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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4323, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859895

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is defined by four molecular subgroups (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, Group 4) with Wnt MB having the most favorable prognosis. Since prior reports have illustrated the antitumorigenic role of Wnt activation in Shh MB, we aimed to assess the effects of activated canonical Wnt signaling in Group 3 and 4 MBs. By using primary patient-derived MB brain tumor-initiating cell (BTIC) lines, we characterize differences in the tumor-initiating capacity of Wnt, Group 3, and Group 4 MB. With single cell RNA-seq technology, we demonstrate the presence of rare Wnt-active cells in non-Wnt MBs, which functionally retain the impaired tumorigenic potential of Wnt MB. In treating MB xenografts with a Wnt agonist, we provide a rational therapeutic option in which the protective effects of Wnt-driven MBs may be augmented in Group 3 and 4 MB and thereby support emerging data for a context-dependent tumor suppressive role for Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Proteínas Wnt/farmacologia , Proteínas Wnt/uso terapêutico , Animais , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/genética , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/uso terapêutico
2.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008792, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579612

RESUMO

While rare pathogenic copy-number variants (CNVs) are associated with both neuronal and non-neuronal phenotypes, functional studies evaluating these regions have focused on the molecular basis of neuronal defects. We report a systematic functional analysis of non-neuronal defects for homologs of 59 genes within ten pathogenic CNVs and 20 neurodevelopmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Using wing-specific knockdown of 136 RNA interference lines, we identified qualitative and quantitative phenotypes in 72/79 homologs, including 21 lines with severe wing defects and six lines with lethality. In fact, we found that 10/31 homologs of CNV genes also showed complete or partial lethality at larval or pupal stages with ubiquitous knockdown. Comparisons between eye and wing-specific knockdown of 37/45 homologs showed both neuronal and non-neuronal defects, but with no correlation in the severity of defects. We further observed disruptions in cell proliferation and apoptosis in larval wing discs for 23/27 homologs, and altered Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch signaling for 9/14 homologs, including AATF/Aatf, PPP4C/Pp4-19C, and KIF11/Klp61F. These findings were further supported by tissue-specific differences in expression patterns of human CNV genes, as well as connectivity of CNV genes to signaling pathway genes in brain, heart and kidney-specific networks. Our findings suggest that multiple genes within each CNV differentially affect both global and tissue-specific developmental processes within conserved pathways, and that their roles are not restricted to neuronal functions.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Animais , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/embriologia , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Receptores Notch/genética , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Asas de Animais/embriologia , Asas de Animais/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 754: 144892, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534060

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide. Recently, uncontrolled expression of microRNAs was detected in several human disorders like cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal and autoimmunity diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now investigated as novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for several solid tumors like breast, lung, and gastrointestinal cancers. Current data suggest that miRNAs are implicated in various oncogenic processes implicated in breast cancer carcinogenesis trough modulating canonical Wnt pathway. Aberrant activation of Wnt/b-catenin signaling was shown to be significantly associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. This review presents recent findings on the molecular mechanism of microRNAs in regulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling involved in tumorigenesis of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12182-12191, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414917

RESUMO

In multicellular organisms, paralogs from gene duplication survive purifying selection by evolving tissue-specific expression and function. Whether this genetic redundancy is also selected for within a single cell type is unclear for multimember paralogs, as exemplified by the four obligatory Lef/Tcf transcription factors of canonical Wnt signaling, mainly due to the complex genetics involved. Using the developing mouse lung as a model system, we generate two quadruple conditional knockouts, four triple mutants, and various combinations of double mutants, showing that the four Lef/Tcf genes function redundantly in the presence of at least two Lef/Tcf paralogs, but additively upon losing additional paralogs to specify and maintain lung epithelial progenitors. Prelung-specification, pan-epithelial double knockouts have no lung phenotype; triple knockouts have varying phenotypes, including defective branching and tracheoesophageal fistulas; and the quadruple knockout barely forms a lung, resembling the Ctnnb1 mutant. Postlung-specification deletion of all four Lef/Tcf genes leads to branching defects, down-regulation of progenitor genes, premature alveolar differentiation, and derepression of gastrointestinal genes, again phenocopying the corresponding Ctnnb1 mutant. Our study supports a monotonic, positive signaling relationship between CTNNB1 and Lef/Tcf in lung epithelial progenitors as opposed to reported repressor functions of Lef/Tcf, and represents a thorough in vivo analysis of cell-type-specific genetic redundancy among the four Lef/Tcf paralogs.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Pulmão/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Facilitador Linfoide/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Feminino , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/fisiologia , Pulmão/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Célula Única , Células-Tronco/citologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/fisiologia , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/fisiologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008767, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357156

RESUMO

Despite the importance of dendritic targeting in neural circuit assembly, the mechanisms by which it is controlled still remain incompletely understood. We previously showed that in the developing Drosophila antennal lobe, the Wnt5 protein forms a gradient that directs the ~45˚ rotation of a cluster of projection neuron (PN) dendrites, including the adjacent DA1 and VA1d dendrites. We report here that the Van Gogh (Vang) transmembrane planar cell polarity (PCP) protein is required for the rotation of the DA1/VA1d dendritic pair. Cell type-specific rescue and mosaic analyses showed that Vang functions in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), suggesting a codependence of ORN axonal and PN dendritic targeting. Loss of Vang suppressed the repulsion of the VA1d dendrites by Wnt5, indicating that Wnt5 signals through Vang to direct the rotation of the DA1 and VA1d glomeruli. We observed that the Derailed (Drl)/Ryk atypical receptor tyrosine kinase is also required for the rotation of the DA1/VA1d dendritic pair. Antibody staining showed that Drl/Ryk is much more highly expressed by the DA1 dendrites than the adjacent VA1d dendrites. Mosaic and epistatic analyses showed that Drl/Ryk specifically functions in the DA1 dendrites in which it antagonizes the Wnt5-Vang repulsion and mediates the migration of the DA1 glomerulus towards Wnt5. Thus, the nascent DA1 and VA1d glomeruli appear to exhibit Drl/Ryk-dependent biphasic responses to Wnt5. Our work shows that the final patterning of the fly olfactory map is the result of an interplay between ORN axons and PN dendrites, wherein converging pre- and postsynaptic processes contribute key Wnt5 signaling components, allowing Wnt5 to orient the rotation of nascent synapses through a PCP mechanism.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dendritos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo , Padronização Corporal , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/genética
6.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 810-818, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274658

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) exert pivotal effects on regulating the progression of osteosarcoma (OS). It was found through microarray analysis that circ-0002052 is abnormally expressed in OS, but the role of circ-0002052 in OS remains obscure. The results of this research manifested that relative to that in non-tumor controls, circ-0002052 level was raised in OS tissues. Up-regulated circ-0002052 was associated with advanced stage, tumor size, and metastasis. Additionally, circ-0002052 elevation indicated a low survival rate in OS patients and silencing of circ-0002052 suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. It was proved that circ-0002052 sponged miR-382 and stimulated STX6 expression, thus activating Wnt/ß-catenin. The function of circ-0002052 reduction in OS cells was effectively reversed by miR-382 suppression. To sum up, it can be concluded that circ-0002052, functioning as a sponge for miR-382, enhances the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin mediated by STX6 to stimulate the progression of OS, and circ-0002052 may be an underlying treatment target and a biomarker for prognosis of osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/genética , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , RNA Circular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/terapia , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 320: 109022, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112862

RESUMO

Epithelial mesenchymal transformation plays a crucial role in the metastasis of bladder cancer, which makes bladder cancer difficult to cure. Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system, and distant metastasis is the leading cause of death. Therefore, finding a bioactive drug that can specifically inhibit epithelial mesenchymal transformation may be a new direction for bladder cancer treatment in the future. Thymoquinone (TQ), the major active compound isolated from black seed oil (Nigella sativa), has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer abilities. TQ can exhibit its antitumor effect by inhibiting the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of TQ as a tumor inhibitor in bladder cancer remains poorly understood. First, in this research, we demonstrate that TQ can reverse EMT by upregulating epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, and downregulating mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin and vimentin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TQ can suppress the activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and inhibit the expression of ß-catenin target genes, such as MYC, Axin-2, MMP7, CyclinD1 and MET, which play crucial roles in EMT and cancer progression. Additionally, we demonstrate that TQ can inhibit the growth of xenografts and restrict the formation of tumor metastatic foci in the lung. Taken together, our findings confirm the antimetastatic effect of TQ in bladder cancer cells for the first time and also provide new evidence for the development of TQ as a novel treatment for metastatic bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Migração Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
8.
Am J Pathol ; 190(3): 602-613, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113662

RESUMO

Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) is a recently identified ubiquitin ligase of nuclear ß-catenin and a suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in cell culture and mouse tumor xenografts. We hypothesized that reduction in c-Cbl in colonic epithelium is likely to increase the levels of nuclear ß-catenin in the intestinal crypt, augmenting CRC tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APCΔ14/+) mouse model. Haploinsufficient c-Cbl mice (APCΔ14/+ c-Cbl+/-) displayed a significant (threefold) increase in atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinomas in the small and large intestines; however, no differences were noted in the adenoma frequency. In contrast to the APCΔ14/+ c-Cbl+/+ mice, APCΔ14/+ c-Cbl+/- crypts showed nuclear ß-catenin throughout the length of the crypts and up-regulation of Axin2, a canonical Wnt target gene, and SRY-box transcription factor 9, a marker of intestinal stem cells. In contrast, haploinsufficiency of c-Cbl+/- alone was insufficient to induce tumorigenesis regardless of an increase in the number of intestinal epithelial cells with nuclear ß-catenin and SRY-box transcription factor 9 in APC+/+ c-Cbl+/- mice. This study demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of c-Cbl results in Wnt hyperactivation in intestinal crypts and accelerates CRC progression to adenocarcinoma in the milieu of APCΔ14/+, a phenomenon not found with wild-type APC. While emphasizing the role of APC as a gatekeeper in CRC, this study also demonstrates that combined partial loss of c-Cbl and inactivation of APC significantly contribute to CRC tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Linfoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000647, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163403

RESUMO

Dendrite microtubules are polarized with minus-end-out orientation in Drosophila neurons. Nucleation sites concentrate at dendrite branch points, but how they localize is not known. Using Drosophila, we found that canonical Wnt signaling proteins regulate localization of the core nucleation protein γTubulin (γTub). Reduction of frizzleds (fz), arrow (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP] 5/6), dishevelled (dsh), casein kinase Iγ, G proteins, and Axin reduced γTub-green fluorescent protein (GFP) at branch points, and two functional readouts of dendritic nucleation confirmed a role for Wnt signaling proteins. Both dsh and Axin localized to branch points, with dsh upstream of Axin. Moreover, tethering Axin to mitochondria was sufficient to recruit ectopic γTub-GFP and increase microtubule dynamics in dendrites. At dendrite branch points, Axin and dsh colocalized with early endosomal marker Rab5, and new microtubule growth initiated at puncta marked with fz, dsh, Axin, and Rab5. We propose that in dendrites, canonical Wnt signaling proteins are housed on early endosomes and recruit nucleation sites to branch points.


Assuntos
Dendritos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Animais , Complexo de Sinalização da Axina/genética , Complexo de Sinalização da Axina/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Dendritos/genética , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Endossomos/genética , Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação , Receptores Wnt/genética , Receptores Wnt/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Proteínas rab5 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab5 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
10.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 32, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTEC) were thought to be the origin of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). Knowledge of the stemness or initiating characteristics of FTEC is insufficient. Previously, we have characterized the stemness cell marker of FTEC, this study aims to further characterize the clonogenicity and spheroid features of FTEC. METHODS: We successfully derived FTECs from the epithelial layer of the human fallopian tubes. We examined the morphology, proliferation rate, doubling time, and clonal growth of them. At passage 3, the sphere formations on gelatin-coated culture, suspension culture, and matrigel culture were observed, and the expression of LGR5, SSEA3, SSEA4, and other stemness markers was examined. Furthermore, tissue-reconstituted organoids from coculture of FTEC, fallopian stromal cells (FTMSC) and endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined. RESULTS: FTEC exhibited cuboidal cell morphology and maintained at a constant proliferation rate for up to nine passages (P9). FTEC could proliferate from a single cell with a clonogenic efficiency of 4%. Flow cytometry revealed expressions of normal stem cell markers (SSEA3, SSEA4, and LGR5) and cancer stem cell markers (CD24, CD44, CD117, ROR1, and CD133). FTEC formed spheres and colonies when cultured on low attach dish. In the presence of Matrigel, the stemness and colony formation activity were much enhanced. In co-culturing with FTMSC and HUVEC, FTEC could form organoids that could be blocked by Wnt inhibitor DKK1. Expressions of LGR5 and FOXJ1 expression were also decreased by adding DKK1. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated abundantly presence of stem cells in human FTECs which are efficient in forming colonies, spheres and organoids, relying on Wnt signaling. We also reported for the first time the generation of organoid from reconstitutied cell lineages in the tissue. This may provide a new model for studying the regneration and malignant transformation of the tubal epithelium.


Assuntos
Autorrenovação Celular/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Tubas Uterinas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Organoides/fisiologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
11.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(3): 765-770, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is a rare disorder characterized by aberrant overgrowth of terminal bronchioles. The objective of this study was to describe wingless-type MMTV integration site family 7B (Wnt7B) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression patterns in human CPAM lesions and to explore the possible roles of Wnt7B and BMP4 in the pathogenesis of CPAM. METHODS: Fifteen tissue samples from patients with CPAM were obtained from the Pathology Department of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. Samples representing CPAM lesions and adjacent normal lung tissues were collected and Wnt7B and BMP4 expression was detected through immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. RESULTS: IHC revealed that Wnt7B immunopositive cells were only detected in epithelial cells, whereas BMP4 immunopositive cells were detected in epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Expression of Wnt7B and BMP4 immunopositive cells was higher in CPAM lesions than that in adjacent normal lung tissue. qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that Wnt7B and BMP4 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in CPAM lesions than in adjacent normal lung tissue (P < .05). Overall, the level of BMP4 was higher than that of Wnt7B. CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of Wnt7B and BMP4 appear to be related to the pathogenesis of CPAM and abnormal pulmonary development. Upregulation of Wnt7B and BMP4 could play an important role in the development of the bronchial-alveolar structures that characterize CPAM.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Malformação Adenomatoide Cística Congênita do Pulmão/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Malformação Adenomatoide Cística Congênita do Pulmão/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 110: 104604, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the association between genetic variants in WNT3A and WNT11, and palatal rugae phenotypes. DESIGN: Eighty-five biological unrelated orthodontic patients were included. Dental casts were assessed and data regarding the length, shape, direction and unification of rugae were recorded. The individuals were subsequently classified for each of the following rugae traits: total amount of rugae; bilateral symmetry in the amount, length and shape of the rugae; presence of secondary or fragmentary rugae; presence of unifications; predominant shape; and, direction of the rugae. Genetic variants in WNT3A (rs708111) and WNT11 (rs1533767) were genotyped by real-time PCR. Genotype and allele distributions were compared with an established alpha of 5 %. RESULTS: The wavy and curve rugae were the most common. Genotype/phenotype analyses identified that the presence of the rs708111 A allele (OR = 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.1-4.4, p = 0.01) and the rs1533767 G allele (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.0-5.3, p = 0.05) increased in more than two times the chance of having bilateral asymmetry in the amount of the rugae. In the recessive model, individuals carrying two risk alleles (AA) of WNT3A rs708111 had a higher risk of presenting this phenotype. SNP-SNP interaction analysis revealed that individuals carrying one rs708111 A allele and rs1533767 G allele showed even a higher chance of having bilateral asymmetry in the amount of rugae (OR = 5.6, 95 % CI: 1.1-28.8, p = 0.03). No associations were identified for other rugae phenotype (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants in WNT3A and WNT11 were associated with the left-right asymmetry in the amount of palatal rugae.


Assuntos
Palato Duro , Proteínas Wnt , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Proteína Wnt3A/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal , Palato Duro/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
13.
Mol Pharmacol ; 97(2): 72-89, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787618

RESUMO

Wnts are secreted proteins that bind to cell surface receptors to activate downstream signaling cascades. Normal Wnt signaling plays key roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. The secretion of Wnt ligands, the turnover of Wnt receptors, and the signaling transduction are tightly regulated and fine-tuned to keep the signaling output "just right." Hyperactivated Wnt signaling due to recurrent genetic alterations drives several human cancers. Elevated Wnt signaling also confers resistance to multiple conventional and targeted cancer therapies through diverse mechanisms including maintaining the cancer stem cell population, enhancing DNA damage repair, facilitating transcriptional plasticity, and promoting immune evasion. Different classes of Wnt signaling inhibitors targeting key nodes of the pathway have been developed and show efficacy in treating Wnt-driven cancers and subverting Wnt-mediated therapy resistance in preclinical studies. Several of these inhibitors have advanced to clinical trials, both singly and in combination with other existing US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-cancer modalities. In the near future, pharmacological inhibition of Wnt signaling may be a real choice for patients with cancer. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The latest insights in Wnt signaling, ranging from basic biology to therapeutic implications in cancer, are reviewed. Recent studies extend understanding of this ancient signaling pathway and describe the development and improvement of anti-Wnt therapeutic modalities for cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/genética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligantes , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 318(1): C48-C62, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618077

RESUMO

We recently published that type 2 diabetes promotes cell centrosome amplification via upregulation of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and 14-3-3 protein-σ (14-3-3σ). This study further investigates the molecular mechanisms underlying diabetes-associated centrosome amplification. We found that treatment of cells with high glucose, insulin, and palmitic acid levels increased the intracellular and extracellular protein levels of Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 6 (Wnt6) as well as the cellular level of ß-catenin. The treatment also activated ß-catenin and promoted its nuclear translocation. Treatment of cells with siRNA species for Wnt6, Frizzled-4 (FZD4), or ß-catenin as well as introduction of antibodies against Wnt6 or FZD4 to the cell culture medium could all attenuate the treatment-triggered centrosome amplification. Moreover, we showed that secreted Wnt6-FZD4-ß-catenin was the signaling pathway that was upstream of ROCK1 and 14-3-3σ. We found that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were also able to increase the cellular and extracellular levels of Wnt6, the cellular protein level of ß-catenin, and centrosome amplification. Treatment of the cells with siRNA species for Wnt6 or FZD4 as well as introduction of antibodies against Wnt6 or FZD4 to the cell culture could all inhibit the AGEs-elicited centrosome amplification. In colon tissues from a diabetic mouse model, the protein levels of Wnt6 and 14-3-3σ were increased. In conclusion, our results showed that the pathophysiological factors in type 2 diabetes, including AGEs, were able to induce centrosome amplification. It is suggested that secreted Wnt6 binds to FZD4 to activate the canonical Wnt6 signaling pathway, which is upstream of ROCK1 and 14-3-3σ, and that this is the cell signaling pathway underlying diabetes-associated centrosome amplification.


Assuntos
Centrossomo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Centrossomo/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Receptores Frizzled/genética , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 241: 117147, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830480

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Peruvoside and mechanism of action in human cancers. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and the cell cycle arrest was identified by FACS. Real-time qPCR and western blotting studies were performed to identify important gene and protein expressions in the different pathways leading to apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was performed to understand protein localization and molecular docking studies were performed to identify protein-ligand interactions. KEY FINDINGS: Peruvoside showed significant anti-proliferative activities against human breast, lung, and liver cancer cells in dose-dependent manner. The anti-cancer mechanism was further confirmed by DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Dysregulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling with Peruvoside treatment resulted in inhibition of cyclin D1 and c-Myc also observed in this study. Furthermore, we identified that Peruvoside can inhibit autophagy by PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and through downregulating MEK1. Moreover, Peruvoside has the ability to modulate the expressions of key proteins from the cell cycle, MAPK, NF-kB, and JAK-STAT signaling. In silico studies revealed that Peruvoside has the ability to interact with crucial proteins from different biochemical signaling pathways. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that Peruvoside has the ability to inhibit cancer cell proliferation by modulating the expression of various key proteins involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. Clinical data generated from the present study might provide a novel impetus for targeting several human cancers. Conclusively, our findings suggest that the Peruvoside possesses a broad spectrum of anticancer activity in breast, lung, and liver cancers, which provides an impetus for further investigation of the anticancer potentiality of this biomolecule.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia , Cardenolídeos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
16.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1689-1699, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298420

RESUMO

Activated hepatic stellate cells promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. Hepatic stellate cells play a key role in retinoid metabolism, and activation of stellate cells increases retinoic acid (RA) in the liver. However, the role of RA in HCC proliferation remains unclear. We aimed to analyse the mechanism of RA in HCC proliferation. Thirty-eight patients who had undergone hepatic resection for HCCs were recruited. Paired non-tumour tissues, adjacent and distal to HCCs, were collected, and the RA levels in the tissues were analysed. The mechanisms of RA and HCC proliferation were assessed in liver cancer cell lines by protein and gene expression analyses. Early recurrence of HCC was significantly higher in patients with a higher RA concentration than in those with a lower RA concentration in tissues adjacent to HCCs (61.1% vs. 20%, p = .010). RA promoted HCC cell proliferation and activated the expression of Amphiregulin, a growth factor in hepatocarcinogenesis. The promoter of Amphiregulin contained the binding sites of the RA receptor, RXRα. Wnt signalling also activated the expression of Amphiregulin, and the RA and Wnt pathways acted synergistically to increase the expression of Amphiregulin. Furthermore, RXRα interacted with ß-catenin and then translocated to the nucleus to activate Amphiregulin. An increased RA concentration in the tissues adjacent to the tumour was associated with an early recurrence of HCC. RA activated the expression of Amphiregulin, and then promoted HCC proliferation, which might partly contribute to early recurrence of HCC after hepatic resection.


Assuntos
Anfirregulina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Anfirregulina/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/genética , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
17.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 245-253, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222747

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive cardiac response to overload whose decompensation eventually leads to heart failure or sudden death. Recently, accumulating studies have indicated the implication of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in CH progression. MAGI1-IT1 is a newly-identified lncRNA that is highly associated with CH, while its specific role in CH progression remains masked. In this study, we uncovered that MAGI1-IT1 was distinctly downregulated in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertrophic H9c2 cells. Also, MAGI1-IT1 overexpression in Ang II-treated H9c2 cells strikingly abolished the enlarged surface area and the enhanced levels of hypertrophic markers such as ANP, BNP, and ß-MHC. Mechanically, we found MAGI1-IT1 sponged miR-302e which was identified as a hypertrophy-facilitator here, and that miR-302e upregulation countervailed the inhibition of MAGI1-IT1 overexpression on hypertrophic cells. Moreover, it was confirmed that MAGI1-IT1 boosted DKK1 expression by absorbing miR-302e. Subsequently, we also illustrated that MAGI1-IT1 inactivated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through a DKK1-dependent pathway. Finally, both the DKK1 inhibition and LiCI (Wnt activator) supplement abrogated the hypertrophy-suppressive impact of MAGI1-IT1 on Ang II-simulated hypertrophic H9c2 cells. Jointly, our findings disclosed that MAGI1-IT1 functioned as a negative regulator in CH through inactivating Wnt/beta-catenin pathway via targeting miR-302e/DKK1 axis, revealing a novel road for CH treatment.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Ratos , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(7): 138-145, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880532

RESUMO

It was to study the influence of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (WT1) on ovarian granular cells (GCs) in mice, and the molecular mechanism involved. LV-WT1 short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) vector was used to downregulate WT1 expression in granular cells (GCs). The effects of WTI on proliferation and apoptosis of GCs were investigated. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to assay the mRNA and protein expressions of Bax/bcl-2 in GCs transfected with LV-WT1-RNAi. The expression levels of SUZ12, Wnt5a, Wnt11, Wnt4, Wnt3a, Wnt2 mRNA in GCs were also determined. LV-WT1-RNAi significantly reduced WT1 expression, increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of GCs. The inhibition of WT1 had no significant effect on the expression of bcl-2 in GCs. The expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4 and Wnt5a were augmented in WT1-knockdown GCs, relative to non-transfected cells. WT1 activation is necessary for maintaining early survival of GCs in follicles via activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signal pathway.


Assuntos
Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Proteínas WT1/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas WT1/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt3A/genética , Proteína Wnt3A/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt4/genética , Proteína Wnt4/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5192, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729356

RESUMO

The extent of neocortical gyrification is an important determinant of a species' cognitive abilities, yet the mechanisms regulating cortical gyrification are poorly understood. We uncover long-range regulation of this process originating at the telencephalic dorsal midline, where levels of secreted Bmps are maintained by factors in both the neuroepithelium and the overlying mesenchyme. In the mouse, the combined loss of transcription factors Lmx1a and Lmx1b, selectively expressed in the midline neuroepithelium and the mesenchyme respectively, causes dorsal midline Bmp signaling to drop at early neural tube stages. This alters the spatial and temporal Wnt signaling profile of the dorsal midline cortical hem, which in turn causes gyrification of the distal neocortex. Our study uncovers early mesenchymal-neuroepithelial interactions that have long-range effects on neocortical gyrification and shows that lissencephaly in mice is actively maintained via redundant genetic regulation of dorsal midline development and signaling.


Assuntos
Mesoderma/embriologia , Neocórtex/embriologia , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Células Neuroepiteliais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
20.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(12): 1146-1156, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemoresistance is a concern in ovarian cancer patients, in whom survival remains. MicroRNA, a novel class of small RNAs, have frequently been found to be dysregulated in human malignancies and to act as negative regulators of gene expression. This study aimed to explore the function of miR-338-3p in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer and potential molecular mechanisms thereof. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of miR-338-3p and WNT2B in ovarian cancer tissues and cells were estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazol-3-ium bromide (MTT), transwell, and flow cytometry assays were used to assess biological role of miR-338-3p in vitro. Western blot assay was conducted to measure protein expression of WNT2B, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, and apoptosis-related proteins. The relationship between miR-338-3p and WNT2B was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter. Finally, a xenograft tumor model was developed to explore the effects of overexpression of miR-338-3p on tumor growth in ovarian cancer in vivo. RESULTS: MiR-338-3p was downregulated in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer tissues and cells. Mechanistically, high expression of miR-338-3p enhanced cell sensitivity to cisplatin by inhibiting proliferation, motility, and EMT and by promoting apoptosis via targeting WNT2B expression in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-338-3p increased cisplatin sensitivity among ovarian cancer in an in vivo xenograft tumor model. CONCLUSION: MiR-338-3p enhances the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by downregulating WNT2B.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
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