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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 31-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034024

RESUMO

The endosomal pathway plays a pivotal role upon signal transduction in the Notch pathway. Recent work on lethal (2) giant discs (lgd) points to an additional critical role in avoiding uncontrolled ligand-independent signalling during trafficking of the Notch receptor through the endosomal pathway to the lysosome for degradation. In this chapter, we will outline the journey of Notch through the endosomal system and present an overview of the current knowledge about Lgd and its mammalian orthologs Lgd1/CC2D1b and Lgd2/CC2D1a. We will then discuss how Notch is activated in the absence of lgd function in Drosophila and ask whether there is evidence that a similar ligand-independent activation of the Notch pathway can also happen in mammals if the orthologs are inactivated.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos
2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1710-1717, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067979

RESUMO

AbstractObjective: To investigate the effect of ALAS2 downregulation on the expression of BNIP3L and erythroid differentiation in K562 cells. METHODS: The expression of ALAS2 was down-regulated by transfection of lentivirus, then quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transfection efficiency. Flow cytometry analysis was applied to evaluate apoptosis of cells, erythroid differentiation, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Western blot was used to detect the BNIP3L expression, Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to analyze the relationship between ALAS2 and BNIP3L. RESULTS: Compared with sh-NC group, knockdown of ALAS2 induced downregulation of BNIP3L mRNA and protein expression(P<0.01) and erythroid related transcription factors GATA1, Nrf2 expression, as well as reduction of ROS level(P<0.05). Mitochondrial membrane potential of control (sh-NC) group was lower than that of shALAS2 group(P<0.05), but there was no significant change of cell apoptotic rate in two groups. CD71highCD235ahigh + CD71lowCD235ahigh cells of sh-NC and shALAS2 groups were 53.5%, 92.9% at 96 h after hemin induction, respectively. No direct action between ALAS2 and BNIP3L was observed. CONCLUSION: The intracellular heme level can affect the expression of BNIP3L which may be related with the regulation of ROS and transcription factors GATA1 and Nrf2. Higher BNIP3L facilitates cell differentiation but lower BNIP3L is favorable for cells survival.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Mitofagia , 5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/metabolismo , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Células K562 , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22678, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a member of the N-myc down-regulated gene family, N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) contributes to the tumorigenesis of various types of cancers. However, the correlation between NDRG2 expression and the prognosis of solid tumor remains to be elucidated because of small sample sizes and inconsistent results in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the prognostic significance of NDRG2 in human solid tumors. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang databases (up to April 2020) were searched for relevant studies that evaluated the impact of NDRG2 on clinical outcomes, including overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS), in solid tumors. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to assess the association between NDRG2 expression and the survival of patients with solid tumors. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were pooled to estimate the correlation between NDRG2 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics in the patients. RESULTS: A total of 13 eligible studies with 1980 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Low NDRG2 expression was significantly associated with poor OS (HR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.60-2.40, P < .001) and DFS (HR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.42-5.13, P = .002) in solid tumor. Furthermore, low NDRG2 expression was related to some phenotypes of tumor aggressiveness, such as clinical stage (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.96-5.26, P < .001), lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.49-3.07, P < .001), and degree of differentiation (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.81, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: NDRG2 may be a meaningful biomarker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for human solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
4.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 856-862, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the correlation between CKLF-like marvel transmembrane domain containing member (CMTM5) gene and the risk of in-stent restenosis (ISR) with coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and to detect the effects and mechanisms of CMTM5-stimulated genes on human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation and migration. METHODS: A total of 124 hospitalized patients in Shijitan Hospital were enrolled in this study. All the CAD patients were detected with platelet reactivity and grouped into two groups according to platelet reactivity; ISR was conformed by coronary angiography; RT-PCR method was used to detect CMTM5 gene expression; The CMTM5 over expression, reduction and control EC lines were established; Cell count, MTT, Brdu and flow cytometry methods were used to detect the proliferation of ECs, scratch and transwell experiments to test the migration of ECs, Western blot was used to detect signal path expressions. RESULTS: CMTM5 gene expression in HAPR (High on aspirin platelet reactivity) group was 1.72 times compared with No-HAPR group, which was significantly higher than No-HAPR group. HAPR group ISR rate was 25.8% (8 cases), the incidence of No-HAPR ISR group was 9.7% (9 cases), and the results showed that in HAPR group, the incidence of ISR was significantly higher than that in No-HAPR group (P=0.04, OR=0.04, 95%CI=1.16-7.52), which showed that CMTM5 gene was significantly correlated with the risk of ISR. In HAPR group ISR rate was 25.8% (8 cases), the incidence of ISR in No-HAPR group was 9.7% (9 cases), and the results showed that the risk of ISR in HAPR group was significantly higher than that in No-HAPR group. All the results showed that CMTM5 was significantly correlated with the risk of ISR in CAD patients (P < 0.05). CMTM5 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and migration ability of ECs (P < 0.05), PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were involved in the role of regulation on ECs. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that CMTM5 gene was closely related with ISR, CMTM5 overexpression may repress ECs proliferation and migration through regulating PI3K-Akt signaling.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reestenose Coronária , Stents Farmacológicos , Quimiocinas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio MARVEL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 285-306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918224

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignancies including melanomas and keratinocyte carcinomas (KC) are the most common types of cancer, occurring at a rate of over one million per year in the United States. KC, which include both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, are substantially more common than melanomas and form the subject of this chapter. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), both UVB and UVA, as occurs with sunlight exposure is generally regarded as causal for these malignancies, but UVB is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Keratinocytes are the major cell in the epidermis. These cells not only produce vitamin D but contain the enzymatic machinery to metabolize vitamin D to its active metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D, and express the receptor for this metabolite, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This allows the cell to respond to the 1,25(OH)2D that it produces. Based on our own data and that reported in the literature, we conclude that vitamin D signaling in the skin suppresses UVR-induced epidermal tumor formation. In this chapter we focus on four mechanisms by which vitamin D signaling suppresses tumor formation. They are inhibition of proliferation/stimulation of differentiation with discussion of the roles of hedgehog, Wnt/ß-catenin, and hyaluronan/CD44 pathways in mediating vitamin D regulation of proliferation/differentiation, regulation of the balance between oncogenic and tumor suppressor long noncoding RNAs, immune regulation, and promotion of DNA damage repair (DDR).


Assuntos
Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 99-108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949393

RESUMO

Lung carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasms and mainly consists of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Large number of lung carcinoma patients have poor outcomes due to the late diagnosis and the limited therapeutic options. Previous attempts have proved that the evolution of lung carcinoma is a multistep molecular aberration which various genetic or epigenetic alterations may be take part in. Among these molecular aberrations, the inactivation of tumor suppressor gene has been widely observed in all types of carcinoma including lung carcinoma. As a vital inactivated mechanism, DNA methylation of tumor suppressor gene is frequently found in lung cancer. To gain exhaustive comprehension of the carcinogenesis of lung carcinoma, we summarize our current knowledge on DNA methylation of RASSF1 (RAS-Association Domain Family 1) and its clinical significance in lung carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22092, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925750

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most fatal cancers in the world. Although great efforts have made to explore the mechanisms of PaCa oncogenesis, the prognosis of PaCa patients is still unsatisfactory. Thus, it is imperative to further understand the potential carcinogenesis of PaCa and reliable prognostic models.The gene expression profile and clinical information of GSE21501 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to explore the potent genes associated with the overall survival (OS) events of PaCa patients. Cox regression model was applied to selecting prognostic genes and establish prognostic model. The prognostic values of six-gene signature were validated in TCGA-PAAD cohort.According to the WGCNA analysis, a total of 19 modules were identified and 115 hub genes in the mostly associated module were reserved for next analysis. According to the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, we established a six-gene signature (FTSJ3, STAT1, STX2, CDX2, RASSF4, MACF1) which could effectively evaluate the overall survival (OS) of PaCa patients. In validated patients' cohorts, the six-gene signature exhibited excellent prognostic value in TCGA-PAAD cohort as well.We developed a six-gene signature to exactly predict OS of PaCa patients and provide a novel personalized strategy for evaluating prognosis. The findings may be contributed to medical customization and therapeutic decision in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Sintaxina 1/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790723

RESUMO

Despite enzalutamide's efficacy in delaying the progression of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), resistance to this anti-androgen inevitably occurs. Several studies have revealed that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 plays a role in tumour progression and development of drug resistance such as enzalutamide. Data mining revealed heterogeneous expression of STAT5 in enzalutamide-treated mCRPC patients and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). Isobologram analysis revealed that the STAT5 inhibitor pimozide combined with enzalutamide has? additive and synergistic inhibitory effects on cell viability in the used models. Functional analysis with siRNA-mediated STAT5 knockdown yielded divergent results. The LNCaP-derived cell line MR49F could be resensitised to enzalutamide by siRNA-mediated STAT5b-knock-down. In contrast, neither STAT5a nor STAT5b knockdown resensitised enzalutamide-resistant LAPC4-EnzaR cells to enzalutamide. In conclusion, our results indicate that STAT5 may be a possible target in a subgroup of enzalutamide-resistant PCa. However, based on the data presented here, a general role of STAT5 in enzalutamide-resistance and its potential as a therapeutic target could not be shown.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 473-486, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781046

RESUMO

Africa contains more human genetic variation than any other continent, but the majority of the population-scale analyses of the African peoples have focused on just two of the four major linguistic groups, the Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, leaving the Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan populations under-represented. In order to assess genetic variation and signatures of selection within a Nilo-Saharan population and between the Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, we sequenced 50 genomes from the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara population of North-West Uganda and 250 genomes from 6 previously unsequenced Niger-Congo populations. We compared these data to data from a further 16 Eurasian and African populations including the Gumuz, another putative Nilo-Saharan population from Ethiopia. Of the 21 million variants identified in the Nilo-Saharan population, 3.57 million (17%) were not represented in dbSNP and included predicted non-synonymous mutations with possible phenotypic effects. We found greater genetic differentiation between the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara and Gumuz populations than between any two Afro-Asiatic or Niger-Congo populations. F3 tests showed that Gumuz contributed a genetic component to most Niger-Congo B populations whereas Lugabara did not. We scanned the genomes of the Lugbara for evidence of selective sweeps. We found selective sweeps at four loci (SLC24A5, SNX13, TYRP1, and UVRAG) associated with skin pigmentation, three of which already have been reported to be under selection. These selective sweeps point toward adaptations to the intense UV radiation of the Sahel.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antiporters/genética , Gerenciamento de Dados , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Nexinas de Classificação/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3883, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753598

RESUMO

Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma and is now becoming a chemotherapeutic option in patients diagnosed with high-risk low-grade gliomas. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is responsible for the direct repair of the main TMZ-induced toxic DNA adduct, the O6-Methylguanine lesion. MGMT promoter hypermethylation is currently the only known biomarker for TMZ response in glioblastoma patients. Here we show that a subset of recurrent gliomas carries MGMT genomic rearrangements that lead to MGMT overexpression, independently from changes in its promoter methylation. By leveraging the CRISPR/Cas9 technology we generated some of these MGMT rearrangements in glioma cells and demonstrated that the MGMT genomic rearrangements contribute to TMZ resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, we showed that such fusions can be detected in tumor-derived exosomes and could potentially represent an early detection marker of tumor recurrence in a subset of patients treated with TMZ.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Adutos de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2417-2427, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862286

RESUMO

For most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the highest chance of sustained remissions and long-term survival. At diagnosis, high expression of the AML-associated genes BAALC (brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic) and MN1 (meningioma-1) were repeatedly linked to inferior outcomes in patients consolidated with chemotherapy while data for patients receiving HSCT remain limited. Using clinically applicable digital droplet PCR assays, we analyzed the diagnostic BAALC/ABL1 and MN1/ABL1 copy numbers in 302 AML patients. High BAALC/ABL1 and MN1/ABL1 copy numbers associated with common adverse prognostic factors at diagnosis. However, while high diagnostic copy numbers of both genes associated with shorter event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients receiving chemotherapy, there was no prognostic impact in patients undergoing HSCT. Our data suggests that the adverse prognostic impact of high BAALC and MN1 expression are mitigated by allogeneic HSCT. But preHSCT BAALC/ABL1 and MN1/ABL1 assessed in remission prior to HSCT remained prognosticators for EFS and OS independent of the diagnostic expression status. Whether allogeneic HSCT may improve survival for AML patients with high diagnostic BAALC or MN1 expression should be investigated prospectively and may improve informed decisions towards individualized consolidation options in AML.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aloenxertos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/química , Terapia Combinada , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Transativadores/biossíntese , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841306

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is typically treated with chemotherapeutic agents, including carboplatin (Cb), an DNA platinating agent. The O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes for the protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (MGMT protein). MGMT protein is involved in DNA repair mechanisms to remove mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from O6-guanine in DNA. In glioblastoma multiforme, MGMT methylation status is a predictive biomarker for increased response to temozolomide therapy. It has been suggested, that MGMT protein may have relevance for cellular adaptation and could have an influence on resistance to carboplatin therapy. We investigated the influence of MGMT promoter methylation on pathologic complete response and survival of patients with TNBC treated in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial. In 174 of 210 available TNBC tumors a valid MGMT promoter methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing of 5 CpG islands. In 21.8%, we detected a mean MGMT promoter methylation >10%. Overall, MGMT promoter methylation was not significantly associated with pathological complete response (pCR) rate. After stratification for the two therapy arms with and without Cb no statistically significant differences in therapy response rates between the two MGMT promoter methylation groups could be observed. Our results show that different MGMT promoter methylation status is not related to different chemotherapy response rates in the TNBC setting in GeparSixto.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21163, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791689

RESUMO

Autophagy, a major cause of cancer-related death, is correlated with the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancers. Our study aimed to develop an autophagy-related model for predicting prognosis of patients with laryngeal cancer.We analyzed the correlation between expression profiles of autophagy-related genes (ARGs) and clinical outcomes in 111 laryngeal cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Afterward, gene functional enrichment analyses of gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were performed to find the major biological attributes. Univariate Cox regression analyses and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to screen ARGs whose expression profiles were significantly associated with laryngeal cancer patients overall survival (OS). Furthermore, to provide the doctors and patients with a quantitative method to perform an individualized survival prediction, we constructed a prognostic nomogram.Thirty eight differentially expressed ARGs were screened out in laryngeal cancer patients through the TCGA database. Related functional enrichments may act as tumor-suppressive roles in the tumorigenesis of laryngeal cancer. Subsequently, 4 key prognostic ARGs (IKBKB, ST13, TSC2, and MAP2K7) were identified from all ARGs by the Cox regression model, which significantly correlated with OS in laryngeal cancer. Furthermore, the risk score was constructed, which significantly divided laryngeal cancer patients into high- and low-risk groups. Integrated with clinical characteristics, gender, N and the risk score are very likely associated with patients OS. A prognostic nomogram of ARGs was constructed using the Cox regression model.Our study could provide a valuable prognostic model for predicting the prognosis of laryngeal cancer patients and a new understanding of autophagy in laryngeal cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Nomogramas , Fatores Etários , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 7/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3615, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680986

RESUMO

Failure to preserve the integrity of the genome is a hallmark of cancer. Recent studies have revealed that loss of the capacity to repair DNA breaks via homologous recombination (HR) results in a mutational profile termed BRCAness. The enzymatic activity that repairs HR substrates in BRCA-deficient conditions to produce this profile is currently unknown. We here show that the mutational landscape of BRCA1 deficiency in C. elegans closely resembles that of BRCA1-deficient tumours. We identify polymerase theta-mediated end-joining (TMEJ) to be responsible: knocking out polq-1 suppresses the accumulation of deletions and tandem duplications in brc-1 and brd-1 animals. We find no additional back-up repair in HR and TMEJ compromised animals; non-homologous end-joining does not affect BRCAness. The notion that TMEJ acts as an alternative to HR, promoting the genome alteration of HR-deficient cells, supports the idea that polymerase theta is a promising therapeutic target for HR-deficient tumours.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Mutação
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20995, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629717

RESUMO

RATIONAL: Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation and rupture of intestinal lymphatic channels leading to protein-losing enteropathy. IL is classified as primary and secondary types. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 3-month-old girl born at term from vaginal delivery with an APGAR score of 10/10 and birth weight of 4.310 g (>97° percentile) was admitted to our hospital because of increasing abdominal tenderness and diarrhea. At first examination, she presented an abdominal circumference of 60 cm, edema of the lower extremities and vulva, and facial dysmorphisms (hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, flat mid-face). DIAGNOSIS: Once admitted, ultrasonography showed a large amount of ascites, while blood laboratory investigations revealed severe hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99m-Tc-nanocolloid demonstrated abnormal leakage of the tracer in the abdomen as evidence of IL. To detect a possible secondary, exams were performed and demonstrated positive antibody titres for CMV-IgM and IgG in blood and CMV-DNA positivity in blood, urine, saliva, maternal milk, and gastric and duodenal biopsies. Genetic investigations identified the genomic variant c.472C>T of the CCBE1 gene, coding for a protein variant (p.Arg158Cys), in homozygosity. INTERVENTIONS: Total parenteral nutrition was started and continued for a total of 18 days, then gradually bridged by enteral nutrition with a special formula. In addition, antiviral therapy for CMV infection was added first with intravenous ganciclovir for 14 days, resulting in the disappearance of blood viral load after 7 days of therapy and then with valganciclovir per os for another 30 days. OUTCOMES: The clinical course of the child gradually improved. A few days after starting treatments, lower extremities and vulvar edema disappeared, and abdominal circumference gradually decreased to a stable value of 38 cm, without any ultrasonographic signs of ascites left. Moreover, serum albumin and IgG rose to normal values after 3 months (4.3 g/dL and 501 mg/dL, respectively). LESSONS: This case suggests that in presence of IL both primary and secondary causes should be evaluated. On the other hand, genetic diagnosis is crucial not only for diagnosis but also for prognosis in HS. Life expectancy and quality could deeply vary among different gene mutations and protein variants of the same gene. Further studies and case reports are needed to better understand the clinical meaning of these genetic results and the role of CMV as trigger of IL.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Linfangiectasia Intestinal/genética , Linfedema/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linfangiectasia Intestinal/diagnóstico , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Mutação , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3723-3732, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Skin melanoma belongs to the most invasive malignancies with no cure for a progressing disease. Personalized therapy would allow for the selection of patients that will benefit from treatment. For this purpose, proper predictive biomarkers must be defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allogeneic whole-cell gene-modified therapeutic melanoma vaccine (AGI-101H) was applied in advanced melanoma patients. Humoral responses were analyzed using SEREX, and in silico gene expression analysis in TCGA melanoma patients was performed. RESULTS: A specific antibody response was raised against an antigen identified as BNIP3L, which correlated with a good prognosis. Moreover, AGI-101H directs an immune response against autophagy, as BNIP3L is a marker of this process. Medium and high expression of BNIP3L was also linked with longer overall survival. CONCLUSION: BNIP3L is a candidate prognostic marker of clinical outcome of melanoma patients treated with AGI-101H, and may be considered as a prediction marker for patient survival.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia
17.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(4): 145-153, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601775

RESUMO

MN1 alteration characterizes a recently described group of neuroepithelial tumors with varied morphological features. In cIMPACT-NOW update 6, only those with astroblastoma morphology has been accepted as a newly recognized tumor type, whereas the rest of morphological variants are considered lesions sub-judice. We perform an individual patient data meta-analysis of MN1-altered neuroepithelial tumors comprising a total of 73 cases, in order to study the survival data and predictive markers for better diagnosis and management of this rare molecular entity. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival are 38% and 0%, whereas the 5- and 10-year overall survival are 89% and 55%, respectively. Among all the morphological variants of MN1-altered tumor, astroblastoma morphology is significantly associated with an improved overall survival, emphasizing the importance of providing an integrated histologic and molecular diagnosis. Histological grading within the molecularly-defined MN1-altered astroblastoma remains controversial. In tumors with astroblastoma morphology, the odds of MN1-altered status among patients less than 15-year-old is 10.5 times that of those 15-year-old and older, and female of 9.4 times that of the male gender. Gross tumor resection appears as main treatment modality for better disease control based on observational data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/patologia , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/cirurgia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/patologia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Transativadores , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
18.
Life Sci ; 258: 118151, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726661

RESUMO

AIMS: Hepatic glucose metabolism involves a variety of catabolic and anabolic pathways, and the dynamic balance of glucose metabolism is regulated in response to environmental and nutritional changes. The molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism in liver is complex and has not been fully elucidated so far. In this study, we hope to elucidate the target and mechanism of cinnamaldehyde (CA) in regulating glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular image tracing and magnetic capture in combination with an alkynyl-CA probe (Al-CA) was used to show CA covalently binds to α-enolase (ENO1) in both mouse liver and HepG2 cells. Accurate metabolic flow assays subsequently demonstrated that the utilization of glycogenic amino acids and the biosynthesis of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were strengthened, which was detected using nontargeted and targeted metabolomics analyses. KEY FINDINGS: Our study shows that CA covalently bonds with ENO1, which affects the stability and activity of ENO1 and changes the dynamic balance of glucose metabolism. The interruption of gluconeogenic reflux by ENO1 enhanced TCA cycle, and eventually led to a decrease in blood glucose and the improvement of mitochondrial efficiency. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide a detailed description of how CA maintains the dynamic balance of glucose utilization and improves energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
19.
Life Sci ; 259: 118148, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721465

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer with poor prognosis. This study aimed to explore how O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) affects the gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cells by the regulatory role of SHH/GLI signaling pathway. MGMT inhibition induced by lomeguatrib (LM) suppressed the proliferation, invasion, migration and autophagy, promoted the apoptosis of PanC-1/GEM cells and up-regulated the GEM inhibition rates for PanC-1/GEM cells. Moreover, MGMT inhibition increased the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax and decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Beclin1 and Atg5 in PanC-1/GEM cells. PVT1 silencing could also produce the similar effects of MGMT inhibition induced by LM on PanC-1/GEM cells. And, PVT1 silencing could inhibit the SHH/GLI signaling pathway in PanC-1/GEM cells by regulating the MGMT expression. miR-409 was demonstrated to be a potential target of PVT1 and SHH was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-409. Furthermore, GLI overexpression could reverse the effects of PVT1 silencing. In the xenograft model of pancreatic cancer, nude mice were treated with GEM. MGMT inhibition suppressed the tumor growth and autophagy and promoted the apoptosis in tumor tissues. And, PVT1 silencing could inhibit the SHH/GLI signaling pathway in tumor tissues. In conclusion, MGMT inhibition could suppress the proliferation, invasion, migration and autophagy and promote the apoptosis of PanC-1/GEM cells in vitro and in vivo. PVT1 silencing may affect the PanC-1/GEM cells through changing the MGMT expression by inhibiting the SHH/GLI signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/biossíntese , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/biossíntese , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Nature ; 585(7826): 597-602, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612235

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key metabolic hub that controls the cellular response to environmental cues by exerting its kinase activity on multiple substrates1-3. However, whether mTORC1 responds to diverse stimuli by differentially phosphorylating specific substrates is poorly understood. Here we show that transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy4,5, is phosphorylated by mTORC1 via a substrate-specific mechanism that is mediated by Rag GTPases. Owing to this mechanism, the phosphorylation of TFEB-unlike other substrates of mTORC1, such as S6K and 4E-BP1- is strictly dependent on the amino-acid-mediated activation of RagC and RagD GTPases, but is insensitive to RHEB activity induced by growth factors. This mechanism has a crucial role in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, a disorder that is caused by mutations in the RagC and RagD activator folliculin (FLCN) and is characterized by benign skin tumours, lung and kidney cysts and renal cell carcinoma6,7. We found that constitutive activation of TFEB is the main driver of the kidney abnormalities and mTORC1 hyperactivity in a mouse model of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Accordingly, depletion of TFEB in kidneys of these mice fully rescued the disease phenotype and associated lethality, and normalized mTORC1 activity. Our findings identify a mechanism that enables differential phosphorylation of mTORC1 substrates, the dysregulation of which leads to kidney cysts and cancer.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/química , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/genética , Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação Enzimática , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteína Enriquecida em Homólogo de Ras do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
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