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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445792

RESUMO

Otolin-1 is a scaffold protein of otoliths and otoconia, calcium carbonate biominerals from the inner ear. It contains a gC1q domain responsible for trimerization and binding of Ca2+. Knowledge of a structure-function relationship of gC1q domain of otolin-1 is crucial for understanding the biology of balance sensing. Here, we show how natural variants alter the structure of gC1q otolin-1 and how Ca2+ are able to revert some effects of the mutations. We discovered that natural substitutions: R339S, R342W and R402P negatively affect the stability of apo-gC1q otolin-1, and that Q426R has a stabilizing effect. In the presence of Ca2+, R342W and Q426R were stabilized at higher Ca2+ concentrations than the wild-type form, and R402P was completely insensitive to Ca2+. The mutations affected the self-association of gC1q otolin-1 by inducing detrimental aggregation (R342W) or disabling the trimerization (R402P) of the protein. Our results indicate that the natural variants of gC1q otolin-1 may have a potential to cause pathological changes in otoconia and otoconial membrane, which could affect sensing of balance and increase the probability of occurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Mutação/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vertigem Posicional Paroxística Benigna/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360947

RESUMO

The distribution of differential extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lateral and medial menisci can contribute to knee instability, and changes in the meniscus tissue can lead to joint disease. Thus, deep proteomic identification of the lateral and medial meniscus cartilage is expected to provide important information for treatment and diagnosis of various knee joint diseases. We investigated the proteomic profiles of 12 lateral/medial meniscus pairs obtained from excess tissue of osteoarthritis patients who underwent knee arthroscopy surgery using mass spectrometry-based techniques and measured 75 ECM protein levels in the lesions using a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay we developed. A total of 906 meniscus proteins with a 1% false discovery rate (FDR) was identified through a tandem mass tag (TMT) analysis showing that the lateral and medial menisci had similar protein expression profiles. A total of 131 ECM-related proteins was included in meniscus tissues such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin. Our data showed that 14 ECM protein levels were differentially expressed in lateral and medial lesions (p < 0.05). We present the proteomic characterization of meniscal tissue with mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic analysis and developed an MRM-based assay of ECM proteins correlated with tissue regeneration. The mass spectrometry dataset has been deposited to the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifier MSV000087753.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Menisco/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteoma/química
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360805

RESUMO

FAM20C is a gene coding for a protein kinase that targets S-X-E/pS motifs on different phosphoproteins belonging to diverse tissues. Pathogenic variants of FAM20C are responsible for Raine syndrome (RS), initially described as a lethal and congenital osteosclerotic dysplasia characterized by generalized atherosclerosis with periosteal bone formation, characteristic facial dysmorphisms and intracerebral calcifications. The aim of this review is to give an overview of targets and variants of FAM20C as well as RS aspects. We performed a wide phenotypic review focusing on clinical aspects and differences between all lethal (LRS) and non-lethal (NLRS) reported cases, besides the FAM20C pathogenic variant description for each. As new targets of FAM20C kinase have been identified, we reviewed FAM20C targets and their functions in bone and other tissues, with emphasis on novel targets not previously considered. We found the classic lethal and milder non-lethal phenotypes. The milder phenotype is defined by a large spectrum ranging from osteonecrosis to osteosclerosis with additional congenital defects or intellectual disability in some cases. We discuss our current understanding of FAM20C deficiency, its mechanism in RS through classic FAM20C targets in bone tissue and its potential biological relevance through novel targets in non-bone tissues.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Caseína Quinase I , Fissura Palatina , Exoftalmia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Variação Genética , Microcefalia , Osteosclerose , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/mortalidade , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Caseína Quinase I/genética , Caseína Quinase I/metabolismo , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fissura Palatina/metabolismo , Fissura Palatina/mortalidade , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Exoftalmia/genética , Exoftalmia/metabolismo , Exoftalmia/mortalidade , Exoftalmia/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Microcefalia/mortalidade , Microcefalia/patologia , Osteosclerose/genética , Osteosclerose/metabolismo , Osteosclerose/mortalidade , Osteosclerose/patologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360970

RESUMO

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are usually treated with autograft implantation to prevent knee instability. Tissue engineered ACL reconstruction is becoming promising to circumvent autograft limitations. The aim was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stretch on lapine (L) ACL fibroblasts on embroidered scaffolds with respect to adhesion, DNA and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents, gene expression of ligament-associated extracellular matrix genes, such as type I collagen, decorin, tenascin C, tenomodulin, gap junctional connexin 43 and the transcription factor Mohawk. Control scaffolds and those functionalized by gas phase fluorination and cross-linked collagen foam were either pre-cultured with a suspension or with spheroids of LACL cells before being subjected to cyclic stretch (4%, 0.11 Hz, 3 days). Stretch increased significantly the scaffold area colonized with cells but impaired sGAGs and decorin gene expression (functionalized scaffolds seeded with cell suspension). Stretching increased tenascin C, connexin 43 and Mohawk but decreased decorin gene expression (control scaffolds seeded with cell suspension). Pre-cultivation of functionalized scaffolds with spheroids might be the more suitable method for maintaining ligamentogenesis in 3D scaffolds compared to using a cell suspension due to a significantly higher sGAG content in response to stretching and type I collagen gene expression in functionalized scaffolds.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiologia , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/citologia , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Conexinas/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Decorina/genética , Decorina/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Homeostase , Masculino , Poliésteres/química , Coelhos , Regeneração , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203049

RESUMO

The present study aims to determine the neuroprotective effect of Bergenin against spatial memory deficit associated with neurodegeneration. Preliminarily, the protective effect of Bergenin was observed against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 and PC-12 cells. Further studies were performed in 5xFAD Tg mouse model by administering Bergenin (1, 30 and 60 mg/kg; orally), whereas Bergenin (60 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the memory deficit observed in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy displayed restoration of lipids, proteins and their derivatives compared to the 5xFAD Tg mice group. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) suggested an absence of amyloid beta (Aß) aggregation in Bergenin-treated mice. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis suggested the neuroprotective effect of Bergenin by increasing Reelin signaling (Reelin/Dab-1) and attenuated Aß (1-42) aggregation in hippocampal regions of mouse brains. Furthermore, IHC and western blot results suggested antioxidant (Keap-1/Nrf-2/HO-1), anti-inflammatory (TLR-4/NF-kB) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3) effect of Bergenin. Moreover, a decrease in Annexin V/PI-stained hippocampal cells suggested its effect against neurodegeneration. The histopathological changes were reversed significantly by Bergenin. In addition, a remarkable increase in antioxidant level with suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and nitric oxide production were observed in specific regions of the mouse brains.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/química , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4230, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244494

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix protein-1 (ECM1) promotes tumorigenesis in multiple organs but the mechanisms associated to ECM1 isoform subtypes have yet to be clarified. We report in this study that the secretory ECM1a isoform induces tumorigenesis through the GPR motif binding to integrin αXß2 and the activation of AKT/FAK/Rho/cytoskeleton signaling. The ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1) transduces the ECM1a-integrin αXß2 interactive signaling to facilitate the phosphorylation of AKT/FAK/Rho/cytoskeletal molecules and to confer cancer cell cisplatin resistance through up-regulation of the CD326-mediated cell stemness. On the contrary, the non-secretory ECM1b isoform binds myosin and blocks its phosphorylation, impairing cytoskeleton-mediated signaling and tumorigenesis. Moreover, ECM1a induces the expression of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L like (hnRNPLL) protein to favor the alternative mRNA splicing generating ECM1a. ECM1a, αXß2, ABCG1 and hnRNPLL higher expression associates with poor survival, while ECM1b higher expression associates with good survival. These results highlight ECM1a, integrin αXß2, hnRNPLL and ABCG1 as potential targets for treating cancers associated with ECM1-activated signaling.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Humanos , Integrina alfaXbeta2/genética , Integrina alfaXbeta2/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/cirurgia , Fosforilação/genética , Prognóstico , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299278

RESUMO

During the pathogenesis of glaucoma, optic nerve (ON) axons become continuously damaged at the optic nerve head (ONH). This often is associated with reactive astrocytes and increased transforming growth factor (TGF-ß) 2 levels. In this study we tested the hypothesis if the presence or absence of decorin (DCN), a small leucine-rich proteoglycan and a natural inhibitor of several members of the TGF family, would affect the expression of the TGF-ßs and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in human ONH astrocytes and murine ON astrocytes. We found that DCN is present in the mouse ON and is expressed by human ONH and murine ON astrocytes. DCN expression and synthesis was significantly reduced after 24 h treatment with 3 nM CTGF/CCN2, while treatment with 4 pM TGF-ß2 only reduced expression of DCN significantly. Conversely, DCN treatment significantly reduced the expression of TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2 and CTGF/CCN2 vis-a-vis untreated controls. Furthermore, DCN treatment significantly reduced expression of fibronectin (FN) and collagen IV (COL IV). Notably, combined treatment with DCN and triciribine, a small molecule inhibitor of protein kinase B (AKT), attenuated effects of DCN on CTGF/CCN2, TGF-ß1, and TGF-ß2 mRNA expression. We conclude (1) that DCN is an important regulator of TGF-ß and CTGF/CCN2 expression in astrocytes of the ON and ONH, (2) that DCN thereby regulates the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and (3) that DCN executes its negative regulatory effects on TGF-ß and CTGF/CCN2 via the pAKT/AKT signaling pathway in ON astrocytes.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Decorina/farmacologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glaucoma/patologia , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/metabolismo , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nervo Óptico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207745

RESUMO

It has recently been hypothesized that vitamin K could play a role in COVID-19. We aimed to test the hypotheses that low vitamin K status is a common characteristic of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to population controls and that low vitamin K status predicts mortality in COVID-19 patients. In a cohort of 138 COVID-19 patients and 138 population controls, we measured plasma dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein (dp-ucMGP), which reflects the functional vitamin K status in peripheral tissue. Forty-three patients died within 90 days from admission. In patients, levels of dp-ucMGP differed significantly between survivors (mean 877; 95% CI: 778; 995) and non-survivors (mean 1445; 95% CI: 1148; 1820). Furthermore, levels of dp-ucMGP (pmol/L) were considerably higher in patients (mean 1022; 95% CI: 912; 1151) compared to controls (mean 509; 95% CI: 485; 540). Cox regression survival analysis showed that increasing levels of dp-ucMGP (reflecting low vitamin K status) were associated with higher mortality risk (sex- and age-adjusted hazard ratio per doubling of dp-ucMGP was 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03; 2.24). The association attenuated and became statistically insignificant after adjustment for co-morbidities (sex, age, CVD, diabetes, BMI, and eGFR adjusted hazard ratio per doubling of dp-ucMGP was 1.22, 95% CI: 0.82; 1.80). In conclusion, we found that low vitamin K status was associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 in sex- and age-adjusted analyses, but not in analyses additionally adjusted for co-morbidities. Randomized clinical trials would be needed to clarify a potential role, if any, of vitamin K in the course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Hospitalização , Deficiência de Vitamina K/mortalidade , Vitamina K/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombose/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina K/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina K/complicações , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298915

RESUMO

Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. There is a critical need to understand the structural and cellular components that play a vital role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases. One potential component is the family of structural proteins called small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs). SLRPs are crucial in many fundamental biological processes involved in the maintenance of retinal homeostasis. They are present within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective and vascular tissues and contribute to tissue organization and modulation of cell growth. They play a vital role in cell-matrix interactions in many upstream signaling pathways involved in fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis. In this comprehensive review, we describe the expression patterns and function of SLRPs in the retina, including Biglycan and Decorin from class I; Fibromodulin, Lumican, and a Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) from class II; Opticin and Osteoglycin/Mimecan from class III; and Chondroadherin (CHAD), Tsukushi and Nyctalopin from class IV.


Assuntos
Leucina/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Proteoglicanos Pequenos Ricos em Leucina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299127

RESUMO

Reelin is a secretory protein involved in a variety of processes in forebrain development and function, including neuronal migration, dendrite growth, spine formation, and synaptic plasticity. Most of the function of Reelin is focused on excitatory neurons; however, little is known about its effects on inhibitory neurons and inhibitory synapses. In this study, we investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway of Reelin in primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Individual neurons were visualized using immunofluorescence to distinguish inhibitory neurons from excitatory neurons. Reelin-rich protein supplementation significantly induced the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 protein in excitatory neurons, but not in most inhibitory neurons. In somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons, one of major subtypes of inhibitory neurons, Reelin-rich protein supplementation induced the phosphorylation of S6. Subsequently, we investigated whether or not Reelin-rich protein supplementation affected dendrite development in cultured inhibitory neurons. Reelin-rich protein supplementation did not change the total length of dendrites in inhibitory neurons in vitro. Finally, we examined the development of inhibitory synapses in primary hippocampal neurons and found that Reelin-rich protein supplementation significantly reduced the density of gephyrin-VGAT-positive clusters in the dendritic regions without changing the expression levels of several inhibitory synapse-related proteins. These findings indicate a new role for Reelin in specific groups of inhibitory neurons and the development of inhibitory synapses, which may contribute to the underlying cellular mechanisms of RELN-associated neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Dendritos/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibição Neural , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204134

RESUMO

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper tract (UTUC) and urinary bladder (UBUC) is a heterogeneous malignancy. Through transcriptomic profiling of the Gene Expression Omnibus UBUC dataset (GSE31684), we discovered that epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellularmatrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was the most upregulated gene during metastatic development. EFEMP1 is an important component of basement membranes and acts as an enzyme regulator in extracellular matrix biology. Initially, evaluation of EFEMP1 mRNA expression in 50 UBUCs showed significantly upregulated levels in high stage UC. We further validated the clinical significance of EFEMP1 in 340 UTUC and 295 UBUC using immunohistochemistry, evaluated by H-score. High EFEMP1 immunoexpression significantly correlated with high pathologic stage, high histological grade, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion, perineural invasion and high mitosis (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for established clinicopathological factors, EFEMP1 expression status retained its prognostic impact on disease-specific survival and metastasis-free survival in UTUC and UBUC (all p < 0.01). Furthermore, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that actin cytoskeleton signaling, tumor microenvironment pathway and mitochondrial dysfunction were significantly enriched by EFEMP1 dysregulation. In conclusion, high EFEMP1 expression was associated with adverse pathological features in UC and independently predicted worse outcomes, suggesting its roles in clinical decision-making and risk stratification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
12.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(3): 245-258, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129804

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM), a highly organized network of structural and nonstructural proteins, plays a pivotal role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Changes in the ECM are critical for normal tissue repair, whereas dysregulation contributes to aberrant tissue remodeling. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe disorder of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle, increased production and deposition of structural and nonstructural proteins, and altered expression of ECM growth factors and proteases. Furthermore, ECM remodeling plays a significant role in disease progression, as several dynamic changes in its composition, quantity, and organization are documented in both humans and animal models of disease. These ECM changes impact vascular cell biology and affect proliferation of resident cells. Furthermore, ECM components determine the tissue architecture of the pulmonary and myocardial vasculature as well as the myocardium itself and provide mechanical stability crucial for tissue homeostasis. However, little is known about the basement membrane (BM), a specialized, self-assembled conglomerate of ECM proteins, during remodeling. In the vasculature, the BM is in close physical association with the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. While in the myocardium, each cardiomyocyte is enclosed by a BM that serves as the interface between cardiomyocytes and the surrounding interstitial matrix. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the current state of knowledge of the BM and its ECM composition and their impact on pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricle dysfunction and failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Membrana Basal/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071277

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scars, the most common complication of burn injuries, are characterized by excessive deposition of fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix proteins. Calpain, a calcium-dependent protease, is involved in the fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix production observed in certain fibrotic diseases. However, its role in the formation of post-burn hypertrophic skin scars remains largely unknown. Here, calpain expression and activity were assessed in skin fibroblasts obtained directly from patients with third-degree burns, who consequently developed post-burn hypertrophic scars. Furthermore, the antifibrotic effect of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, was evaluated in human fibroblasts and a murine burn model. The activity, mRNA levels, and protein levels of calpain were markedly higher in fibroblasts from the burn wounds of patients than in normal cells. Selective calpain inhibition by calpastatin markedly reduced not only the proliferation of burn-wound fibroblasts but also the mRNA and protein expression of calpain, transforming growth factor-beta 1, α-smooth muscle actin, type I and type III collagens, fibronectin, and vimentin in burn-wound fibroblasts. The anti-scarring effects of calpastatin were validated using a murine burn model by molecular, histological, and visual analyses. This study demonstrates the pathological role of calpain and the antifibrotic effect of calpastatin via calpain inhibition in post-burn hypertrophic scar formation.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Calpaína/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Queimaduras/complicações , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/farmacologia , Calpaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Proliferação de Células , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo III , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063955

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the principal structure of bone tissue. Long-term spaceflights lead to osteopenia, which may be a result of the changes in composition as well as remodeling of the ECM by osteogenic cells. To elucidate the cellular effects of microgravity, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their osteocommitted progeny were exposed to simulated microgravity (SMG) for 10 days using random positioning machine (RPM). After RPM exposure, an imbalance of MSC collagen/non-collagen ratio at the expense of a decreased level of collagenous proteins was detected. At the same time, the secretion of proteases (cathepsin A, cathepsin D, MMP3) was increased. No significant effects of SMG on the expression of stromal markers and cell adhesion molecules on the MSC surface were noted. Upregulation of COL11A1, CTNND1, TIMP3, and TNC and downregulation of HAS1, ITGA3, ITGB1, LAMA3, MMP1, and MMP11 were detected in RPM exposed MSCs. ECM-associated transcriptomic changes were more pronounced in osteocommitted progeny. Thus, 10 days of SMG provokes a decrease in the collagenous components of ECM, probably due to the decrease in collagen synthesis and activation of proteases. The presented data demonstrate that ECM-associated molecules of both native and osteocommitted MSCs may be involved in bone matrix reorganization during spaceflight.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Ausência de Peso , Simulação de Ausência de Peso/métodos
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3819-3832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121840

RESUMO

Introduction: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess great application prospects in biological research and regenerative medicine, so it is important to obtain ESCs with excellent and stable cellular states during in vitro expansion. The feeder layer culture system with the addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is currently applied in ESC cultures, but it has a series of disadvantages that could influence the culture efficiency and quality of the ESCs. With the development of nanotechnology, many studies have applied nanomaterials to optimize the stem cell culture system and regulate the fate of stem cells. In this study, we investigated the layer-number-dependent biofunction of graphene oxide (GO) on the pluripotency of ESCs from mice (mESCs). Methods: Single-layer GO (SGO) and multi-layer GO (MGO) were characterized and their effects on the cytotoxicity and self-renewal of mESCs were detected in vitro. The differentiation potentials of mESCs were identified through the formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. The regulatory mechanism of GO was verified by blocking the target receptors on the surface of mESCs using antibodies. Results: Both SGO and MGO were biocompatible with mESCs, but only MGO effectively sustained their self-renewal and differentiation potential. In addition, GO influenced the cellular activities of mESCs by regulating the interactions between extracellular matrix proteins and integrins. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the layer-number-dependent effects of GO on regulating the cell behavior of mESCs and reveals the extracellular regulatory mechanism of this process.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Grafite/farmacologia , Integrinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 251-263, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161821

RESUMO

The habit of chewing arecanut leads to fibrosis in the oral tissues, which can lead to cancer. Despite high mortality, fibrosis has limited clinical success owing to organ-specific variations, genetic predispositions, and slow progression. Fibrosis is a progressive condition that is unresponsive to medications in the severe phase. To understand underlying macromolecular changes we studied the extracellular matrix's (ECM) key molecular modifications in the early and late phase of arecanut-induced fibrosis in skin. To study the fibrosis, we topically applied arecanut extract on the mice skin. We observed that the matrix changes observe early and late phases based on ECM characteristics including the matrix proteins and the glycans. A spike in the levels of proteoglycans and ß-sheet structures are noted in the early phase. A significant drop in the proteoglycans and strengthening of amide covalent interactions is observed in the late phase. Although, almost no physical changes are noticeable only in the early phase; the late phase observes thick collagen bundling and a 4-fold stiffening of the skin tissue. The study indicates that the temporal interplay of proteins and glycans determine the matrix's severity state while opening avenues to research directed towards the phase-specific clinical discovery.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Pele/patologia , Células 3T3 , Amidas/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065672

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The high mortality of CRC is related to its ability to metastasize to distant organs. The kallikrein-related peptidase Kallikrein 6 (KLK6) is overexpressed in CRC and contributes to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify KLK6-associated markers for the CRC prognosis and treatment. Tumor Samples from the CRC patients with significantly elevated KLK6 transcript levels were identified in the RNA-Seq data from Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and their expression profiles were evaluated using Gene Ontology (GO), Phenotype and Reactome enrichment, and protein interaction methods. KLK6-high cases had a distinct spectrum of mutations in titin (TTN), APC, K-RAS, and MUC16 genes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found in the KLK6-overexpressing CRCs were associated with cell signaling, extracellular matrix organization, and cell communication regulatory pathways. The top KLK6-interaction partners were found to be the members of kallikrein family (KLK7, KLK8, KLK10), extracellular matrix associated proteins (keratins, integrins, small proline rich repeat, S100A families) and TGF-ß, FOS, and Ser/Thr protein kinase signaling pathways. Expression of selected KLK6-associated genes was validated in a subset of paired normal and tumor CRC patient-derived organoid cultures. The performed analyses identified KLK6 itself and a set of genes, which are co-expressed with KLK6, as potential clinical biomarkers for the management of the CRC disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Calicreínas/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Antígeno Ca-125/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Conectina/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Regulação para Cima
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3346, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099720

RESUMO

Characterizing the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) bound ligandome by mass spectrometry (MS) holds great promise for developing vaccines and drugs for immune-oncology. Still, the identification of non-tryptic peptides presents substantial computational challenges. To address these, we synthesized and analyzed >300,000 peptides by multi-modal LC-MS/MS within the ProteomeTools project representing HLA class I & II ligands and products of the proteases AspN and LysN. The resulting data enabled training of a single model using the deep learning framework Prosit, allowing the accurate prediction of fragment ion spectra for tryptic and non-tryptic peptides. Applying Prosit demonstrates that the identification of HLA peptides can be improved up to 7-fold, that 87% of the proposed proteasomally spliced HLA peptides may be incorrect and that dozens of additional immunogenic neo-epitopes can be identified from patient tumors in published data. Together, the provided peptides, spectra and computational tools substantially expand the analytical depth of immunopeptidomics workflows.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Peptídeos/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Epitopos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica
19.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21705, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105826

RESUMO

Keloids are fibrotic lesions that grow unceasingly and invasively and are driven by local mechanical stimuli. Unlike other fibrotic diseases and normal wound healing, keloids exhibit little transformation of dermal fibroblasts into α-SMA+ myofibroblasts. This study showed that asporin is the most strongly expressed gene in keloids and its gene-ontology terms relate strongly to ECM metabolism/organization. Experiments with human dermal cells (HDFs) showed that asporin overexpression/treatment abrogated the HDF ability to adopt a perpendicular orientation when subjected to stretching tension. It also induced calcification of the surrounding 3D collagen matrix. Asporin overexpression/treatment also prevented the HDFs from remodeling the surrounding 3D collagen matrix, leading to a disorganized network of thick, wavy collagen fibers that resembled keloid collagen architecture. This in turn impaired the ability of the HDFs to contract the collagen matrix. Asporin treatment also made the fibroblasts impervious to the fibrous collagen contraction of α-SMA+ myofibroblasts, which normally activates fibroblasts. Thus, by calcifying collagen, asporin prevents fibroblasts from linearly rearranging the surrounding collagen; this reduces both their mechanosensitivity and mechanosignaling to each other through the collagen network. This blocks fibroblast activation and differentiation into the mature myofibroblasts that efficiently remodel the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the fibroblasts remain immature, highly proliferative, and continue laying down abundant extracellular matrix, causing keloid growth and invasion. Notably, dermal injection of asporin-overexpressing HDFs into murine wounds recapitulated keloid collagen histopathological characteristics. Thus, disrupted interfibroblast mechanocommunication may promote keloid progression. Asporin may be a new diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for keloids.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Queloide/prevenção & controle , Mecanotransdução Celular , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pele/metabolismo
20.
Mol Biol Cell ; 32(14): 1273-1282, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010015

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has triggered global health and economic crises. Here we report the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on peroxisomes of human cell lines Huh-7 and SK-N-SH. Peroxisomes undergo dramatic changes in morphology in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Rearrangement of peroxisomal membranes is followed by redistribution of peroxisomal matrix proteins to the cytosol, resulting in a dramatic decrease in the number of mature peroxisomes. The SARS-CoV-2 ORF14 protein was shown to interact physically with human PEX14, a peroxisomal membrane protein required for matrix protein import and peroxisome biogenesis. Given the important roles of peroxisomes in innate immunity, SARS-CoV-2 may directly target peroxisomes, resulting in loss of peroxisome structural integrity, matrix protein content and ability to function in antiviral signaling.


Assuntos
Peroxissomos/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/patologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Células Vero
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