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1.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 10-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282366

RESUMO

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a hemorrhagic disease in swine and wild boars with a fatality rate close to 100%. Less virulent strains cause subchronic or chronic forms of the disease. The virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and an outbreak in Georgia in 2007 spread to Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia. In August 2018, there was an outbreak in China and in April 2019, ASFV was reported in Vietnam and Cambodia. Since no vaccine or treatment exists, a vaccine is needed to safeguard the swine industry. Previously, we evaluated immunogenicity of two adenovirus-vectored cocktails containing ASFV antigens and demonstrated induction of unprecedented robust antibody and T cell responses, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated protective efficacy of both cocktails by intranasal challenge of pigs with ASFV-Georgia 2007/1. A nine antigen cocktail-(I) formulated in BioMize adjuvant induced strong IgG responses, but when challenged, the vaccinees had more severe reaction relative to the controls. A seven antigen cocktail-(II) was evaluated using two adjuvants: BioMize and ZTS-01. The BioMize formulation induced stronger antibody responses, but 8/10 vaccinees and 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint at 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, the ZTS-01 formulation induced weaker antibody responses, but 4/9 pigs succumbed to the disease while the 5 survivors exhibited low clinical scores and no viremia at 17 days post-challenge, whereas 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint. Overall, none of the immunogens conferred statistically significant protection.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adenoviridae , Administração Intranasal , Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Suínos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Viremia , Virulência
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3020, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289263

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persistently infect humans, but how HCMV avoids humoral immunity is not clear. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) controls IgG transport from the mother to the fetus and prolongs IgG half-life. Here we show that US11 inhibits the assembly of FcRn with ß2m and retains FcRn in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consequently blocking FcRn trafficking to the endosome. Furthermore, US11 recruits the ubiquitin enzymes Derlin-1, TMEM129 and UbE2J2 to engage FcRn, consequently initiating the dislocation of FcRn from the ER to the cytosol and facilitating its degradation. Importantly, US11 inhibits IgG-FcRn binding, resulting in a reduction of IgG transcytosis across intestinal or placental epithelial cells and IgG degradation in endothelial cells. Hence, these results identify the mechanism by which HCMV infection exploits an ER-associated degradation pathway through US11 to disable FcRn functions. These results have implications for vaccine development and immune surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Humoral , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
4.
Arch Virol ; 164(9): 2285-2295, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250104

RESUMO

Examination of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) isolates from different geographic regions and times revealed that assays developed in our laboratory for differentiating between virulent Israeli viruses and Neethling vaccine virus (NVV) are generally useful in most, if not all, endemic areas in which NVV-based vaccines are used. Recently it was revealed that the LSDV126 gene of field isolates contains a duplicated region of 27 bp (9 aa), while the vaccine viruses have only one copy. Phylogenetic analysis of a 532-bp segment carrying the LSDV126 gene and whole virus genome sequences revealed that LSDV isolates formed two groups: virulent and vaccine viruses. In this analysis, all of the capripox viruses that lack the ability to efficiently infect cattle were found to carry only one copy of the 27-bp fragment, suggesting that the LSDV126 gene plays an important role in the ability of capripox viruses to infect cattle. In silico analysis of potential antigenic sites in LSDV126 revealed that LSDV126 variants with only one copy of the repeat lack a potentially important antigenic epitope, supporting its possible significance in cattle infection. This study provides new information about the nature of the LSDV126 gene and its possible role in the life cycle of LSDV.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Dosagem de Genes , Doença Nodular Cutânea/diagnóstico , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/química , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 113-117, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176396

RESUMO

Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes an acute febrile disease in cattle and water buffalo. The disease has an impact on dairy and beef production in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccination is used for disease prevention and control. In this study, we developed a recombinant lentivirus to produce mammalian stable cells expressing histidine-tagged BEFV G protein with a deleted transmembrane domain (GΔTM) as a secretory protein. In addition, guinea pigs were immunised with the purified GΔTM protein and booster immunised at a 3-week interval. The mammalian stable cells were able to continuously produce GΔTM protein for a minimum of 25 passages. All of the mammalian stable cells expressing GΔTM protein could react specifically with a BEFV convalescent bovine serum. Serum samples from the immunised guinea pigs could react strongly and specifically with the purified GΔTM protein. Moreover, post-immunised guinea pig sera contained antibodies that could neutralise BEFV. These results indicate that the G protein without a transmembrane domain can be used as a subunit vaccine for the prevention and control of BEFV. The availability of the mammalian stable cells, which constitutively express GΔTM protein, could facilitate the potential use of the secretory protein for BEFV diagnosis and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre Efêmera/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Febre Efêmera/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Efêmera Bovina , Feminino , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Transfecção , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
6.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 485(1): 126-128, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201631

RESUMO

We generated a novel human neutralizing human mAb RabD4 against rabies virus glycoprotein using in vitro stimulation of human peripheral B cells produced by immunized donor. The human mAb RabD4 showed a high antigen-binding activity and virus-neutralizing activity in the FAVN test with the CVS-11 rabies virus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Humanos
7.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(6-7): 867-872, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) expressing viral protein 1 (VP1) of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and evaluate its immunogenicity to be used as an oral vaccine in BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Recombinant L. lactis competent in secreting VP1 (~ 30 kDa) into the extracellular environment with the aid of the signal peptide Usp45 was produced. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that significant VP1-specific antibody response including the production of both serum IgG and fecal IgA (p < 0.05) was elicited in BALB/c mice upon oral immunization with recombinant L. lactis. Moreover, in contrast to negative control, recombinant L. lactis induced adequate neutralizing antibodies in mouse sera (p < 0.05) as demonstrated in virus neutralization assay, whereas the presence of neutralizing antibodies in fecal samples was obvious but not significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant L. lactis expressing VP1 of EV71 has the potential to be used as an oral vaccine candidate. The findings may provide some preliminary evidences for further development of effective and needle-free EV71 vaccines.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Fezes/química , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 7): 192, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Iridoviridae family is categorized into five genera and clustered into two subfamilies: Alphairidovirinae includes Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus (GIV), and Megalocystivirus (TGIV), which infect vertebrate hosts and Betairidovirinae includes Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, which infect invertebrate hosts. Clustered Iridoviridae subfamilies possess host-specific characteristics, which can be considered as exclusive features for in-silico prediction of effective epitopes for vaccine development. A voting mechanism-based linear epitope (LE) prediction system was applied to identify and endorse LE candidates with a minimum length requirement for each clustered subfamily RESULTS: The experimental results showed that four conserved epitopes among the Iridovirideae family, one exclusive epitope for invertebrate subfamily and two exclusive epitopes for vertebrate family were predicted. These predicted LE candidates were further validated by ELISA assays for evaluating the strength of antigenicity and cross antigenicity. The conserved LEs for Iridoviridae family reflected high antigenicity responses for the two subfamilies, while exclusive LEs reflected high antigenicity responses only for the host-specific subfamily CONCLUSIONS: Host-specific characteristics are important features and constraints for effective epitope prediction. Our proposed voting mechanism based system provides a novel approach for in silico LE prediction prior to vaccine development, and it is especially powerful for analyzing antigen sequences with exclusive features between two clustered groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Invertebrados/imunologia , Iridoviridae/imunologia , Vertebrados/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Invertebrados/virologia , Iridoviridae/classificação , Iridoviridae/genética , Vertebrados/virologia
9.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 208-214, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980881

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida (PM) causes a varity of clinical manifestation in domestic animals, even acute death. Vaccination is among effective strategy to prevent and control PM-related diseases. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes, which sustain subtle antigenic comformation in bacterial outer-membrane and exhibit higher efficacy compared to inactivated vaccines. Here, a BG vaccine generated from the porcine PM reference strain CVCC446 (serotype B:2) was prepared upon lysis by E protein of bacteriophage PhiX174, and the safety and immunogenicity were evaluated its in a mouse model. Lysis rate was in 99.99% and the BG vaccine was completely inactivated by addition of freeze-dry procedure. Mice were immunized subcutaneously twice in 2-week intervals with BGs, or BGs plus adjuvant, or formalin-inactivated PM or an adjuvant control. Mice inoculated twice with BGs vaccines generated higher titer of antibodies, interleukin 4 and gamma interferon than those in the inactivated vaccine group or adjuvant placebo group (P < 0.05). CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte levels in spleen were higher in both BG groups than inactivated vaccine group or adjuvant group. Mice administered with the BGs plus adjuvant were completely protected against intraperitoneal challenge with 10 × LD50 dose of virulent isolate and exhibited decreased tissue lesion and lower bacterial loads, which was superior to the inactivated vaccine. The results demonstrated safety of the BG vaccine and primary immunogenicity in a mouse model, suggesting a potential of further evaluation in a pig model and vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/imunologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/prevenção & controle , Pasteurella multocida/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Carga Bacteriana , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunização , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos , Baço/imunologia , Suínos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 12-19, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015064

RESUMO

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the main viral pathogen that endangers grass carp seriously. Application of vaccine has been considered to be the most effective way to prevent virus infection. VP56 is a protein encoded by gene segment 7 of grass carp reovirus, and is predicted to share homology with fiber protein of mammalian reovirus (MRV). In our study, the immunogenicity of VP56 was evaluated by neutralization test. GCRV was incubated with mouse anti-VP56 antibody, and then was injected into grass carp. Results showed that disease progress and death occurrence was hindered in the experimental group compared with the control group. For further study, the recombinant VP56 protein (rVP56) expressed by pET-32a (+) vector was purified, and was used as subunit vaccine to immunize grass carp. After each fish (15 ± 1.5 g) was injected with 30 µg purified rVP56 intraperitoneally, the immune protective efficacy of recombinant VP56 protein was assessed by a series of immune parameters. The population of red blood cells in immunized fish increased significantly after 5 d post injection (dpi), and reached a peak with (2.98 ± 0.17) × 109/ml at 7 dpi (p < 0.05). The numbers of white blood cells peaked with (8.42 ±â€¯1.01) × 107/ml at 7 dpi (p < 0.05). Additionally, the percentage of monocytes and neutrophils rose to a peak with (9.05 ±â€¯0.92)% and (25.93 ±â€¯2.60)% respectively at 5 dpi (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), whereas lymphocytes reached the highest value of (85.81 ±â€¯2.73) % at 14 dpi (p < 0.01). Serum antibody titer in the vaccinated fish increased significantly and reached a peak at 21 dpi (p < 0.01). The mRNA expression levels of type I interferon (IFN1), major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I), Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) were significantly up-regulated in head kidney and spleen (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). The GCRV challenge test showed that the relative survival rate in immunized group was 71%-75%. Collectively, the results indicated that rVP56 protein can induce immune protection in grass carp, and can be consider as a candidate vaccine against GCRV infection.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Reoviridae/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Distribuição Aleatória , Infecções por Reoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
11.
mSphere ; 4(2)2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019002

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe respiratory disease in (premature) newborns and causes respiratory illness in the elderly. Different monoclonal antibody (MAb) and vaccine candidates are in development worldwide and will hopefully become available within the near future. To implement such RSV vaccines, adequate decisions about immunization schedules and the different target group(s) need to be made, for which the assessment of antibody levels against RSV is essential. To survey RSV antigen-specific antibody levels, we developed a serological multiplex immunoassay (MIA) that determines and distinguishes antibodies against the five RSV glycoproteins postfusion F, prefusion F, Ga, Gb, and N simultaneously. The standardized RSV pentaplex MIA is sensitive, highly reproducible, and specific for the five RSV proteins. The preservation of the conformational structure of the immunodominant site Ø of prefusion F after conjugation to the beads has been confirmed. Importantly, good correlation is obtained between the microneutralization test and the MIA for all five proteins, resulting in an arbitrarily chosen cutoff value of prefusion F antibody levels for seropositivity in the microneutralization assay. The wide dynamic range requiring only two serum sample dilutions makes the RSV-MIA a high-throughput assay very suitable for (large-scale) serosurveillance and vaccine clinical studies.IMPORTANCE In view of vaccine and monoclonal development to reduce hospitalization and death due to lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV, assessment of antibody levels against RSV is essential. This newly developed multiplex immunoassay is able to measure antibody levels against five RSV proteins simultaneously. This can provide valuable insight into the dynamics of (maternal) antibody levels and RSV infection in infants and toddlers during the first few years of life, when primary RSV infection occurs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoensaio/normas , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Virus Res ; 266: 25-33, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959069

RESUMO

African swine fever virus causes a haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boar. The continuing spread in Africa, Europe and Asia threatens the global pig industry. The lack of a vaccine limits disease control. To underpin rational strategies for vaccine development improved knowledge is needed of how the virus interacts with and modulates the host's responses to infection. The virus long double-stranded DNA genome codes for more than 160 proteins of which many are non-essential for replication in cells but can have important roles in evading the host's defences. Here we review knowledge of the pathways targeted by ASFV and the mechanisms by which these are inhibited. The impact of deleting single or multiple ASFV genes on virus replication in cells and infection in pigs is summarised providing information on strategies for rational development of modified live vaccines.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Apoptose , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Replicação Viral
14.
MBio ; 10(2)2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967460

RESUMO

The effectiveness of influenza vaccines against circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was modest for several seasons despite the absence of antigenic drift of hemagglutinin (HA), the primary vaccine component. Since antibodies against HA and neuraminidase (NA) contribute independently to protection against disease, antigenic changes in NA may allow A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses to escape from vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, analysis of the specificities of human NA-specific monoclonal antibodies identified antigenic sites that have changed over time. The impact of these differences on in vitro inhibition of enzyme activity was not evident for polyclonal antisera until viruses emerged in 2013 without a predicted glycosylation site at amino acid 386 in NA. Phylogenetic and antigenic cartography demonstrated significant antigenic changes that in most cases aligned with genetic differences. Typical of NA drift, the antigenic difference is observed in one direction, with antibodies against conserved antigenic domains in A/California/7/2009 (CA/09) continuing to inhibit NA of recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses reasonably well. However, ferret CA/09-specific antiserum that inhibited the NA of A/Michigan/45/2015 (MI/15) very well in vitro, protected mice against lethal MI/15 infection poorly. These data show that antiserum against the homologous antigen is most effective and suggest the antigenic properties of NA should not be overlooked when selecting viruses for vaccine production.IMPORTANCE The effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines against circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses has been modest in recent years, despite the absence of antigenic drift of HA, the primary vaccine component. Human monoclonal antibodies identified antigenic sites in NA that changed early after the new pandemic virus emerged. The reactivity of ferret antisera demonstrated antigenic drift of A(H1N1)pdm09 NA from 2013 onward. Passive transfer of serum raised against A/California/7/2009 was less effective than ferret serum against the homologous virus in protecting mice against a virus with the NA of more recent virus, A/Michigan/45/2015. Given the long-standing observation that NA-inhibiting antibodies are associated with resistance against disease in humans, these data demonstrate the importance of evaluating NA drift and suggest that vaccine effectiveness might be improved by selecting viruses for vaccine production that have NAs antigenically similar to those of circulating influenza viruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Deriva Genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furões , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunização Passiva , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Camundongos , Neuraminidase/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Virais/genética
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 516-524, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986537

RESUMO

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) leads to serious disease and economic losses in the salmonid aquaculture industry. The present study aimed to develop an effective and efficient vaccine to protect rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against IHNV infection. Administered via the immersion route, a live vector vaccine containing the regions of the IHNV glycoprotein (G) induced immune responses in rainbow trout. Use of the immersion route induced more-efficient mucosal immunity than intramuscular injection vaccination. IHNV G gene expression was detected in the spleens of rainbow trout at 3, 7 and 15 days post-vaccination (dpv). The G gene expression continuously decreased between 3 and 15 dpv. In addition, the expression of TLR-3, TLR-7 and TLR-8 was upregulated after vaccination, and the highest expression levels of IFN-1, Mx-1, Mx-3, Vig-1 and Vig-2 were observed at 3 dpv. Four markers of the adaptive immune response (CD4, CD8, IgM and IgT) gradually increased. When experimental fish were challenged with IHNV by immersion, significant differences in cumulative percentage mortality were observed in the vaccinated fish and the unvaccinated (empty-plasmid-vaccinated) fish. The relative survival rate was 92% and 6% in the vaccinated group and empty-plasmid group, respectively. Serum antibody levels gradually increased in the vaccinated fish, unlike in the unvaccinated fish, after 7 dpv. Our results suggest there was a significant increase in fish immune responses and resistance to infection with IHNV following administration of the live vector vaccine. Therefore, this live vector vaccine is a promising vaccine that may be utilized to protect rainbow trout against IHNV.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/prevenção & controle , Baço/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
16.
Acta Virol ; 63(1): 53-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879313

RESUMO

The avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) is a replication-defective nonpathogenic virus that has been proved to be useful as a viral vector in gene delivery. In this study, the feasibility of AAAV for transgenic expression of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) VP3 structural protein and its ability to induce protective immunity in ducklings was assessed. The recombinant AAAV (rAAAV-VP3) expressing the VP3 protein was prepared by co-infection of Sf9 cells with recombinant baculovirus (rBac-VP3) containing VP3 gene flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of AAAV and the other two recombinant baculovirus expressing AAAV functional and structural genes, respectively. The generation of rAAAV-VP3 was demonstrated by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, and western blot analysis. One day old ducklings were inoculated with rAAAV-VP3 or commercial attenuated vaccine and then challenged with DHAV-1 strain SH two weeks post vaccination. Anti-DHAV-1 antibodies were detected in all vaccinated groups by ELISA, and the titers between the rAAAV-VP3 group and the attenuated vaccine group were not statistically significant. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed that the virus copy numbers in the livers of the PBS control group were significantly higher than that of the rAAAV-VP3 and attenuated vaccine groups. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the VP3 expression mediated by rAAAV in ducklings could induce protective immunity against DHAV challenge, and this could be a candidate vaccine for the control of duck viral hepatitis. Keywords: avian adeno-associated virus; duck hepatitis A virus; VP3 gene; immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Parvovirinae , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Patos , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/genética , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/imunologia , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/imunologia , Parvovirinae/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
17.
Postepy Biochem ; 65(1): 72-86, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901185

RESUMO

The effector proteins employ common as well as pathogen-specific strategies to disturb plant immunity and to promote pathogen survival and favor their multiplication. However, in some cases, pathogen effectors are recognized by plant intracellular immune receptors NB-LRR/NLR that identify effector proteins, either directly by physical interaction or indirectly through monitoring of host proteins modification. NB-LRR immune receptors are characterized by the central nucleotide binding domain NB-ARC, C-terminal Leucine-Rich Repeats (LRRs) domain, and N-terminal TIR, CC or CCR domain. Immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defence gene expression, while the detection of pathogen effectors by membrane- or cytoplasm-localized immune receptors NB-LRR activate calcium-mediated signaling, ion flow, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, oxidative burst, biosynthesis of plant defence hormones and antimicrobial compounds, as well, far-reaching transcriptional reprogramming. Effector-triggered immunity normally culminates in programmed cell death called hypersensitive response (HR).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Plantas/imunologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/virologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
18.
J Biol Chem ; 294(13): 5228-5229, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926761

RESUMO

Poxviruses have evolved efficient proteins that bind mammalian cytokines and chemokines to suppress host immunity. Here Pontejo et al. examine in detail how one such poxviral protein, CrmD, that has activity against both mammalian tumor necrosis factor and chemokines, interacts with its host targets. They apply their findings to refine a human anti-cytokine therapeutic and increase its specificity, providing an elegant example of the benefits of mining viral proteins for therapeutically useful information.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Poxviridae/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Citocinas/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Poxviridae/química , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/química
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 404-412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898033

RESUMO

Haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titres are a correlate of protection for influenza virus infection, but several studies have also demonstrated the protective role of anti-neuraminidase (anti-NA) antibodies. However, there is limited data on anti-NA antibody responses in naturally occurring human influenza. We investigated anti-NA antibody responses to pandemic N1 and seasonal N1 in 18 RT-PCR-confirmed patients with naturally acquired pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 disease detected as part of a prospective community study of influenza. There were increases in neuraminidase inhibition (NAI) antibody titres to both pandemic and seasonal N1 antigens, with greater fold increases in those who had low levels of anti-pandemic N1 titres in acute sera. Of 18 patients with pandemic H1N1 infection, fourfold increases in antibody were observed by HAI in 11 (61%) patients, by anti-pandemic N1 inhibition in 13 (72%) or either in 15 of them (83%). Prior seasonal H1N1 virus infections had elicited cross-reactive anti-pandemic N1 antibody titres in some people prior to the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. Antibody responses to the anti-N1 pandemic 2009 virus and cross-reactive responses to anti-seasonal N1 antibody were seen in influenza A pandemic 2009 infections. NAI antibodies can complement HAI antibody in sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiology.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Soro/imunologia
20.
Virus Res ; 265: 150-155, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922809

RESUMO

An outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007 initiated the spread of ASFV through Russia and Eastern Europe, subsequently affecting Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, the Baltic States, the Czech Republic, Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria. The declaration of outbreaks in China and Central Europe in August 2018, definitely confirms the serious threat that the extension of ASF represents for the global swine industry and the environment. Despite the efforts of several groups to generate a vaccine against ASFV, currently only control and eradication measures are available based mainly on the early detection and implementation of strict sanitary procedures, including the mass slaughter of animals, both domestic and wild boar. However, the rapid spread of the disease shows that these actions are clearly insufficient to control the current pandemic situation, and the development of a vaccine is urgently required.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , China , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Federação Russa , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
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