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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5463, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122628

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma remains an incurable disease for many patients due to the limited success of targeted and immunotherapies. BRAF and MEK inhibitors reduce metastatic burden for patients with melanomas harboring BRAF mutations; however, most eventually relapse due to acquired resistance. Here, we demonstrate that ABL1/2 kinase activities and/or expression are potentiated in cell lines and patient samples following resistance, and ABL1/2 drive BRAF and BRAF/MEK inhibitor resistance by inducing reactivation of MEK/ERK/MYC signaling. Silencing/inhibiting ABL1/2 blocks pathway reactivation, and resensitizes resistant cells to BRAF/MEK inhibitors, whereas expression of constitutively active ABL1/2 is sufficient to promote resistance. Significantly, nilotinib (2nd generation ABL1/2 inhibitor) reverses resistance, in vivo, causing prolonged regression of resistant tumors, and also, prevents BRAFi/MEKi resistance from developing in the first place. These data indicate that repurposing the FDA-approved leukemia drug, nilotinib, may be effective for prolonging survival for patients harboring BRAF-mutant melanomas.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3935, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769979

RESUMO

GABAA/glycine-mediated neuronal inhibition critically depends on intracellular chloride (Cl-) concentration which is mainly regulated by the K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the adult central nervous system (CNS). KCC2 heterogeneity thus affects information processing across CNS areas. Here, we uncover a gradient in Cl- extrusion capacity across the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord (laminae I-II: LI-LII), which remains concealed under low Cl- load. Under high Cl- load or heightened synaptic drive, lower Cl- extrusion is unveiled in LI, as expected from the gradient in KCC2 expression found across the SDH. Blocking TrkB receptors increases KCC2 in LI, pointing to differential constitutive TrkB activation across laminae. Higher Cl- lability in LI results in rapidly collapsing inhibition, and a form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity expressed as a continuous facilitation of excitatory responses. The higher metaplasticity in LI as compared to LII differentially affects sensitization to thermal and mechanical input. Thus, inconspicuous heterogeneity of Cl- extrusion across laminae critically shapes plasticity for selective nociceptive modalities.


Assuntos
Sensibilização do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Cloretos/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Células do Corno Posterior/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Neurológicos , Optogenética , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
3.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 376-389.e8, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640193

RESUMO

Activation of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases 1A and 1B (DYRK1A and DYRK1B) requires prolyl hydroxylation by PHD1 prolyl hydroxylase. Prolyl hydroxylation of DYRK1 initiates a cascade of events leading to the release of molecular constraints on von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase tumor suppressor function. However, the proline residue of DYRK1 targeted by hydroxylation and the role of prolyl hydroxylation in tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1 are unknown. We found that a highly conserved proline in the CMGC insert of the DYRK1 kinase domain is hydroxylated by PHD1, and this event precedes tyrosine autophosphorylation. Mutation of the hydroxylation acceptor proline precludes tyrosine autophosphorylation and folding of DYRK1, resulting in a kinase unable to preserve VHL function and lacking glioma suppression activity. The consensus proline sequence is shared by most CMGC kinases, and prolyl hydroxylation is essential for catalytic activation. Thus, formation of prolyl-hydroxylated intermediates is a novel mechanism of kinase maturation and likely a general mechanism of regulation of CMGC kinases in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/química , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3563, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678104

RESUMO

Rapidly increasing availability of genomic data and ensuing identification of disease associated mutations allows for an unbiased insight into genetic drivers of disease development. However, determination of molecular mechanisms by which individual genomic changes affect biochemical processes remains a major challenge. Here, we develop a multilayered proteomic workflow to explore how genetic lesions modulate the proteome and are translated into molecular phenotypes. Using this workflow we determine how expression of a panel of disease-associated mutations in the Dyrk2 protein kinase alter the composition, topology and activity of this kinase complex as well as the phosphoproteomic state of the cell. The data show that altered protein-protein interactions caused by the mutations are associated with topological changes and affected phosphorylation of known cancer driver proteins, thus linking Dyrk2 mutations with cancer-related biochemical processes. Overall, we discover multiple mutation-specific functionally relevant changes, thus highlighting the extensive plasticity of molecular responses to genetic lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Complexos Multiproteicos , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Conformação Proteica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 758: 144960, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687947

RESUMO

As a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family, USP22 could remove ubiquitin moieties from its target proteins to control the function of the target proteins. Accumulating studies show that USP22 essentially participates in diverse types of cancer as an oncogene-like protein. However, the roles of USP22 in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and the underlying mechanism are unknown. Here we report that USP22 promotes the growth of PDAC cells by promoting the expression of dual-specificity tyrosine regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). Our results showed that the expression levels of USP22 were up-regulated in human PDAC tissues and cell lines (BxPC-3, AsPC-1, MIA-PaCa-2, PANC-1, and CAPAN-1). Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of USP22 repressed the rate of proliferation and capacity of colony formation of BxPC3 and CAPAN1 cancer cells and USP22 overexpression promoted the proliferation and capacity of the colony formation of BxPC3 and CAPAN1 cancer cells. The further mechanism study showed that USP22 elevated the expression of the mRNA and protein levels of DYRK1A in PDAC cancer cells. Inhibition of DYRK1A with EHT-5732 or lentivirus-mediated knockdown of DYRK1A blocked the function of USP22 overexpression in the regulation of the proliferation and colony formation of PDAC cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that USP22 overexpression in PDAC promoted the growth of the cancer cells partially through upregulating the expression of DYRK1A.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Oncogenes/genética , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transplante Heterólogo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17019-17030, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611815

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) trigger transient pausing of nearby transcription, an emerging ATM-dependent response that suppresses chromosomal instability. We screened a chemical library designed to target the human kinome for new activities that mediate gene silencing on DSB-flanking chromatin, and have uncovered the DYRK1B kinase as an early respondent to DNA damage. We showed that DYRK1B is swiftly and transiently recruited to laser-microirradiated sites, and that genetic inactivation of DYRK1B or its kinase activity attenuated DSB-induced gene silencing and led to compromised DNA repair. Notably, global transcription shutdown alleviated DNA repair defects associated with DYRK1B loss, suggesting that DYRK1B is strictly required for DSB repair on active chromatin. We also found that DYRK1B mediates transcription silencing in part via phosphorylating and enforcing DSB accumulation of the histone methyltransferase EHMT2. Together, our findings unveil the DYRK1B signaling network as a key branch of mammalian DNA damage response circuitries, and establish the DYRK1B-EHMT2 axis as an effector that coordinates DSB repair on transcribed chromatin.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Transcrição Genética/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Inativação Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3586, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681075

RESUMO

Aberrant expression of receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is linked to metastasis. AXL can be activated by its ligand GAS6 or by other kinases, but the signaling pathways conferring its metastatic activity are unknown. Here, we define the AXL-regulated phosphoproteome in breast cancer cells. We reveal that AXL stimulates the phosphorylation of a network of focal adhesion (FA) proteins, culminating in faster FA disassembly. Mechanistically, AXL phosphorylates NEDD9, leading to its binding to CRKII which in turn associates with and orchestrates the phosphorylation of the pseudo-kinase PEAK1. We find that PEAK1 is in complex with the tyrosine kinase CSK to mediate the phosphorylation of PAXILLIN. Uncoupling of PEAK1 from AXL signaling decreases metastasis in vivo, but not tumor growth. Our results uncover a contribution of AXL signaling to FA dynamics, reveal a long sought-after mechanism underlying AXL metastatic activity, and identify PEAK1 as a therapeutic target in AXL positive tumors.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Adesões Focais/genética , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Paxilina/genética , Paxilina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(2): 61-68, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684333

RESUMO

The effects of adipokine administration to the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA), which is one of the body temperature (BT) regulation centers in the central nervous system, on BT were investigated in male Wistar rats. BT was measured in conscious rats using telemetry. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and lipocalin-2 produced hyperthermia, and the effects induced by IL-1ß (25 ng) and IGF-1 (5 µg) were sustainable and remarkable. IL-6 did not show any significant effect. The IGF-1-induced effect was inhibited by pretreatment with IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) or NVP-AEW541 (NVP, a selective inhibitor of type 1 IGF receptor tyrosine kinase, IGF1R TK). NVP-induced inhibition was observed only in the early phase of IGF-1-induced hyperthermia. In addition, IGF-1 increased the IL-1ß concentration in the microdialysate of POA perfusion, but did not increase the IL-1ß concentration in the plasma or the PGE2 concentration in the microdialysate. These findings suggested that IGF-1 produced hyperthermia, which was mediated, at least a part, through an increased IL-1ß concentration after activation of IGF1R TK in the POA, and the IGF-IGFBP system possibly participates in BT homeostasis in the POA.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/administração & dosagem , Adipocinas/farmacologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/genética , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/fisiologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/administração & dosagem , Quimiocina CCL2/farmacologia , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Lipocalina-2/administração & dosagem , Lipocalina-2/farmacologia , Masculino , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593255

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus Humano OC43/química , Coronavirus Humano OC43/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 23-26, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on Cdc2-like kinase (CLK2) protein expression and the fat content in liver of mice fed with high fat diet. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were distributed in normal diet, high fat diet (fed with highfat diet during 16 weeks) and trained high fat diet group (fed with high-fat diet during 16 weeks and exercised during 8 weeks),10 mice in each group. The expression of CLK2 protein in liver of each group was detected by Western blot. The fat content of liver in each group was detected by oil red O staining, and the relative genes of fat metabolism in each group were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mice fed with high fat diet showed insulin resistance, the hepatic CLK2 content and fat content were increased compared to the normal diet group. Otherwise, the chronic physical exercise improved insulin resistance state, prevented the increasing of CLK2 in the liver and attenuated hepatic fat accumulation. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise could reduce the expression of CLK2 protein in the liver of mice fed with high fat diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/enzimologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545268

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus Humano OC43/química , Coronavirus Humano OC43/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3216, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587248

RESUMO

Chemical tools to monitor drug-target engagement of endogenously expressed protein kinases are highly desirable for preclinical target validation in drug discovery. Here, we describe a chemical genetics strategy to selectively study target engagement of endogenous kinases. By substituting a serine residue into cysteine at the DFG-1 position in the ATP-binding pocket, we sensitize the non-receptor tyrosine kinase FES towards covalent labeling by a complementary fluorescent chemical probe. This mutation is introduced in the endogenous FES gene of HL-60 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Leveraging the temporal and acute control offered by our strategy, we show that FES activity is dispensable for differentiation of HL-60 cells towards macrophages. Instead, FES plays a key role in neutrophil phagocytosis via SYK kinase activation. This chemical genetics strategy holds promise as a target validation method for kinases.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fes , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mutação , Neutrófilos , Fagocitose , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fes/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fes/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Quinase Syk/metabolismo
13.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1701-1707, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583086

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemia is a major health emergency causing hundreds of deaths worldwide. The high reported morbidity has been related to hypoxia and inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction and aberrant coagulation in small and large vessels. This review addresses some of the pathways leading to endothelial derangement, such as complement, HIF-1α, and ABL tyrosine kinases. This review also highlights potential targets for prevention and therapy of COVID-19-related organ damage and discusses the role of marketed drugs, such as eculizumab and imatinib, as suitable candidates for clinical trials.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Inativadores do Complemento/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
14.
Gene ; 755: 144886, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534055

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common lung cancer with high mortality worldwide. Cisplatin (DDP) resistance is a huge limitation for NSCLC therapy. FGD5 antisense RNA 1 (FGD5-AS1) was recognized as a significant cancer cell regulator. However, the molecular mechanism of FGD5-AS1 in cisplatin resistance of NSCLC cells is poorly understood. FGD5-AS1 and WEE1 expression were up-regulated in DDP-resistant tumors and cells compared with DDP-sensitive ones. Interestingly, down-regulation of FGD5-AS1 or WEE1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, autophagy and stimulated cell apoptosis in NSCLC DDP-resistant cells. What's more, restoration of WEE1 abrogated FGD5-AS1 silencing-induced suppression on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, autophagy and promotion on cell apoptosis in NSCLC DDP-resistant cells. Next, we discovered that FGD5-AS1 was able to enhance WEE1 expression by interacting with miR-140-5p. Furthermore, FGD5-AS1 silencing restrained tumor growth of cisplatin-resistant mice. Overexpression of FGD5-AS1 accelerated cell proliferation, migration, invasion and autophagy by enhancing cisplatin resistance against NSCLC cells through miR-140-5p/WEE1 axis, presenting promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of DDP-resistant NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , Células A549 , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , RNA Antissenso/biossíntese , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459817

RESUMO

Since patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) often have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, the development of efficient systemic treatment options for MTC is important. Vandetanib and cabozantinib are two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that were recently approved by FDA and EMA for systemic treatment of metastatic MTC. Additionally, since MTC is of a neuroendocrine tumour type, treatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues (e.g. 177Lu-octreotate) is a valid option for patients with MTC. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentially increased therapeutic effect of combining radiation therapy with these TKIs for treatment of MTC in a mouse model. Nude mice carrying patient-derived MTC tumours (GOT2) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or one of the two TKIs vandetanib or cabozantinib. The tumour volume was determined and compared with that of mock-treated controls. The treatment doses were chosen to give a moderate effect as monotherapy to be able to detect any increased therapeutic effect from the combination therapy. At the end of follow-up, tumours were processed for immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. The animals in the combination therapy groups showed the largest reduction in tumour volume and the longest time to tumour progression. Two weeks after start of treatment, the tumour volume for these mice was reduced by about 70-75% compared with controls. Furthermore, also EBRT and TKI monotherapy resulted in a clear anti-tumour effect with a reduced tumour growth compared with controls. The results show that an increased therapeutic effect could be achieved when irradiation is combined with TKIs for treatment of MTC. Future studies should evaluate the potential of using 177Lu-octreotate therapy in combination with TKIs in patients.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Animais , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/enzimologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1729, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265438

RESUMO

The TrkB receptor is critical for the control of energy balance, as mutations in its gene (NTRK2) lead to hyperphagia and severe obesity. The main neural substrate mediating the appetite-suppressing activity of TrkB, however, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that selective Ntrk2 deletion within paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) leads to severe hyperphagic obesity. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation or inhibition of TrkB-expressing PVH (PVHTrkB) neurons suppresses or increases food intake, respectively. PVHTrkB neurons project to multiple brain regions, including ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). We find that PVHTrkB neurons projecting to LPBN are distinct from those to VMH, yet Ntrk2 deletion in PVH neurons projecting to either VMH or LPBN results in hyperphagia and obesity. Additionally, TrkB activation with BDNF increases firing of these PVH neurons. Therefore, TrkB signaling is a key regulator of a previously uncharacterized neuronal population within the PVH that impinges upon multiple circuits to govern appetite.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Hiperfagia/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/genética , Núcleos Parabraquiais/citologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/metabolismo
17.
Gene ; 744: 144608, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234541

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the third most common malignancy worldwide. Novel and effective therapeutic targets are needed for PCa. The purpose of this study was to discover novel therapeutic targets for PCa by performing advanced analysis on PCa RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Weighted correlation-network analysis (WGCNA) was performed on the RNAseq data of tumor samples, and the module most relevant to the Gleason score was identified. Combining differential gene-expression analysis and survival analysis, we narrowed down potential therapeutic target genes and found that PKMYT1 might be one. Subsequently, functional studies (i.e., cell-proliferation assays, cell cycle analysis, and colony-formation assays) demonstrated that knockdown of PKMYT1 significantly inhibited the growth of PCa cells. Further investigation illustrated that PKMYT1 promoted the growth of PCa cells through targeting CCNB1 and CCNE1 expression. In addition, fostamatinib, an inhibitor of PKMYT1, effectively inhibited the proliferation of PCa cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PKMYT1 is a gene associated with malignancy of PCa and is a novel therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciclina B1/genética , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Ciclina E/genética , Ciclina E/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
18.
Am J Hematol ; 95(7): 824-833, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279331

RESUMO

We report on 18 patients with myeloid neoplasms and associated tyrosine kinase (TK) fusion genes on treatment with the TK inhibitors (TKI) ruxolitinib (PCM1-JAK2, n = 8; BCR-JAK2, n = 1) and imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib (ETV6-ABL1, n = 9). On ruxolitinib (median 24 months, range 2-36 months), a complete hematologic response (CHR) and complete cytogenetic response (CCR) was achieved by five of nine and two of nine patients, respectively. However, ruxolitinib was stopped in eight of nine patients because of primary resistance (n = 3), progression (n = 3) or planned allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT, n = 2). At a median of 36 months (range 4-78 months) from diagnosis, five of nine patients are alive: four of six patients after allo SCT and one patient who remains on ruxolitinib. In ETV6-ABL1 positive patients, a durable CHR was achieved by four of nine patients (imatinib with one of five, nilotinib with two of three, dasatinib with one of one). Because of inadequate efficacy (lack of hematological and/or cytogenetic/molecular response), six of nine patients (imatinib, n = 5; nilotinib, n = 1) were switched to nilotinib or dasatinib. At a median of 23 months (range 3-60 months) from diagnosis, five of nine patients are in CCR or complete molecular response (nilotinib, n = 2; dasatinib, n = 2; allo SCT, n = 1) while two of nine patients have died. We conclude that (a) responses on ruxolitinib may only be transient in the majority of JAK2 fusion gene positive patients with allo SCT being an important early treatment option, and (b) nilotinib or dasatinib may be more effective than imatinib to induce durable complete remissions in ETV6-ABL1 positive patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/enzimologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/mortalidade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008600, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343701

RESUMO

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 activation and the period of cell cycle arrest. Regulation of Hog1 by CN also contributes to inactivation of multiple cell cycle-regulatory transcription factors (TFs) and the decreased expression of cell cycle-regulated genes. CN-dependent downregulation of G1/S genes is dependent upon Hog1 activation, whereas CN inactivates G2/M TFs through a combination of Hog1-dependent and -independent mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that CN and Hog1 act in a coordinated manner to inhibit multiple nodes of the cell cycle-regulatory network. Our results suggest that crosstalk between CN and stress-activated MAPKs helps cells tailor their adaptive responses to specific stressors.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008731, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302304

RESUMO

The number of adult myofibers in Drosophila is determined by the number of founder myoblasts selected from a myoblast pool, a process governed by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Here, we show that loss of cabeza (caz) function results in a reduced number of adult founder myoblasts, leading to a reduced number and misorientation of adult dorsal abdominal muscles. Genetic experiments revealed that loss of caz function in both adult myoblasts and neurons contributes to caz mutant muscle phenotypes. Selective overexpression of the FGF receptor Htl or the FGF receptor-specific signaling molecule Stumps in adult myoblasts partially rescued caz mutant muscle phenotypes, and Stumps levels were reduced in caz mutant founder myoblasts, indicating FGF pathway deregulation. In both adult myoblasts and neurons, caz mutant muscle phenotypes were mediated by increased expression levels of Xrp1, a DNA-binding protein involved in gene expression regulation. Xrp1-induced phenotypes were dependent on the DNA-binding capacity of its AT-hook motif, and increased Xrp1 levels in founder myoblasts reduced Stumps expression. Thus, control of Xrp1 expression by Caz is required for regulation of Stumps expression in founder myoblasts, resulting in correct founder myoblast selection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição TFIID/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Mioblastos/citologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição TFIID/genética
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