the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting TGF-ß mediated cascade of fibrotic events is urgently needed to improve the survival of the patients suffering from devastating disease. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate and validate the anti-fibrotic properties of Biochanin-A (isoflavone) against TGF-ß mediated fibrosis in in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo models and to determine the molecular mechanisms that mediate these anti-fibrotic effects. METHODS: The therapeutic activity of BCA was determined in in vitro/ex vivo models. Cells were pre-treated with BCA and incubated in presence or absence of recombinant-TGF-ß to stimulate the fibrotic cascade of events. Pulmonary fibrosis was developed by intratracheal administration of bleomycin in rats. BCA treatment was given for 14 days from post bleomycin instillation and then various investigations (collagen content, fibrosis gene/protein expression and histopathological changes) were performed to assess the anti-fibrotic activity of BCA. RESULTS: In vitro/ex vivo (Primary normal, IPF cell line and primary IPF cells/ Precision cut mouse lung slices) experiments revealed that, BCA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the expression of TGF-ß modulated fibrotic genes/protein expressions (including their functions) which are involved in the cascade of fibrotic events. BCA treatment significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the bleomycin-induced inflammatory cell-infiltration, inflammatory markers expression, collagen deposition and expression of fibrotic markers in lung tissues equivalent or better than pirfenidone treatment. In addition, BCA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated the TGF-ß1/BLM-mediated increase of TGF-ß/Smad2/3 phosphorylation and resulted in the reduction of pathological abnormalities in lung tissues determined by histopathology observations. CONCLUSION: Collectively, BCA treatment demonstrated the remarkable therapeutic effects on TGF-ß/BLM mediated pulmonary fibrosis using IPF cells and rodent models. This current study may offer a novel treatment approach to halt and may be even rescue the devastating lung scarring of IPF.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Genisteína/farmacologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
8.
Life Sci ; 257: 118044, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622944

RESUMO

AIMS: High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration causes osteoporosis. Many previous studies from our group and other groups have shown that melatonin participates in the regulation of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, especially low concentrations of melatonin, which enhance osteoblast osteogenesis. However, the role of melatonin in glucocorticoid-induced osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An examination of the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers (ALP, OCN, COLL-1), as well as alkaline phosphatase staining and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity assay to measure osteoblast differentiation and quantifying Alizarin red S staining to measure mineralization, were performed to determine the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) and melatonin on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. We used immunofluorescence staining to detect the expression of Runx2 in melatonin-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of mRNA was determined by qRT-PCR, and protein levels were measured by western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: In the present study, we found that 100 µM Dex significantly reduced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells and that 1 µM melatonin attenuated these inhibitory effects. We found that only inhibition of PI3K/AKT (MK2206) and BMP/Smad (LDN193189) signalling abolished melatonin-induced differentiation and mineralization. Meanwhile, MK2206 decreased the expression of P-AKT and P-Smad1/5/9 and LDN193189 decreased the expression of P-Smad1/5/9 but had no obvious effect on P-AKT expression in melatonin-treated and Dex-induced MC3T3-E1 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that melatonin rescues Dex-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells via the PI3K/AKT and BMP/Smad signalling pathways and that PI3K/AKT signalling may be the upstream signal of BMP/Smad signalling.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomineralização/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo
9.
Hum Cell ; 33(4): 1006-1016, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524326

RESUMO

In chronic pancreatitis, PSCs are activated by proinflammatory cytokines to induce pancreatic fibrogenesis. HDAC inhibition protected against the pancreatic fibrosis and the apoptosis of PSCs through induced apoptosis and depressed inflammation. In our study, we found that miR-15 and miR-16 decreased significantly in chronic pancreatitis and HDAC inhibition could recover the levels of these two miRNAs. HDAC regulated the transcription of miR-15 and miR-16, which then modulate the apoptosis and fibrosis of PSCs. And we proved that Bcl-2 and Smad5 were the target genes of miR-15 and miR-16, which illustrated how HDAC inhibition alleviated the apoptosis and fibrogenesis of PSCs in chronic pancreatitis. These results suggested that HDAC inhibition protects against CP by promoting apoptosis and TGF-ß/Smads signaling pathways, and indicated that HDAC inhibition is a potential therapy to alleviate CP patients in clinic, and these need to be explored further.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fibrose , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 256: 117893, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502539

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of melittin and tripartite motif (TRIM) family in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lentiviral RNA interference vector and lentiviral overexpression vector were constructed and packaged by transfecting 293T cells; the proliferation of HELF was examined using Cell Counting Kit 8; Western blot and qRT-PCR were performed to examine protein and mRNA expression; the interaction with protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A) was examined by Co-immunoprecipitation. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of the TRIM6, TRIM8 and TRIM47 in the IPF group significantly increased. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression and protein expression levels of TRIM47, the HELF proliferation, the hydroxyproline levels, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3; the interference of TRIM47 inhibited the protein expression of Vimentin, α-SMA, CTGF, the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the synthesis of hydroxyproline; TRIM47 overexpression elevated the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, induced ubiquitination of PPM1A and decreased the expression level of PPM1A, while TRIM47 RNA interference reversed this result. SIGNIFICANCE: Melittin has anti-fibrotic effect in HELF by directly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 or indirectly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 by decreasing the expression levels of TRIM47 whose overexpression induces ubiquitination of PPM1A.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Meliteno/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/sangue , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vimentina/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci ; 255: 117859, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474020

RESUMO

Excessive fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition resulting from upregulation of target genes expression mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß)/SMAD and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathways are the main mechanisms that drive keloid formation. Sumoylation is a protein posttranslational modification that regulates the function of proteins in many biological processes. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of sumoylation on the TGF-ß/SMAD and HIF-1 signaling pathways in keloids. We used 2-D08 to block sumoylation and silenced the expression of sentrin sumo-specific protease 1 (SENP1) to enhance sumoylation in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and human keloid fibroblasts (HKFs). We also reduced and increased intracellular SUMO1 levels by silencing SUMO1 and transfecting cells with a SUMO1 overexpression lentivirus, respectively. Sumoylation has the ability to amplify TGF-ß/SMAD and HIF-1 signals in keloids, while SUMO1, especially the SUMO1-RanGAP1 complex, is the key molecule affecting the TGF-ß/SMAD and HIF-1 signaling pathways. In addition, we also found that hypoxia promotes sumoylation in keloids and that HIF-1α is covalently modified by SUMO1 at Lys 391 and Lys 477 in HKFs. In summary, we elucidated the role and molecular mechanism of sumoylation in the formation of keloids, providing a new perspective for a potential therapeutic target of keloids.


Assuntos
Queloide/patologia , Proteína SUMO-1/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Sumoilação/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima
12.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 115: 104452, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypospadias, as a congenital disorder of the urethra, is the second most common birth abnormality of the male reproductive system. This study primarily investigates the effects of microRNA-494 (miR-494) on the transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smads signaling pathway and on the development of hypospadias by binding to neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-like (Nedd4L). METHODS: We induced a mouse model of hypospadias through di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate treatment. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR-494 in this model were analyzed upon treatment of miR-494 mimic, miR-494 inhibitor, or small interfering RNA against Nedd4L in urethral epithelial cells isolated from mice with hypospadias. We then verified the binding site between miR-494 and Nedd4L and applied a gain- and loss-of-function approach to determine the effects of miR-494 on cell proliferation, cycle distribution, and apoptosis. RESULTS: Male mice with hypospadias exhibited significantly higher miR-494 expression and lower Nedd4L expression in urethral tissues than normal male mice. Nedd4L was verified as a target gene of miR-494. Treatment with miR-494 inhibitor suppressed the activation of the TGF-ß1/Smads signaling pathway, whereas down-regulation of miR-494 exerted protective effects on urethral epithelial cells by impeding cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that downregulation of miR-494 inhibits the TGF-ß1/Smads signaling pathway and prevents the development of hypospadias through upregulating Nedd4L.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Hipospadia/genética , Hipospadia/prevenção & controle , MicroRNAs/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Hipospadia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Uretra/patologia
13.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 115: 104468, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exosomes originated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) benefit wound healing. This study investigated effects of exosomes originated from human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) on dermal fibroblasts-myofibroblasts transition via the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. METHODS: Firstly, hUC-MSCs were collected and identified. Alizarin red, oil red O staining and toluidine blue staining were used to determine the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation abilities of hUC-MSCs. Then exosomes from hUC-MSCs were extracted and identified. To figure out the roles of exosomes and TGF-ß1 in dermal fibroblasts-myofibroblasts transition, dermal fibroblasts were treated with TGF-ß1 or/and exosomes at different concentrations. RT-qPCR, Western blot analyses were employed to examine levels of Collagen I, Collagen III, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and immunofluorescence was employed to test α-SMA content and the localization and nucleation of Smad2/3 protein in cells. RESULTS: hUC-MSCs and exosomes were successfully cultured and extracted. Levels of Collagen I, Collagen III, α-SMA, and Smad2/3, and Smad2/3 phosphorylation in fibroblasts treated with exosomes decreased markedly. After treatment with exosomes and TGF-ß1 together, levels of Collagen I, Collagen III, α-SMA, and Smad2/3, and Smad2/3 phosphorylation in fibroblasts decreased significantly as compared to TGF-ß1-treated fibroblasts. Exosome treatment reduced the entry of Smad2/3 into fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hUC-MSCs-derived exosomes could inhibit dermal fibroblasts-myofibroblasts transition by inhibiting the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Derme/citologia , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
14.
Transl Res ; 222: 28-40, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434697

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease characterized by fat accumulation and inflammation in liver. Yet, the mechanistic insight and diagnostic and therapeutic options of NASH remain incompletely understood. This study tested the roles of cysteine protease cathepsin B (CatB) in mouse NASH development. Immunoblot revealed increased liver CatB expression in NASH mice. Fructose-palmitate-cholesterol diet increased body weight gain, liver to body weight ratio, blood fasting glucose, plasma total cholesterol and alanine transaminase levels, and liver triglyceride, but decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein in wild-type mice. All these changes were blunted in CatB-deficient (Ctsb-/-) mice. In parallel to reduced expression of genes involved in liver lipid transport and lipogenesis, liver CD36, FABP4, and PPARγ protein levels were also significantly decreased in Ctsb-/- mice, although CatB deficiency did not affect liver gluconeogenesis and fatty acid beta-oxidation-associated gene expression. Mechanistic studies showed that CatB deficiency decreased liver expression of adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokine, and chemokine, along with reduced liver inflammatory cell infiltration. CatB deficiency also promoted M2 macrophage polarization and reduced liver TGF-ß1 signaling and fibrosis. Together, CatB deficiency improves liver function in NASH mice by suppressing de novo lipogenesis and liver inflammation and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Catepsina B/deficiência , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Inflamação/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Animais , Caderinas , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
15.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2620-2634, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412154

RESUMO

Secondary lymphedema often develops after cancer surgery, and over 250 million patients suffer from this complication. A major symptom of secondary lymphedema is swelling with fibrosis, which lowers the patient's quality of life, even if cancer does not recur. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of secondary lymphedema remains unclear, with therapeutic approaches limited to physical or surgical therapy. There is no effective pharmacological therapy for secondary lymphedema. Notably, the lack of animal models that accurately mimic human secondary lymphedema has hindered pathophysiological investigations of the disease. Here, we developed a novel rat hindlimb model of secondary lymphedema and showed that our rat model mimics human secondary lymphedema from early to late stages in terms of cell proliferation, lymphatic fluid accumulation, and skin fibrosis. Using our animal model, we investigated the disease progression and found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFB1) was produced by macrophages in the acute phase and by fibroblasts in the chronic phase of the disease. TGFB1 promoted the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and accelerated collagen synthesis, resulting in fibrosis, which further indicates that myofibroblasts and TGFB1/Smad signaling play key roles in fibrotic diseases. Furthermore, the presence of myofibroblasts in skin samples from lymphedema patients after cancer surgery emphasizes the role of these cells in promoting fibrosis. Suppression of myofibroblast-dependent TGFB1 production may therefore represent an effective pharmacological treatment for inhibiting skin fibrosis in human secondary lymphedema after cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Linfedema/etiologia , Linfedema/metabolismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Linfedema/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfedema/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Ratos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 631-635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237523

RESUMO

This paper was aimed to observe the interventional effect of Sedum sarmentosum total flavanones on hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism through the subcutaneous injection of CCl_4 in rats. Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, low-dose, medium-dose, high-dose S. sarmentosum total flavanones groups(100, 200, 400 mg·kg~(-1)) and silymarin group(200 mg·kg~(-1)). The model of liver fibrosis was established by subcutaneous injection of rats with 40% CCl_4. After the modeling, the drug groups were intragastrically administered with corresponding drugs once a day for consecutively five weeks, while the normal group and the model group were given 0.9% sodium chloride solution during the same period. After the experiment, the general conditions of rats and the pathological changes of liver tissues were observed, and the contents of serum ALT, AST, HA and LN were measured. Besides, the expressions of the protein and relevant mRNA of Smad2/3, Smad4 and α-SMA in rats were detected. Compared with model group, S. sarmentosum total flavanones could significantly increase the rats' body weight, inhibit the increase of liver and spleen index in rats of liver fibrosis, reduce the levels of ALT, AST, HA and LN, and alleviate pathological changes. Meanwhile, compared with the model group, the protein expressions of Smad2/3, Smad4 and α-SMA as well as relevant mRNA expressions in S. sarmentosum total flavanones group were obviously decreased, while Smad7 expression was markedly increased. As a result, S. sarmentosum total flavanones could significantly alleviate CCl_4-induced liver fibrosis, and its anti-hepatic fibrosis mechanism may be related to intervention with Smads pathway, so as to inhibit the activation of HSC.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Sedum/química , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Fígado , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(4): 1131-1137, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317186

RESUMO

Keloids represent a dermal fibrotic disease characterized by excess collagen deposition and invasion of normal skin beyond the wound boundary, similar to malignant tumor features. Fibronectin extra domain B (EDB) is highly expressed in many tumors but has not been studied in keloids. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and the influence of EDB on keloid and elucidate the putative signaling pathway. We examined expression of EDB and the effects of EDB on fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of the related proteins and genes. The level of phosphorylation of Smad, ERK, and AKT was estimated to elucidate the signaling pathways. The results showed that EDB in human keloid tissues and fibroblasts was overexpressed. EDB knockdown suppressed the cell proliferation of keloid fibroblasts (KFs) treated by transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1). Also, the phosphorylation of Smad, ERK, and AKT in TGF-ß1-induced KFs was inhibited In addition, the low expression of pro-collagen-I (Col-I) and Col-III protein and mRNA level was observed in the siEDB group. EDB knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and suppressed collagen deposition in TGF-1-induced KFs. The underlying mechanism is the activation of TGF-ß1/Smad, ERK, and AKT signaling pathways. Together, the results suggested that EDB is a promising therapeutic target for keloid clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/química , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Queloide/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Regulação para Cima
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(4): 1125-1130, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331833

RESUMO

The regeneration of bone defects is necessary for the successful healing. During the process of healing, callus plays crucial roles in providing the stable bone-reconstruction environment. The callus is consisted of various large molecules including collagen proteins, non-collagen proteins and proteoglycans (PGs), which are involved in maintaining mechanical strength and interacting with cytokines and grow factors in the injury sites. Recently, our data have found that the PG form of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1-PG), which is a newly identified PG, was richly expressed in the bone defect sites. Previous researches have demonstrated the special role of DMP1-PG in chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification, however, the knowledge about the role of DMP1-PG in bone defect repair is still limited. To further detect the potential function of DMP1-PG in the defect healing, we employed a bone defect intramembranous ossification model using the glycosylation site mutant DMP1-PG (S89-G89, S89G-DMP1) mouse. The morphologic changes of calluses and abnormal expression levels of osteogenesis genes were displayed in the injury sites in S89G-DMP1 mice. In addition, impaired BMP-Smad signaling pathway was observed due to the deficiency of DMP1-PG. Collectively, our findings indicated that the DMP1-PG is one of key proteoglycans in the process of defect healing via regulating the osteogenesis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Glicosilação , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Osteogênese , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(1): 41-47, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192771

RESUMO

Human breast tumors are not fully autonomous. They are dependent on nutrients and growth-promoting signals provided by the supporting stromal cells. Within the tumor microenvironment, one of the secreted macromolecules by tumor cells is activin A, where we show to downregulate CD36 in fibroblasts. Downregulation of CD36 in fibroblasts also increases the secretion of activin A by fibroblasts. We hypothesize that overexpression of CD36 in fibroblasts inhibits the formation of solid tumors in subtypes of breast cancer models. For the first time, we show that co-culturing organoid models of breast cancer cell lines of MDA-MB-231 (e.g., a triple-negative line) or MCF7 (e.g., a luminal-A line) with CD36+ fibroblasts inhibit the growth and normalizes basal and lateral polarities, respectively. In the long-term anchorage-independent growth assay, the rate of colony formation is also reduced for MDA-MB-231. These observations are consistent with the mechanism of tumor suppression involving the downregulation of pSMAD2/3 and YY1 expression levels. Our integrated analytical methods leverage and extend quantitative assays at cell- and colony-scales in both short- and long-term cultures using brightfield or immunofluorescent microscopy and robust image analysis. Conditioned media are profiled with the ELISA assay.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Ativinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo
20.
Genes Cells ; 25(6): 375-390, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181976

RESUMO

PMEPA1 (prostate transmembrane protein, androgen-induced 1)/TMEPAI (transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein) is highly expressed in diverse cancers, including breast, lung and prostate cancers. It consists of four isoforms with distinct extracellular regions (isoforms a-d). The expression and function of these isoforms are still poorly understood. Hence, we aimed to identify the preferentially expressed isoforms in breast cancer cells and analyze possible differences in tumorigenic functions. In this study, we used 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and Western blot analyses to identify the mRNA variants and protein isoforms of TMEPAI and found that TMEPAI isoform d as the major isoform expressed by TGF-ß stimulation in breast cancer cells. We then generated CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TMEPAI knockout (KO) breast cancer cell lines and used a lentiviral expression system to complement each isoform individually. Although there were no clear functional differences between isoforms, double PPxY (PY) motifs and a Smad-interaction motif (SIM) of TMEPAI were both essential for colony and sphere formation. Collectively, our results provide a novel insight into TMEPAI isoforms in breast cancer cells and showed that coordination between double PY motifs and a SIM of TMEPAI are essential for colony and sphere formation but not for monolayer cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Células COS , Carcinogênese/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Organoides/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
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