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1.
Plant Sci ; 286: 78-88, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300145

RESUMO

Chloroplastic Cpn60 proteins are type I chaperonins comprising of Cpn60α and Cpn60ß subunits. Arabidopsis genome contains six entries in Cpn60 family, out of which two are for Cpn60α subunit and four for Cpn60ß subunit. We noted that the cpn60ß4 knockout mutant plants (T-DNA insertion salk_064887 line) differed from the wild type Col-0 plants in the developmental programming. cpn60ß4 mutant plants showed early seed germination. Radical emergence, hypocotyl emergence and cotyledons opening were faster in cpn60ß4 mutant plants than WT. Importantly, cpn60ß4 mutant plants showed early-flowering phenotype. The number of flowers and siliques as well as weight of the seeds were higher in cpn60ß4 mutant plants as compared to Col-0 plants. These effects were reverted to wild type like growth and developmental patterns when genomic fragment of Arabidopsis encompassing Cpn60ß4 gene was complemented in the mutant background. The overexpression of Cpn60ß4 gene using CaMV35 promoter in wild type background (OE-Cpn60ß4) delayed the floral transition as against wild type plants. The plastid division were affected in cpn60ß4 mutant plants compared to Col-0. The results of this study suggest that Cpn60ß4 plays important role(s) in chloroplast development and is a key factor in plant growth, development and flowering in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Reprodução
2.
Yi Chuan ; 41(6): 534-547, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257201

RESUMO

Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major abiotic stresses in plants. Under adverse growth conditions, the incoordination of various metabolic processes in plant cells can result in increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thus causing a variety of threats and injuries to plant cells. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important enzyme to remove H2O2 in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are eight APX gene family members, including APX1?APX6, sAPX and tAPX. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of the eight APX genes in the wild-type and apx mutant plants at different developmental stages and under different abiotic stress conditions. Meanwhile, the tolerance of each apx mutant to salt, drought and heat stresses was studied. qRT-PCR analysis showed that during development (from 4 to 8 weeks old), APX1 and APX2 exhibited the highest and lowest expression levels, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of APX4, sAPX and tAPX decreased during development, while the expression of APX6 increased with the maturity of the plants. Moreover, under different abiotic stress conditions, APX1, APX2 and APX6 were significantly induced by heat stress, sAPX actively responded to salt stress, and APX3 and APX5 exhibited obvious responses to salt, drought and heat stresses. Further tolerance analysis showed that the resistance of all apx mutants to salt and drought stresses was lower than that of the wild-type plant at both germination and maturity stages. At germination stage, all apx mutants were more sensitive to drought stress than to salt stress. At maturity stage, the apx1 and apx6 mutants were more sensitive to salt and drought stresses than the wild-type and other apx mutant plants. The physiological indexes indicated that the H2O2 content in all mutants, especially in the apx1, sapx and tapx, was significantly higher than that in the wild type 10 days after drought stress treatment, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in all mutants was significantly higher than that in the wild type 5 days after salt stress treatment, while heat stress treatment for 2 h resulted in a significant increase in the contents of H2O2 and MDA in apx1, apx2 and apx6, especially in apx2. Taken together, our study revealed that all eight APX members of Arabidopsis participate in the growth and developmental processes and the abiotic stress responses, with some specific APXs playing a major role in a certain process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascorbato Peroxidases/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Estresse Fisiológico , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
3.
Plant Sci ; 285: 44-54, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203893

RESUMO

Although the involvement of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in leaf senescence is well known, the factors governing this accumulation of ROS are not fully characterized. In this study, analysis of transgenic overexpressing and knock out lines of AtWDS1 (encoding a WD repeat protein), indicates that AtWDS1 negatively regulates age-dependent and dark-induced leaf senescence. Furthermore, we observed ROS accumulation and altered tolerance of oxidative stress in atwds1 plants, as well as upregulated expression of oxidative stress-responsive genes. The location of an EGFP-AtWDS1 fusion protein in the nucleus of transformed cells and plants indicates that AtWDS1 is a nuclear protein, and, using a Dual-Luciferase assay, we showed that AtWDS1 can act as a transcription activator. However, the lack of a nuclear localization sequence in AtWDS1 suggests that its presence in the nucleus must depend on interactions with other proteins. Indeed, we found that AtWDS1 interacts directly with AtRanBPM, and that mutation of the AtRanBPM gene results in partial mislocalization of AtWDS1 in the cytoplasm. Together, these results suggest a role for AtWDS1 as a novel modulator of redox homeostasis, which responds to developmental and stress signals to regulate leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Escuridão , Microscopia Confocal , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Plant Sci ; 285: 99-109, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203898

RESUMO

Seed development is a complex regulatory process that includes a transition from gametophytic to sporophytic program. The synchronized development of different seed compartments (seed coat, endosperm and embryo) depends on a balance in parental genome contributions. In the most severe cases, the disruption of the balance leads to seed abortion. This represents one of the main obstacles for the engineering of asexual reproduction through seeds (apomixis), and for generating new interspecies hybrids. The repression of auxin synthesis by the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is a major mechanism contributing to sensing genome balance. However, current efforts focusing on decreasing PRC2 or elevating auxin levels have not yet resulted in the production of apomictic seed. Here, we show that EMSY-Like Tudor/Agenet H3K36me3 histone readers EML1 and EML3 are necessary for early stages of seed development to proceed at a normal rate in Arabidopsis. We further demonstrate that both EML1 and EML3 are required to prevent the initiation of seed development in the absence of fertilization. Based on the whole genome expression analysis, we identify auxin transport and signaling genes as the most enriched downstream targets of EML1 and EML3. We hypothesize that EML1 and EML3 function to repress and soften paternal gene expression by fine-tuning auxin responses. Discovery of this pathway may contribute to the engineering of apomixis and interspecies hybrids.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apomixia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Fertilização , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sementes/fisiologia
5.
Plant Sci ; 285: 1-13, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203874

RESUMO

Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) play multiple roles in plant development and stress responses. GA2-oxidases (GA2oxs) are a class of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that regulate the deactivation of bioactive GAs. In this study, we investigated the phylogeny and domain structures of the seven GA2ox genes present in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Comprehensive expression analysis using translational reporter lines showed that the seven GA2ox genes are differentially expressed during Arabidopsis growth and development: GA2ox1 is specifically expressed in the hypocotyl and lateral root primordium; GA2ox2 is highly expressed in aboveground tissues; GA2ox3 is expressed in the chalazal endosperm of the early embryo sac and inflorescences; GA2ox4 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and during lateral root initiation; GA2ox6 is expressed in the maturation zone, but not in the meristem or elongating zone of the root; GA2ox7 is constitutively expressed during almost all developmental stages; and GA2ox8 is exclusively expressed in stomatal cells. Overexpression of each of these GA2ox genes inhibited high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation in both wild-type and elongated hypocotyl 5 plants, which have an elongated hypocotyl phenotype, suggesting that these genes negatively regulate hypocotyl elongation by reducing bioactive GA levels. This study provides a valuable resource for further elucidating the roles of GA2ox genes during different stages of development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/fisiologia , Filogenia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcriptoma
6.
Plant Sci ; 285: 200-213, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203885

RESUMO

NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE (NDR1) is a widely characterized gene that plays a key role in defense against multiple bacterial, fungal, oomycete and nematode plant pathogens. NDR1 is required for activation of resistance by multiple NB and LRR-containing (NLR) protein immune sensors and contributes to basal defense. The role of NDR1 in positively regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense responses is well documented. However, ndr1-1 plants flower earlier and show accelerated development in comparison to wild type (WT) Arabidopsis plants, indicating that NDR1 is a negative regulator of flowering and growth. Exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA) further accelerates the early flowering phenotype in ndr1-1 plants, while the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol attenuated the early flowering phenotype of ndr1-1, but not to WT levels, suggesting partial resistance to paclobutrazol and enhanced GA response in ndr1-1 plants. Mass spectroscopy analyses confirmed that ndr1-1 plants have 30-40% higher levels of GA3 and GA4, while expression of various GA metabolic genes and major flowering regulatory genes is also altered in the ndr1-1 mutant. Taken together this study provides evidence of crosstalk between the ndr1-1-mediated defense and GA-regulated developmental programs in plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Verticillium
7.
Plant Sci ; 285: 34-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203892

RESUMO

Seed germination is a critical stage during the initiation of the plant lifecycle and is strongly affected by endogenous phytohormones and environmental stress. High temperature (HT) upregulates endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) to suppress seed germination, and ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) is the key positive regulator in the ABA signal-mediated modulation of seed germination. In plants, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a small gas messenger that participates in multiple physiological processes, but its role in seed germination thermotolerance has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we found that H2S enhanced the seed germination rate under HT. Moreover, HT accelerates the efflux of the E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, which results in increased nuclear accumulation of ELONG HYPCOTYL 5 (HY5) to activate the expression of ABI5 and thereby suppress seed germination. However, the H2S signal reversed the HT effect, as characterized by increased COP1 in the nucleus, which resulted in increased degradation of HY5 and reduced expression of ABI5 and thereby enhanced the seed germination thermotolerance. Thus, our findings reveal a novel role for the H2S signal in the modulation of seed germination thermotolerance through the nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1 and the downstream HY5 and ABI5 pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
8.
Plant Sci ; 285: 55-67, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203894

RESUMO

C2H2-type zinc finger proteins play important roles in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we explored the role of the C2H2-type zinc finger protein SALT INDUCED ZINC FINGER PROTEIN1 (AtSIZ1; At3G25910) in Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress. AtSIZ1 expression was induced by salt treatment. During the germination stage, the germination rate, germination energy, germination index, cotyledon growth rate, and root length were significantly higher in AtSIZ1 overexpression lines than in the wild type under various stress treatments, whereas these indices were significantly reduced in AtSIZ1 loss-of-function mutants. At the mature seedling stage, the overexpression lines maintained higher levels of K+, proline, and soluble sugar, lower levels of Na+ and MDA, and lower Na+/K+ ratios than the wild type. Stress-related marker genes such as SOS1, AtP5CS1, AtGSTU5, COR15A, RD29A, and RD29B were expressed at higher levels in the overexpression lines than the wild type and loss-of-function mutants under salt treatment. These results indicate that AtSIZ1 improves salt tolerance in Arabidopsis by helping plants maintain ionic homeostasis and osmotic balance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ligases/fisiologia , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Homeostase , Ligases/genética , Filogenia , Potássio/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/genética
9.
Plant Sci ; 285: 91-98, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203897

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter AtOPT6 is membrane transport protein that mediated transport of glutathione in both the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms. In this study, the role of AtOPT6 in glutathione distribution throughout the plant was investigated. We found that transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AtOPT6 under the control of a phloem-specific promoter of sucrose-proton symporter 2 (pSUC2), remarkably increased AtOPT6 transcript levels, ranging from 30- to 40-fold in shoots and 6- to 10-fold in roots, relative to the wild type. AtOPT6-overexpressing lines could elevate the foliar glutathione content; however, glutathione content in the phloem did not change. We observed that the ratio of shoot glutathione content to total glutathione content increased in AtOPT6-overexpressing lines, but not in transgenic Arabidopsis with elevated foliar GSH synthesis. These results indicate the possibility that loading and unloading of glutathione in phloem tissues are enhanced in AtOPT6-overexpressing lines under the control of pSUC2. The results of heavy metal analysis revealed that transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AtOPT6 under the control of pSUC2 could promote the transport of Zn into shoots as effectively as transgenic Arabidopsis with elevated foliar GSH synthesis, or wild-type plants with exogenous foliar application of GSH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Simportadores/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
Plant Sci ; 284: 30-36, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084876

RESUMO

Nitrate Transporter 1.1 (NRT1.1) is a nitrate transporter and sensor that modulates plant metabolism and growth. It has previously been shown that NRT1.1 is involved in the regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we mainly used genetic and molecular methods to reveal the key flowering pathway that NRT1.1 may be involved in. Mutant alleles of CO and FLC, two crucial components in the flowering pathway, were introduced into the NRT1.1 defective mutant background by crossing. When the CO mutation was introduced into chl1-5 plants, the double mutant had delayed flowering time, and the CO transcription levels did not change in the chl1-5 plants. These results indicate that the CO-dependent photoperiod may be not associated with the delayed flowering shown by chl1-5. However, FLC loss of function could rescue the late flowering phenotype of the chl1-5 mutant, and FLC expression levels significantly increased in the NRT1.1 defective mutant plants. The FT expression levels in the chl1-5flc-3 double mutant plants recovered when the FLC mutation was introduced into chl1-5 plants and the up-regulation of FLC transcripts in the chl1-5 mutant plants was not related to nitrate availability. Our findings suggest that NRT1.1 affects flowering time via interaction with the FLC-dependent flowering pathway to influence its target gene FT, and that NRT1.1 may be included in an additional signaling pathway that represses the expression of FLC in a nitrate-independent manner.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
11.
Plant Sci ; 284: 91-98, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084884

RESUMO

Seeds germination or dormancy is strictly controlled by endogenous phytohormone signal and environment cues. High temperature (HT) suppresses seeds germination or triggers seeds dormancy but underlying mechanism by which HT mediates seeds germination thermoinhibition needs more investigating. SOM is reported as the critical factor negatively controls light-irradiation seeds germination by altering Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis. Here we found that HT accelerates SOM expressing through ABA signal transduction component ABI3, both of abi3 and som mutants seeds show high germination rate under HT in contrast to wild type seeds. Using ABI3 as the bait, we identified the epigenetic factor Powerdress (PWR) as the ABI3 interaction protein. Genetic and physiological analysis showed that PWR negatively control the expressing of SOM, and overexpressing PWR enhanced, while pwr mutant reduced, seeds germination thermotolerance. Without HT stress, PWR accelerated the histone H3 deacetylation level and H2A.Z deposition at SOM locus, and thus suppressed ABI3-dependent SOM transcription for seeds germination, HT stress block PWR transcriptional level, thus attenuated the inhibition effect of PWR on SOM expressing, resulting into seeds germination thermoinhibition. Thus our finding propose a new function of PWR in controlling seeds germination under HT through histone acetylation modification and H2A.Z deposition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Germinação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Código das Histonas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 642-650, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048121

RESUMO

The Bromeliaceae family, which is distributed pantropically, is one of the most morphologically diverse families. Except for the edible pineapple (Ananas comosus), the vast majority of bromeliads cultivated worldwide are appreciated mainly for their ornamental value. As subtropical and tropical flowering plants, these bromeliads, among with Aechmea fasciata, have significant economic importance. However, the molecular mechanism of flowering in bromeliads remains unrevealed. In this study, an APETALA2 (AP2) homologue, AfAP2-2, which belongs to the AP2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factor superfamily, was identified in A. fasciata. AfAP2-2 contains two conserved AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized transactivator. The expression level of AfAP2-2 was predominantly higher in vegetative organs of the reproductive phase than in those of the vegetative phase. Ectopic expression of AfAP2-2 in Arabidopsis specifically delayed flowering in short-day (SD) conditions. Furthermore, the size and weight of seeds of AfAP2-2-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants were significantly reduced compared to those of the wild type (WT). Our findings suggest that AfAP2-2 might be a negative regulator of flowering and seed size and weight. These results may help facilitate the molecular breeding of bromeliads.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/fisiologia
13.
J Plant Res ; 132(4): 521-529, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115708

RESUMO

Shoots of the aquatic eudicot family, Podostemaceae, exhibit unusual organogenesis with mixed leaf and stem identities. New shoots arise at the base of the older shoot with shoot apical meristem (SAM) identity but the entire SAM differentiates into a "leaf" as it develops in the Podostemoideae subfamily. The "leaves" are tightly arranged in a zigzag manner to form an apparent distichous shoot as a whole. Although previous studies have suggested that Podostemoideae shoots have evolved by modifying the ancestral sympodial branching system in the basal Tristichoideae subfamily, this evolutionary scenario requires elucidation at the molecular level. To confirm that the shoots arise as axillary shoots, in the present study, we examined gene expression patterns in plumular shoots of Zeylanidium tailichenoides using CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) orthologs, which are involved in the determination of axils and meristem formation in model plants. Expression of the CUC3 ortholog was detected at the adaxial base of cotyledons and parental shoots where the new shoots are initiated, while STM ortholog was expressed at the initiation site and in the young shoot primordia throughout early shoot development. The results demonstrate that each Z. tailichenoides shoot arises as an axillary bud in a manner similar to axillary meristem formation in model plants involving CUC3 and STM genes. Considering that each of the two cotyledons produces an axillary bud that in turn continues to form its own axillary bud independently, the apparent distichous shoot in Z.tailichenoides is not a single shoot, but a composite of two sympodially branched shoots.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Malpighiales/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hibridização In Situ , Malpighiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homologia de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(4-5): 561-569, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053987

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Plant defensin AtPDF2.6 is not secreted to the apoplast and localized in cytoplasm. AtPDF2.6 is mainly expressed in root vascular bundles of xylem parenchyma cell, and significantly induced by Cd stress. AtPDF2.6 detoxicate cytoplasmic Cd via chelation, thus enhanced Cd tolerance in Arabidopsis. In order to detoxify the heavy metal cadmium (Cd), plants have evolved several mechanisms, among which chelation represents the major Cd-detoxification mechanism. In this study, we aimed to identify a new defensin protein involved in cytoplasmic Cd detoxification by using plant molecular genetics and physiological methods. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin gene AtPDF2.6 has a signal peptide that may mediate its secretion to the cell wall. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that AtPDF2.6 is localized to the cytoplasm and is not secreted to the apoplast, whereas histochemical analysis indicated that AtPDF2.6 is mainly expressed in the root xylem parenchyma cells and that its expression is significantly induced by Cd. An in vitro Cd-binding assay revealed that AtPDF2.6 has Cd-chelating activity. Heterologous overexpression of AtPDF2.6 increased Cd tolerance in Escherichia coli and yeast, and AtPDF2.6 overexpression significantly enhanced Cd tolerance in Arabidopsis, whereas functional disruption of AtPDF2.6 decreased Cd tolerance. These data suggest that AtPDF2.6 detoxifies cytoplasmic Cd via chelation and thereby enhances Cd tolerance in Arabidopsis. Our findings accordingly challenge the commonly accepted view of defensins as secreted proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Regulação para Cima , Xilema/metabolismo
15.
Plant Sci ; 283: 238-246, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128694

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is the final stage of leaf growth, a highly coordinated and complicated process. Phosphorus as an essential macronutrient for plant growth is remobilized from senescing leaves to other vigorous parts of the plant. In this study, through data mining, we found some phosphate starvation induced genes such as AtSPX1, were significantly induced in aging leaves in Arabidopsis. We applied a reverse genetics approach to investigate the phenotypes of transgenic plants and mutant plants, and the results showed that the overexpression of AtSPX1 accelerated leaf senescence, suppressed Pi accumulation, promoted SA production and H2O2 levels in leaves, while the mutant lines of AtSPX1 showed slightly delayed leaf senescence. We conducted RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis together with GO and GSEA enrichment analyses for transgenic vs. wild-type plants to elucidate the possible underlying regulatory mechanism. The 558 genes that were up-regulated in the overexpression plants 35S::AtSPX1/WT, were significantly enriched in the process of leaf senescence, Pi starvation responses and SA signaling pathways, as were the target genes of some transcription factors such as WRKYs and NACs. In a word, we characterized AtSPX1 as a key regulator, which mediated the crosstalks among leaf senescence, Pi starvation and SA signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Regulação para Cima
16.
Plant Sci ; 283: 290-300, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128699

RESUMO

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is one of the fastest growing species with a maximum growth rate of 1 m/day. However, the regulator genes for this explosive growth phenomenon have not been functionally studied. Here, we found that Moso bamboo GSK3/shaggy-like kinase 1 (PeGSK1) acts as a negative regulator of cell growth. Over-expression of PeGSK1 in Arabidopsis showed significant growth arrest phenotypes, including dwarfism, small leaves, reduced cell length, and disturbed cell elongation of petiole. Furthermore, Overexpression of PeGSK1 fully inhibited the longer hypocotyl phenotype of Arabidopsis atgsk1 mutants. In addition, PeGSK1-overexpressing lines were resistant to exogenous BR treatment and PeGSK1 interacted with the brassinosteroid signal transduction key regulator BZR1. The BZR1-dependent cell growth genes were down-regulated in PeGSK1-overexpressing lines. These results indicated that PeGSK1 is functionally similar to AtGSK1 and inhibited cell growth via the brassinosteroid signaling pathway. Importantly, PeGSK1 also interacted with PeBZR1, and the expression pattern of PeGSK1 was negatively correlated with the internode elongation of bamboo, indicating that PeGSK1 is involved in the cell growth of bamboo. In summary, our results provide insight into the role of brassinosteroids in the rapid-growth of bamboo culms and identifying target genes for the genetic manipulation of plant height.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Sasa/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sasa/genética , Sasa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Plant Sci ; 283: 366-374, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128707

RESUMO

The tau (U) and phi (F) classes of glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes reduce the glutathione (GSH) pool using GSH as a co-substrate, thus influence numerous redox-dependent processes including hormonal and stress responses. We performed detailed analysis of the redox potential and reactive oxygen species levels in longitudinal zones of 7-day-old roots of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Col-0 wild type and Atsgtf8 and Atgstu19 insertional mutants. Using redox-sensitive cytosolic green fluorescent protein (roGFP2) the redox status of the meristematic, transition, and elongation zones was determined under control and salt stress (3-hour of 75 or 150 mM NaCl treatment) conditions. The Atgstu19 mutant had the most oxidized redox status in all root zones throughout the experiments. Using fluorescent dyes significantly higher superoxide radical (O2-) levels was detected in both Atgst mutants than in the Col-0 control. Salt treatment resulted in the highest O2- increase in the Atgstf8 root, while the amount of H2O2 elevated most in the case of Atgstu19. Moreover, vitality decreased in Atgstu19 roots more than in wild type under salt stress. Our results indicate that AtGSTF8 and especially the AtGSTU19 proteins function in the root fine-tuning the redox homeostasis both under control and salt stress conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Glutationa Transferase/fisiologia , Meristema/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Homeostase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Meristema/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Superóxidos/metabolismo
18.
Nat Plants ; 5(5): 525-538, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061535

RESUMO

Communication between organelles and the nucleus is essential for fitness and survival. Retrograde signals are cues emitted from the organelles to regulate nuclear gene expression. GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 (GUN1), a protein of unknown function, has emerged as a central integrator, participating in multiple retrograde signalling pathways that collectively regulate the nuclear transcriptome. Here, we show that GUN1 regulates chloroplast protein import through interaction with the import-related chaperone cpHSC70-1. We demonstrated that overaccumulation of unimported precursor proteins (preproteins) in the cytosol causes a GUN phenotype in the wild-type background and enhances the GUN phenotype of the gun1 mutant. Furthermore, we identified the cytosolic HSP90 chaperone complex, induced by overaccumulated preproteins, as a central regulator of photosynthetic gene expression that determines the expression of the GUN phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest a model in which protein import capacity, folding stress and the cytosolic HSP90 complex control retrograde communication.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSC70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
19.
Nat Plants ; 5(5): 539-550, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076735

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a major mechanism regulating gene expression in higher eukaryotes. To identify novel players in PTGS, a forward genetics screen was performed on an Arabidopsis thaliana line overexpressing a strong growth-repressive gene, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ERF6). We identified six independent ethyl-methanesulfonate mutants rescuing the dwarfism of ERF6-overexpressing plants as a result of transgene silencing. Among the causative genes, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE5, SUPERKILLER2 and HASTY1 have previously been reported to inhibit PTGS. Notably, the three other causative genes have not, to date, been related to PTGS: UTP:RNA-URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE1 (URT1), C-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-LIKE3 (CPL3) and RESURRECTION1 (RST1). We show that these genes may participate in protecting the 3' end of transgene transcripts. We present a model in which URT1, CPL3 and RST1 are classified as PTGS suppressors, as compromisation of these genes provokes the accumulation of aberrant transcripts which, in turn, trigger the production of small interfering RNAs, initiating RNA silencing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/fisiologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transgenes/genética
20.
J Plant Physiol ; 236: 105-108, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947026

RESUMO

SSRP1 is a subunit of the histone chaperone FACT that associates with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) along the transcribed region of genes. FACT facilitates transcriptional elongation by destabilising nucleosomes in the path of RNAPII, assisting efficient transcription of chromatin templates. In contrast to wild type seeds, freshly harvested seeds of the Arabidopsis ssrp1 mutant germinate efficiently, exhibiting reduced seed dormancy. In line with this phenotype, the ssrp1 seeds have decreased transcript levels of the DOG1 gene, which is a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed dormancy. Analysis of ssrp1 plants harbouring an additional copy of DOG1 show increased levels of DOG1 transcript and consistently more robust seed dormancy. Therefore, our findings indicate that SSRP1 is a novel factor required for the efficient expression of DOG1 and hence a modulator of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/fisiologia , Chaperonas de Histonas/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Germinação , Chaperonas de Histonas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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