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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127776, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777574

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a number of diseases and has demonstrated resistance to conventional antibiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of eugenol and its derivatives allylbenzene, 4-allylanisole, isoeugenol and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol against the S. aureus NorA efflux pump (EP) in association with norfloxacin and ethidium bromide. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed using the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A reduction in the MIC of ethidium bromide (a substrate for several efflux pumps) or norfloxacin was used as a parameter of EP inhibition. Molecular modeling studies were used to predict the 3D structure and analyze the interaction of selected compounds with the binding pocket of the NorA efflux pump. Except for 4-allylanisole and allylbenzene, the compounds presented clinically effective antibacterial activity. When associated with norfloxacin against the SA 1199B strain, 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol eugenol and isoeugenol caused significant reduction in the MIC of the antibiotic, demonstrating synergistic effects. Similar effects were observed when 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, allylbenzene and isoeugenol were associated with ethidium bromide. Together, these findings indicate a potential inhibition of the NorA pump by eugenol and its derivatives. This in vitro evidence was corroborated by docking results demonstrating favorable interactions between 4-allyl-2,6-dimetoxypheno and the NorA pump mediated by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In conclusion, eugenol derivatives have the potential to be used in antibacterial drug development in strains carrying the NorA efflux pump.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Sítios de Ligação , Etídio/farmacologia , Eugenol/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacologia , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/antagonistas & inibidores , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4522, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908144

RESUMO

A unique, protective cell envelope contributes to the broad drug resistance of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Here we use transposon insertion sequencing to identify A. baumannii mutants displaying altered susceptibility to a panel of diverse antibiotics. By examining mutants with antibiotic susceptibility profiles that parallel mutations in characterized genes, we infer the function of multiple uncharacterized envelope proteins, some of which have roles in cell division or cell elongation. Remarkably, mutations affecting a predicted cell wall hydrolase lead to alterations in lipooligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the analysis of altered susceptibility signatures and antibiotic-induced morphology patterns allows us to predict drug synergies; for example, certain beta-lactams appear to work cooperatively due to their preferential targeting of specific cell wall assembly machineries. Our results indicate that the pathogen may be effectively inhibited by the combined targeting of multiple pathways critical for envelope growth.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação
4.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 692: 108516, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745463

RESUMO

Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), the second enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis pathway, is an emerging target for the discovery of biocides. Here, we demonstrate that cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxylate (CPD) inhibits KARIs from the pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) and Campylobacter jejuni (Cj) reversibly with Ki values of 3.03 µM and 0.59 µM, respectively. Another reversible inhibitor of both KARIs, Hoe 704, is more potent than CPD with Ki values of 300 nM and 110 nM for MtKARI and CjKARI, respectively. The most potent inhibitor tested here is N-hydroxy-N-isopropyloxamate (IpOHA). It has a Ki of ~26 nM for MtKARI, but binds rather slowly (kon ~900 M-1s-1). In contrast, IpOHA binds more rapidly (kon ~7000 M-1s-1) to CjKARI and irreversibly.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Campylobacter jejuni/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Campylobacter jejuni/química , Ciclopropanos/química , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/química , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química
5.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 692: 108545, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810476

RESUMO

Many antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs work by competitively inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a vital enzyme in folate metabolism. The interactions between inhibitors and DHFR active site residues are known in many homologs but the contributions from distal residues are less understood. Identifying distal residues that aid in inhibitor binding can improve targeted drug development programs by accounting for distant influences that may be less conserved and subject to frequent resistance causing mutations. Previously, a novel, homology-based, computational approach that mines ligand inhibition data was used to predict residues involved in inhibitor selectivity in the DHFR family. Expectedly, some inhibitor selectivity determining residue positions were predicted to lie in the active site and coincide with experimentally known inhibitor selectivity determining positions. However, other residues that group spatially in clusters distal to the active site have not been previously investigated. In this study, the effect of introducing amino acid substitutions at one of these predicted clusters (His38-Ala39-Ile40) on the inhibitor selectivity profile in Bacillus stearothermophilus dihydrofolate reductase (Bs DHFR) was investigated. Mutations were introduced into these cluster positions to change sidechain chemistry and size. We determined kcat and KM values and measured KD values at equilibrium for two competitive DHFR inhibitors, trimethoprim (TMP) and pyrimethamine (PYR). Mutations in the His38-Ala39-Ile40 cluster significantly impacted inhibitor binding and TMP/PYR selectivity - seven out of nine mutations resulted in tighter binding to PYR when compared to TMP. These data suggest that the His38-Ala39-Ile40 cluster is a distal inhibitor selectivity determining region that favors PYR binding in Bs DHFR and, possibly, throughout the DHFR family.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/enzimologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000805, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810152

RESUMO

Antibiotics are losing efficacy due to the rapid evolution and spread of resistance. Treatments targeting bacterial virulence factors have been considered as alternatives because they target virulence instead of pathogen viability, and should therefore exert weaker selection for resistance than conventional antibiotics. However, antivirulence treatments rarely clear infections, which compromises their clinical applications. Here, we explore the potential of combining antivirulence drugs with antibiotics against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We combined two antivirulence compounds (gallium, a siderophore quencher, and furanone C-30, a quorum sensing [QS] inhibitor) together with four clinically relevant antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, colistin, meropenem, tobramycin) in 9×9 drug concentration matrices. We found that drug-interaction patterns were concentration dependent, with promising levels of synergies occurring at intermediate drug concentrations for certain drug pairs. We then tested whether antivirulence compounds are potent adjuvants, especially when treating antibiotic resistant (AtbR) clones. We found that the addition of antivirulence compounds to antibiotics could restore growth inhibition for most AtbR clones, and even abrogate or reverse selection for resistance in five drug combination cases. Molecular analyses suggest that selection against resistant clones occurs when resistance mechanisms involve restoration of protein synthesis, but not when efflux pumps are up-regulated. Altogether, our work provides a first systematic analysis of antivirulence-antibiotic combinatorial treatments and suggests that such combinations have the potential to be both effective in treating infections and in limiting the spread of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Gálio/farmacologia , Meropeném/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Tobramicina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Combinação de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857767

RESUMO

The effective treatment of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection has been limited and required novel potential agents. Due to the novel drug development crisis, using old antimicrobial agents and combination therapy have been highlighted. This study focused on fosfomycin which inhibits cell wall synthesis and has potential activity on Enterobacteriaceae. We evaluated fosfomycin activity against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and characterized fosfomycin resistance mechanisms. Fosfomycin revealed effective activity against only 31.8% of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The major resistance mechanism was FosA3 production. The co-occurrence of FosA3 overexpression with the mutation of glpT (or loss of glpT) and/or uhpT was mediated high-level resistance (MIC>256 mg/L) to fosfomycin. Moreover, fosA3 silenced in sixteen fosfomycin-susceptible isolates and the plasmid carrying fosA3 of these isolates increased 32- to 64-fold of fosfomycin MICs in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. The in vitro activity of fosfomycin combination with amikacin by checkerboard assay showed synergism and no interaction in six (16.2%) and sixteen isolates (43.3%), respectively. No antagonism of fosfomycin and amikacin was observed. Notably, the silence of aac (6)'-Ib and aphA6 was observed in amikacin-susceptible isolates. Our study suggests that the combination of fosfomycin and amikacin may be insufficient for the treatment of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Amicacina/farmacologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/patologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/genética
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1007898, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797038

RESUMO

New treatments for diseases caused by antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms can be developed by identifying unexplored therapeutic targets and by designing efficient drug screening protocols. In this study, we have screened a library of compounds to find ligands for the flavin-adenine dinucleotide synthase (FADS) -a potential target for drug design against tuberculosis and pneumonia- by implementing a new and efficient virtual screening protocol. The protocol has been developed for the in silico search of ligands of unexplored therapeutic targets, for which limited information about ligands or ligand-receptor structures is available. It implements an integrative funnel-like strategy with filtering layers that increase in computational accuracy. The protocol starts with a pharmacophore-based virtual screening strategy that uses ligand-free receptor conformations from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Then, it performs a molecular docking stage using several docking programs and an exponential consensus ranking strategy. The last filter, samples the conformations of compounds bound to the target using MD simulations. The MD conformations are scored using several traditional scoring functions in combination with a newly-proposed score that takes into account the fluctuations of the molecule with a Morse-based potential. The protocol was optimized and validated using a compound library with known ligands of the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS. Then, it was used to find new FADS ligands from a compound library of 14,000 molecules. A small set of 17 in silico filtered molecules were tested experimentally. We identified five inhibitors of the activity of the flavin adenylyl transferase module of the FADS, and some of them were able to inhibit growth of three bacterial species: C. ammoniagenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, where the last two are human pathogens. Overall, the results show that the integrative VS protocol is a cost-effective solution for the discovery of ligands of unexplored therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Nucleotidiltransferases , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Corynebacterium/enzimologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 8099-8112, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602532

RESUMO

Translational frameshift errors are often deleterious to the synthesis of functional proteins and could therefore be promoted therapeutically to kill bacteria. TrmD (tRNA-(N(1)G37) methyltransferase) is an essential tRNA modification enzyme in bacteria that prevents +1 errors in the reading frame during protein translation and represents an attractive potential target for the development of new antibiotics. Here, we describe the application of a structure-guided fragment-based drug discovery approach to the design of a new class of inhibitors against TrmD in Mycobacterium abscessus. Fragment library screening, followed by structure-guided chemical elaboration of hits, led to the rapid development of drug-like molecules with potent in vitro TrmD inhibitory activity. Several of these compounds exhibit activity against planktonic M. abscessus and M. tuberculosis as well as against intracellular M. abscessus and M. leprae, indicating their potential as the basis for a novel class of broad-spectrum mycobacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , tRNA Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antibacterianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mycobacterium abscessus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium abscessus/enzimologia , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/enzimologia , Ligação Proteica , tRNA Metiltransferases/química , tRNA Metiltransferases/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701970

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance prompts the search for new sources of antibiotics with new targets at bacteria cell. To investigate the antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum cassia L. essential oil (CCeo) alone and in combination with antibiotics against carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains was determined by Vitek® 2 and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antibacterial activity of CCeo and its synergism with antibiotics was determined using agar disk diffusion, broth microdilution, time-kill, and checkboard methods. The integrity of the bacterial cell membrane in S. marcescens was monitored by protein leakage assay. CCeo exhibited inhibitory effects with MIC = 281.25 µg.mL-1. The association between CCeo and polymyxin B showed a decrease in terms of viable cell counts on survival curves over time after a 4 hour-treatment with a FIC index value of 0.006. Protein leakage was observed with increasing concentrations for CCeo and CCeo + polymyxin B treatments. CCeo showed antibacterial activity against the studied strains. When associated with polymyxin B, a synergistic effect was able to inhibit bacterial growth rapidly and consistently, making it a potential candidate for the development of an alternative treatment and drug delivery system for carbapenemase-producing strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polimixina B/farmacologia , Infecções por Serratia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/genética , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Serratia/genética , Infecções por Serratia/microbiologia , Serratia marcescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/patogenicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , beta-Lactamases/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574205

RESUMO

Viral infections complicated by a bacterial infection are typically referred to as coinfections or superinfections. Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus (GAS), is not the most common bacteria associated with influenza A virus (IAV) superinfections but did cause significant mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic even though all isolates are susceptible to penicillin. One approach to improve the outcome of these infections is to use passive immunization targeting GAS. To test this idea, we assessed the efficacy of passive immunotherapy using antisera against either the streptococcal M protein or streptolysin O (SLO) in a murine model of IAV-GAS superinfection. Prophylactic treatment of mice with antiserum to either SLO or the M protein decreased morbidity compared to mice treated with non-immune sera; however, neither significantly decreased mortality. Therapeutic use of antisera to SLO decreased morbidity compared to mice treated with non-immune sera but neither antisera significantly reduced mortality. Overall, the results suggest that further development of antibodies targeting the M protein or SLO may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of invasive GAS diseases, including IAV-GAS superinfections, which may be particularly important during influenza pandemics.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Estreptolisinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/terapia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Soros Imunes/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/terapia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Coelhos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/fisiologia , Estreptolisinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Estreptolisinas/metabolismo , Superinfecção/microbiologia , Superinfecção/terapia , Superinfecção/virologia
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008897, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589664

RESUMO

The LonA (or Lon) protease is a central post-translational regulator in diverse bacterial species. In Vibrio cholerae, LonA regulates a broad range of behaviors including cell division, biofilm formation, flagellar motility, c-di-GMP levels, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), virulence gene expression, and host colonization. Despite LonA's role in cellular processes critical for V. cholerae's aquatic and infectious life cycles, relatively few LonA substrates have been identified. LonA protease substrates were therefore identified through comparison of the proteomes of wild-type and ΔlonA strains following translational inhibition. The most significantly enriched LonA-dependent protein was TfoY, a known regulator of motility and the T6SS in V. cholerae. Experiments showed that TfoY was required for LonA-mediated repression of motility and T6SS-dependent killing. In addition, TfoY was stabilized under high c-di-GMP conditions and biochemical analysis determined direct binding of c-di-GMP to LonA results in inhibition of its protease activity. The work presented here adds to the list of LonA substrates, identifies LonA as a c-di-GMP receptor, demonstrates that c-di-GMP regulates LonA activity and TfoY protein stability, and helps elucidate the mechanisms by which LonA controls important V. cholerae behaviors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Cólera/microbiologia , GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , Protease La/antagonistas & inibidores , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Protease La/genética , Protease La/isolamento & purificação , Protease La/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , Proteômica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470050

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health and economic concern. Current antimicrobial agents are becoming less effective against common bacterial infections. We previously identified pyrrolocins A and C, which showed activity against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. Structurally similar compounds, known as pyrrolidinediones (e.g., TA-289, equisetin), also display antibacterial activity. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds against bacteria was undetermined. Here, we show that pyrrolocin C and equisetin inhibit bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the first step in fatty acid synthesis. We used transcriptomic data, metabolomic analysis, fatty acid rescue and acetate incorporation experiments to show that a major mechanism of action of the pyrrolidinediones is inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis, identifying ACC as the probable molecular target. This hypothesis was further supported using purified proteins, demonstrating that biotin carboxylase is the inhibited component of ACC. There are few known antibiotics that target this pathway and, therefore, we believe that these compounds may provide the basis for alternatives to current antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Domínio Catalítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Metabolômica , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 200: 112390, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447196

RESUMO

The mycobacterial membrane protein Large 3 (MmpL3) is an inner membrane protein that transports trehalose-monomycolates, precursors for trehalose-dimycolates and mycolic acids that make up essential components of the mycobacterial outer membrane. Inhibition of MmpL3 weakens the mycobacterial cell wall and ultimately results in cell death in both in vitro and in vivo infection models. This highlights the therapeutic potential of MmpL3 as a drug target. High-throughput whole-cell screening along with whole genome sequencing of resistant mutants has identified numerous classes of compounds that can be classified as MmpL3 inhibitors. In this review, we provide insights into the current development of various MmpL3 inhibitors and discuss the potential challenges in this area.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fatores Corda/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Micólicos/metabolismo
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 324: 108614, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371237

RESUMO

Organic acids such as fumarate are commonly used as antimicrobials in foods. Apart from the classical mechanism of intracellular dissociation, weak acids are active through important additional mechanisms which are not well-defined. Fumarate, based on its low dissociation constants is expected to have a low antimicrobial activity which is not the case, suggesting additional antimicrobial effects. Previously, fumarate has been shown to inhibit the GAD system of E. coli and therefore, we investigated for first time how it affects this system in Listeria monocytogenes. We found that fumarate is highly antimicrobial towards L. monocytogenes under acidic conditions. We also show that in cell lysates and similarly to E. coli, fumarate inhibits the GAD system of L. monocytogenes. However, despite the inhibition and in contrast to E. coli, L. monocytogenes is able to counteract this and achieve a higher extracellular GAD output (measured by GABA export) in the presence of fumarate compared to its absence. The latter is achieved by a dramatic 9.44-fold increase in the transcription of gadD2 which is the main component of the extracellular GAD system. Interestingly, although maleate, the cis-isomer of fumarate results in a more dramatic 48.5-fold gadD2 upregulation than that of fumarate, the final GADe output is lower suggesting that maleate might be a stronger inhibitor of the GAD system. In contrast, the GADe removes more protons in the presence of fumarate than in the presence of HCl at the same pH. All the above suggest that there are additional effects by fumarate which might be associated with the intracellular GAD system (GADi) or other acid resistance systems. We assessed the GADi output by looking at the intracellular GABA pools which were not affected by fumarate. However, there are multiple pathways (e.g. GABA shunt) that can affect GABAi pools and we cannot conclusively suggest that GADi is affected. Furthermore, similarly to maleate, fumarate is able to eliminate L. monocytogenes in biofilms under acidic conditions. Overall, fumarate is a good candidate for L. monocytogenes decontamination and biofilm removal which is not toxic compared to the toxic maleate.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fumaratos/farmacologia , Glutamato Descarboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Maleatos/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357366

RESUMO

The study was designed to assess whether plant extracts / phytochemical (D-Pinitol) synergistically combine with antituberculosis drugs and act on Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) as well as assess their mode of action on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) Filamenting temperature sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein. Resazurin microtitre plate assay (Checker board) was performed to analyze the activity of plant extracts against M. smegmatis. Synergistic behaviour of plant extracts / D-Pinitol with Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) were determined by time-kill and checker board assays. Elongation of M. smegmatis cells due to this treatment was determined by light microscopy. The effect of Hexane methanol extract (HXM) plant extracts on cell viability was determined using PI/SYTO9 dual dye reporter Live/Dead assay. Action of HXM plant extracts / D-Pinitol on inhibition of FtsZ protein was done using Guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) light scattering assay and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The Hexane-methanolic plant extract of Acacia nilotica, Aegle marmelos and Glycyrrhiza glabra showed antimycobacterial activity at 1.56 ± 0.03, 1.32 ± 0.02 and 1.25 ± 0.03 mg/mL respectively and that of INH and RIF were 4.00 ± 0.06 µg/mL and 2.00 ± 0.04 µg/mL respectively. These plant extracts and major phytochemical exudate D-Pinitol was found to act synergistically with antimycobacterial drugs INH and RIF with an FIC index ~ 0.20. Time-Kill kinetics studies indicate that, these plant extracts were bacteriostatic in nature. D-Pinitol in conjunction with INH and RIF exhibited a 2 Log reduction in the growth of viable cells compared to untreated. Attempt to elucidate their mode of action through phenotypic analysis indicated that these plant extracts and D-Pinitol was found to interfere in cell division there by leading to an abnormal elongated cellular morphology. HXM extracts and D-Pinitol synergistically combined with the first line tuberculosis drugs, INH and RIF, to act on M. smegmatis. The increase in the length of M. smegmatis cells on treatment with D-Pinitol and HXM extract of the plants indicated that they hinder the cell division mechanism thereby leading to a filamentous phenotype, and finally leading to cell death. In addition, the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane is also altered causing cell death. Further gene expression analysis showed that these plant extracts and D-Pinitol hampers with function of FtsZ protein which was confirmed through in vitro inhibition of FtsZ-GTPase enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Mycobacterium smegmatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium smegmatis/genética , Plantas Medicinais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/antagonistas & inibidores , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium smegmatis/citologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Temperatura
17.
J Med Chem ; 63(11): 5990-6002, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420736

RESUMO

Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens represents a critical clinical need. Here, we report a novel γ-lactam pyrazolidinone that targets penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and incorporates a siderophore moiety to facilitate uptake into the periplasm. The MIC values of γ-lactam YU253434, 1, are reported along with the finding that 1 is resistant to hydrolysis by all four classes of ß-lactamases. The druglike characteristics and mouse PK data are described along with the X-ray crystal structure of 1 binding to its target PBP3.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactamas/química , Sideróforos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Meia-Vida , Lactamas/metabolismo , Lactamas/farmacocinética , Lactamas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Sideróforos/metabolismo
18.
J Med Chem ; 63(9): 4749-4761, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240584

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. InhA has been the focus of numerous drug discovery efforts as this is the target of the first line pro-drug isoniazid. However, with resistance to this drug becoming more common, the aim has been to find new clinical candidates that directly inhibit this enzyme and that do not require activation by the catalase peroxidase KatG, thus circumventing the majority of the resistance mechanisms. In this work, the screening and validation of a fragment library are described, and the development of the fragment hits using a fragment growing strategy was employed, which led to the development of InhA inhibitors with affinities of up to 250 nM.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/química , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredutases/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
19.
J Med Chem ; 63(10): 5367-5386, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342688

RESUMO

In search of novel drugs against tuberculosis, we previously discovered and profiled a novel hydantoin-based family that demonstrated highly promising in vitro potency against Mycobacterium. tuberculosis. The compounds were found to be noncovalent inhibitors of DprE1, a subunit of decaprenylphosphoryl-ß-d-ribose-2'-epimerase. This protein, localized in the periplasmic space of the mycobacterial cell wall, was shown to be an essential and vulnerable antimycobacterial drug target. Here, we report the further SAR exploration of this chemical family through more than 80 new analogues. Among these, the most active representatives combined submicromolar cellular potency and nanomolar target affinity with balanced physicochemical properties and low human cytotoxicity. Moreover, we demonstrate in vivo activity in an acute Mtb infection model and provide further proof of DprE1 being the target of the hydantoins. Overall, the hydantoin family of DprE1 inhibitors represents a promising noncovalent lead series for the discovery of novel antituberculosis agents.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/antagonistas & inibidores , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidantoínas/química , Hidantoínas/farmacologia , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Animais , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hidantoínas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/metabolismo
20.
Biochem J ; 477(7): 1323-1344, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202613

RESUMO

Metacaspases are novel cysteine proteases found in apicomplexan whose function is poorly understood. Our earlier studies on Plasmodium falciparum metacaspase-2 (PfMCA-2) revealed that the caspase inhibitor, Z-FA-FMK efficiently inhibited PfMCA-2 activity and, expression, and significantly blocked in vitro progression of the parasite developmental cycle via apoptosis-like parasite death. Building on these findings, we synthesized a set of novel inhibitors based on structural modification of Z-FA-FMK with the amides of piperic acid and investigated their effect on PfMCA-2. One of these analogs, SS-5, specifically inhibited the activity and expression of PfMCA-2. The activities of some other known malarial proteases (falcipains, plasmepsins and vivapain), and human cathepsins-B, D and L, and caspase-3 and -7 were not inhibited by SS-5. SS-5 blocked the development of P. falciparum in vitro (IC50 1 µM) and caused prominent morphological distortions. Incubation with SS-5 led to persistent parasite oxidative stress accompanied by depolarization of mitochondrial potential and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+. SS-5 also inhibited the development of P. berghei in a murine model. Our results suggest that the inhibition of PfMCA-2 results in oxidative stress, leading to apoptosis-like parasite death. Thus, SS-5 offers a starting point for the optimization of new antimalarials, and PfMCA-2 could be a novel target for antimalarial drug discovery.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Amidas/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/química , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cetonas/química , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
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