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1.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103284, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500712

RESUMO

The GAD system is widely present in several types of organisms and is known to play an important role in bacterial acid tolerance. There is only one account of this system playing a role in oxidative stress in bacteria and one in yeasts. Here we show for first time that it affects the oxidative stress resistance of a Gram-positive bacterium, (L. monocytogenes, tested in three strains; 10403S, EGD-e, and LO28). We found a statistically significant reduction in survival after H2O2 exposure in ΔgadD3 and ΔgadD2 of EGD-e and in ΔgadD1 of LO28. Furthermore, we observed a lag phase prolongation in ΔgadD3 of 10403S and EGD-e and a larger inhibition zone in disk diffusion assay for ΔgadD1 and ΔgadD3 of EGD-e upon H2O2 exposure. All GAD genes playing a role in oxidative stress resistance are part of GADi system and this occurs partly through catalase activity, while the most potent GADe system plays no role. The latter effects could occur through the GABA shunt, but we show here that mutants in succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase do not show a phenotype suggesting that either effects are through the GABA transaminase or, this pathway is not involved. Our study highlights for first time the role of the GAD system in oxidative stress resistance of a Gram-positive bacterium, which could be used in Food Hurdle Technology to eliminate pathogens such as L. monocytogenes, while it gives an insight on the general mechanism.


Assuntos
Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Listeria monocytogenes/genética
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 561-566, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840510

RESUMO

2-Hydroxyphenazine (2-OH-PHZ) is an effective biocontrol antibiotic secreted by Pseudomonas chlororaphis GP72AN and is transformed from phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). PCA is the main component of the recently registered biopesticide "Shenqinmycin". Previous research showed that 2-OH-PHZ was better in controlling wheat take-all disease than PCA; however, 2-OH-PHZ production was low under natural conditions. Herein, we confirmed that PCA induced reactive oxygen species in its host P. chlororaphis GP72AN and that the addition of DTT improved PCA production by 1.8-fold, whereas the supplementation of K3[Fe(CN)6] and H2O2 increased the conversion rate of PCA to 2-OH-PHZ. Finally, a two-stage fermentation strategy combining the addition of DTT at 12 h and H2O2 at 24 h enhanced 2-OH-PHZ production. Taken together, the two-stage fermentation strategy was designed to enhance 2-OH-PHZ production for the first time, and it provided a valuable reference for the fermentation of other antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Glicerol/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Pseudomonas chlororaphis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(12): 935-940, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We focused on detecting the most frequent resistance mechanisms in selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains and determining their antimicrobial resistance. BACKGROUND: MDR pathogens pose urgent public health threat due to limited treatment options, rigorous control measures and significant mortality. METHODS: We confirmed extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae through guidelines, as well following ß-lactamases: AmpC by cloxacillin, class A carbapenemase with phenylboronic acid, class B metallo-ß-lactamase with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Multilocus sequence typing was used to investigate 20 Escherichia coli strains. RESULTS: Overall 205 mostly ESBL Escherichia coli demonstrated resistance against amikacin (4.7 %), tigecycline (1.2 %), and no resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam, meropenem, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin. Out of 41 Klebsiella species (spp.), 37 (90.2 %) showed carbapenemase activity, 13 (35.1 %) of class A and 24 (64.9 %) of class B. Resistance was following: meropenem 66.7 %, tigecyclin 10.2 % and colistin 0 %. From Enterobacter spp. 21 strains, 14 (66.7 %) were ESBL, 5 produced ESBL and/or AmpC and 2 were MDR. We ascertained 14 (70 %) E. coli sequence type - ST131. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed various resistance mechanisms in concert with different agents and association of specific ST131 within E. coli. These characteristics considerably contribute to emergence of antimicrobial resistance (Tab. 4, Ref. 30).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/enzimologia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , beta-Lactamases/genética
4.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 477-491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880892

RESUMO

This study explored a potential treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections that combines thioridazine (TZ), an efflux pump inhibitor, and miconazole (MCZ), an autolysis inducer, with the anti-microbial drug cloxacillin (CXN). In vitro, the combination treatment of TZ and MCZ significantly reduced 4096-fold (Σ (FIC) = 0.1 - 1.25) the MIC value of CXN against S. aureus. In vivo, the combination therapy significantly relieved breast redness and swelling in mice infected with either clinical or standard strains of S. aureus. Meanwhile, the number of bacteria isolated from the MRSA135-infected mice decreased significantly (p = 0.0427 < 0.05) after the combination therapy when compared to monotherapy. Moreover, the number of bacteria isolated from the mice infected with a reference S. aureus strain also decreased significantly (p = 0.0191 < 0.05) after the combination therapy when compared to monotherapy. The pathological changes were more significant in the CXN-treated group when compared to mice treated with a combination of three drugs. In addition, we found that combination therapy reduced the release of the bacteria-stimulated cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Cytokine assays in serum revealed that CXN alone induced IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the mouse groups infected with ATCC 29213 or MRSA135, and the combination of these three drugs significantly reduced IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α concentrations. Also, the levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in mice treated with a combination of three drugs were significantly lower than in the CXN-treated group. Given the synergistic antibacterial activity of CXN, we concluded that the combination of CXN with TZ, and MCZ could be developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against S. aureus.This study explored a potential treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections that combines thioridazine (TZ), an efflux pump inhibitor, and miconazole (MCZ), an autolysis inducer, with the anti-microbial drug cloxacillin (CXN). In vitro, the combination treatment of TZ and MCZ significantly reduced 4096-fold (Σ (FIC) = 0.1 ­ 1.25) the MIC value of CXN against S. aureus. In vivo, the combination therapy significantly relieved breast redness and swelling in mice infected with either clinical or standard strains of S. aureus. Meanwhile, the number of bacteria isolated from the MRSA135-infected mice decreased significantly (p = 0.0427 < 0.05) after the combination therapy when compared to monotherapy. Moreover, the number of bacteria isolated from the mice infected with a reference S. aureus strain also decreased significantly (p = 0.0191 < 0.05) after the combination therapy when compared to monotherapy. The pathological changes were more significant in the CXN-treated group when compared to mice treated with a combination of three drugs. In addition, we found that combination therapy reduced the release of the bacteria-stimulated cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Cytokine assays in serum revealed that CXN alone induced IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the mouse groups infected with ATCC 29213 or MRSA135, and the combination of these three drugs significantly reduced IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α concentrations. Also, the levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in mice treated with a combination of three drugs were significantly lower than in the CXN-treated group. Given the synergistic antibacterial activity of CXN, we concluded that the combination of CXN with TZ, and MCZ could be developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against S. aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteriólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloxacilina/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Miconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/citologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Tioridazina/farmacologia
5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 541-548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880897

RESUMO

Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm formation was provided. Among the materials derived from ocular infections from 456 patients, SA was found in 18.2% (n = 83) of cases (one SA isolate per one patient). Most infections were identified in the age group of over 65 years (OR 8.4 95%CI; 1.03-68.49). The majority of patients (73.4%) were hospitalized. Among the virulence and resistance genes, the most frequently detected were the lukE (72.2%, n = 60) and ermA (15.6%, n = 13) genes. A positive result of the CRA test (the ability of biofilm formation) was found in 66.2% (n = 55) of isolates. Among the strains under study, 6.0% (n = 5) had the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phenotype, and 26.5% (n = 22) had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype. In 48 (57.8%) isolates the neomycin resistance was revealed. All isolates under study were sensitive to vancomycin. The population most susceptible to ocular SA infections consists of hospitalized patients aged 65 and more. The SA strains under study showed the increased ability to biofilm formation. In the strains tested, high susceptibility to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones was demonstrated. However, the high level of drug resistance to neomycin detected in this study among SA isolates and the blood-ocular barrier makes it difficult to treat ocular infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 331-341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880879

RESUMO

Streptococcus iniae is a pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria that impacted high mortality to many fish species as well as capable of causing serious disease to humans. Alanine racemase (Alr, EC 5.1.1.1) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the racemization of L-alanine and D-alanine. In this study, we purified alanine racemase from S. iniae that was isolated from an infected Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), as well as determined its biochemical characteristics and inhibitors. The alr gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1107 bp, encoding a protein of 369 amino acids, which has a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The enzyme has optimal activity at a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 9.5. It belongs to the PLP-dependent enzymes family and is highly specific to L-alanine. S. iniae Alr (SiAlr) could be inhibited by some metal ions, hydroxylamine and dithiothreitol (DTT). The kinetic parameters K m and V max of the enzyme were 33.11 mM, 2426 units/mg for L-alanine, and 14.36 mM, 963.6 units/mg for D-alanine. Finally, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values and antibiotic activity of two alanine racemase inhibitors (homogentisic acid and hydroquinone), were determined and found to be effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employed in this study.Streptococcus iniae is a pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria that impacted high mortality to many fish species as well as capable of causing serious disease to humans. Alanine racemase (Alr, EC 5.1.1.1) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the racemization of L-alanine and D-alanine. In this study, we purified alanine racemase from S. iniae that was isolated from an infected Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), as well as determined its biochemical characteristics and inhibitors. The alr gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1107 bp, encoding a protein of 369 amino acids, which has a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The enzyme has optimal activity at a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 9.5. It belongs to the PLP-dependent enzymes family and is highly specific to L-alanine. S. iniae Alr (SiAlr) could be inhibited by some metal ions, hydroxylamine and dithiothreitol (DTT). The kinetic parameters K m and V max of the enzyme were 33.11 mM, 2426 units/mg for L-alanine, and 14.36 mM, 963.6 units/mg for D-alanine. Finally, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values and antibiotic activity of two alanine racemase inhibitors (homogentisic acid and hydroquinone), were determined and found to be effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employed in this study.


Assuntos
Alanina Racemase/química , Alanina Racemase/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus iniae/enzimologia , Alanina Racemase/antagonistas & inibidores , Alanina Racemase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Humanos , Cinética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Streptococcus iniae/química , Especificidade por Substrato
7.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 353-369, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880881

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological factor of listeriosis. The main source of these organisms is food, including dairy products. The aim was to determine the multiple correlations between the drug susceptibility, virulence genes (VGs), and biofilm formation on silicone teat cups of milk-borne and human L. monocytogenes strains. The spread of L. monocytogenes via contaminated teat rubbers was assessed. The L. monocytogenes strains recovered from milk (18), human blood (10), and the reference strain ATCC®19111™ were used in the study. Penicillin resistance was the most prevalent resistance in the milk isolates (n=8; 44.4%), whereas among clinical strains erythromycin resistance was predominating - (n=6; 60%). The most frequent VGs among strains isolated from milk were hlyA (100%) and plcB (100%) whereas in strains isolated from blood - hlyA (100%) and prfA (90%). All tested VGs were present in 50% of blood isolates and 11% of milk-borne strains. The strains isolated from milk formed a significantly stronger biofilm. The strains with more numerous virulence genes were resistant to more antibiotics and formed a stronger biofilm. It was shown that contaminated teat cups might contribute to the transmission of L. monocytogenes in the herd. It seems reasonable to monitor the occurrence of L. monocytogenes biofilm in a dairy processing environment.Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological factor of listeriosis. The main source of these organisms is food, including dairy products. The aim was to determine the multiple correlations between the drug susceptibility, virulence genes (VGs), and biofilm formation on silicone teat cups of milk-borne and human L. monocytogenes strains. The spread of L. monocytogenes via contaminated teat rubbers was assessed. The L. monocytogenes strains recovered from milk (18), human blood (10), and the reference strain ATCC®19111™ were used in the study. Penicillin resistance was the most prevalent resistance in the milk isolates (n=8; 44.4%), whereas among clinical strains erythromycin resistance was predominating ­ (n=6; 60%). The most frequent VGs among strains isolated from milk were hlyA (100%) and plcB (100%) whereas in strains isolated from blood ­ hlyA (100%) and prfA (90%). All tested VGs were present in 50% of blood isolates and 11% of milk-borne strains. The strains isolated from milk formed a significantly stronger biofilm. The strains with more numerous virulence genes were resistant to more antibiotics and formed a stronger biofilm. It was shown that contaminated teat cups might contribute to the transmission of L. monocytogenes in the herd. It seems reasonable to monitor the occurrence of L. monocytogenes biofilm in a dairy processing environment.


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Bovinos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/transmissão , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(92): 13864-13867, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670736

RESUMO

The crystal structures of the conserved region domains of HtaA and HtaB, which act as heme binding/transport proteins in the heme uptake machinery in Corynebacterium glutamicum, are determined for the first time. The molecular mechanism of heme transfer among these proteins is proposed based on the spectroscopic and structural analyses.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Heme/química , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1174: 113-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713198

RESUMO

Functional amyloid (FuBA) is produced by a large fraction of all bacterial species and represents a constructive use of the stable amyloid fold, in contrast to the pathological amyloid seen in neurodegenerative diseases. When assembled into amyloid, FuBA is unusually robust and withstands most chemicals including denaturants and SDS. Uses include strengthening of bacterial biofilms, cell-to-cell communication, cell wall construction and even bacterial warfare. Biogenesis is under tight spatio-temporal control, thanks to a simple but efficient secretion system which in E. coli, Pseudomonas and other well-studied bacteria includes a major amyloid component that is kept unfolded in the periplasm thanks to chaperones, threaded through the outer membrane via a pore protein and anchored to the cell surface through a nucleator and possibly other helper proteins. In these systems, amyloid formation is promoted through imperfect repeats, but other evolutionarily unrelated proteins either have no or only partially conserved repeats or simply consist of small peptides with multiple structural roles. This makes bioinformatics analysis challenging, though the sophisticated amyloid prediction tools developed from research in pathological amyloid together with the steady increase in identification of further examples of amyloid will strengthen genomic data mining. Functional amyloid represents an intriguing source of robust yet biodegradable materials with new properties, when combining the optimized self-assembly properties of the amyloid component with e.g. peptides with different binding properties or surface-reactive protein binders. Sophisticated patterns can also be obtained by co-incubating bacteria producing different types of amyloid, while amyloid inclusion bodies may lead to slow-release nanopills.


Assuntos
Amiloide , Proteínas de Bactérias , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Amiloide/biossíntese , Amiloide/química , Amiloide/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química
10.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(11): 1403-1410, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760926

RESUMO

Genomes of photoautotrophic organisms containing type I photosynthetic reaction center were searched for the rnf genes encoding Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (RNF). These genes were absent in heliobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, and plants; however, genomes of many green sulfur bacteria (especially marine ones) were found to contain the full rnf operon. Analysis of RNA isolated from the marine green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeovibrioides revealed a high level of rnf expression. It was found that the activity of Na+-dependent flavodoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase detected in the membrane fraction of Chl. phaeovibrioides was absent in the membrane fraction of the freshwater green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum, which is closely related to Chl. phaeovibrioides but whose genome lacks the rnf genes. Illumination of the membrane fraction of Chl. phaeovibrioides but not of Cba. limnaeum resulted in the light-induced NAD+ reduction. Based on the obtained data, we concluded that in some green sulfur bacteria, RNF may be involved in the NADH formation that should increase the efficiency of light energy conservation in these microorganisms and can serve as the first example of the use of Na+ energetics in photosynthetic electron transport chains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Chlorobi/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transporte de Elétrons , Luz , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/química , Oxirredutases/genética , Fotossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706086

RESUMO

Plants are considered to be a leading source for possible human therapeutic agents. This holistic study has investigated the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS), anti-infection, antioxidant and anti-photoaging properties of neglected plant Diplocyclos palmatus. The results showed that D. palmatus methanolic leaf extract (DPME) effectively inhibited the quorum sensing (QS) regulated virulence factor production as well as biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens. The transcriptomic analysis revealed that DPME significantly downed the expression of QS-regulated genes such as fimA, fimC, flhC, bsmB, pigP and shlA in S. marcescens, which supports the outcome of in vitro bioassays. Further, the docking study revealed that the presence of active compounds, namely tocopherols and phytol, DPME exhibited its anti-QS activity against S. marcescens. In addition, DPME treatment extended the lifespan of S. marcescens infected C. elegans by the action of dropping the internal accumulation. Further, qPCR analysis clearly revealed that DPME treatment significantly up-regulated the expression of the lifespan-related gene (daf-16) and immune-related genes (clec-60, clec-87, lys-7 and bec-1) in S. marcescens infected C.elegans. On the other hand, DPME extensively reduced the UV-A induced ROS stress, thereby, extended the lifespan in UV-A photoaged C. elegans. Further, the qPCR analysis also confirmed the up-regulation of daf-16, clec-60, clec-87 and col-19 genes which advocated the improvement of the lifespan, healthspan and collagen production in UV-A photoaged C. elegans. Further bioassays evidenced that that the lifespan extension of photoaged C. elegans was accomplished by the actions of antioxidants such as tocopherols and phytol in DPME.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos da radiação , Cucurbitaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Envelhecimento/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Infecções por Serratia/patologia , Infecções por Serratia/veterinária , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12816-12823, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675231

RESUMO

Microbial degradation plays a major role in the dissipation of pendimethalin, and nitroreduction is an initial and detoxicating step. Previously, a pendimethalin nitroreductase, PNR, was identified in Bacillus subtilis Y3. Here, another pendimethalin nitroreductase from strain Y3, LNR, was identified. LNR shares only 40% identity with PNR and reduces the aromatic ring C-6 nitro group of pendimethalin and both nitro groups of trifluralin, butralin, and oryzalin. The catalytic activities against the four dinitroanilines were much higher for LNR than for PNR. lnr deletion significantly reduced the pendimethalin-reduction activity (60% activity loss), while pnr deletion led to only 30% activity loss, indicating that both LNR and PNR were involved in pendimethalin nitroreduction in strain Y3; however, LNR played the major role. This study facilitates the elucidation of pendimethalin catabolism and provides degrading enzyme resources for the removal of dinitroaniline herbicide residues in environment and agricultural products.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Nitrorredutases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Compostos de Anilina/química , Bacillus subtilis/classificação , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Herbicidas/química , Nitrorredutases/química , Nitrorredutases/genética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(42): 23338-23345, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617504

RESUMO

Nature exploits different strategies for enhancing the catalytic activity of enzymes, often resorting to producing beneficial mutations. The case of post-translational proline hydroxylation mutation in the active site of polysaccharide deacetylase (PDA) Bc1960 from Bacillus cereus is an interesting example of how small chemical modifications can cause significant improvements in enzymatic activity. In the present study the deacetylation mechanism promoted by both OH-proline (2Hyp) and standard proline (Pro) containing PDA is investigated using density functional theory. Although the mechanism presented for the two examined enzymes is in agreement with protease catalysis in metalloenzymes, the analysis along the potential energy surface (PES) reveals that the intermediate and product benefit energetically from the presence of the hydroxyl group on the proline. Our calculations provide evidence that for PDA-2Hyp, the hydrogen bond network established by the -OH group on the Cα of the proline with its closest neighbors stabilizes the transition states and, consequently, the reaction takes advantage of this. These results further contribute towards explaining the different catalytic activity experimentally observed for the polysaccharide deacetylase enzymes.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Amidoidrolases/química , Bacillus cereus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Biocatálise , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Hidroxiprolina/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Termodinâmica
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12502-12510, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623431

RESUMO

Succinic acid (SA) is applied in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. 5-Hydroxyleucine (5-HLeu) is a promising precursor for the biosynthesis of antituberculosis drugs. Here, we designed a promising synthetic route for the simultaneous production of SA and 5-HLeu by combining l-leucine dioxygenase (NpLDO), l-glutamate oxidase (LGOX), and catalase (CAT). Two bioconversion systems: "a multienzyme cascade catalysis in vitro" (MECCS) and "whole-cell catalysis system" (WCCS) were constructed. A high-activity NpLDO mutant was screened by error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed 6.1-fold improvement of catalytic activity. After optimization of reaction conditions, MECSS yielded 3.15 g/L SA and 3.92 g/L 5-HLeu, while the production of SA and 5-HLeu by the most effective WCSS reached 15.12 and 18.83 g/L, respectively. This is the first attempt to use ferrous iron/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases for the simultaneous production of SA and hydroxy-amino-acid. This research provides a tool for industrial production of food of high-value products from low-cost raw materials.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Catalase/química , Dioxigenases/química , Leucina/química , Nostoc/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/química , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/química , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Nostoc/enzimologia , Nostoc/genética , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo
15.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(11): 2657-2660, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624823

RESUMO

Mr4511 from Methylobacterium radiotolerans is a 164 amino acid protein built of a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding, blue-light responsive LOV (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) core domain plus flanking regions. In contrast to the majority of LOV domains, Mr4511 lacks a tryptophan residue that was previously identified as a major quencher for the FMN triplet state in photosensitizers for singlet oxygen (SO) engineered from these photoreceptors. Here we show that for Mr4511 it is sufficient to only mutate the reactive cysteine responsible for the photocycle (Cys71) in the native protein to generate an efficient SO photosensitizer: both C71S and C71G variants exhibit SO quantum yields of formation, ΦΔ, around 0.2 in air-saturated solutions. Under oxygen saturated conditions, ΦΔ reaches ∼0.5 in deuterated buffer. The introduction of Trp112 in the canonical position for LOV domains dramatically lowers ΦΔ to values comparable to miniSOG, one of the early FMN binding proteins touted as a SO sensitizer. Besides its SO properties, Mr4511 is also exceedingly robust against denaturation with urea and is more photostable than free FMN.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Methylobacterium/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/química , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/metabolismo , Polarização de Fluorescência , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oxigênio/química , Ligação Proteica , Teoria Quântica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ureia/química
17.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(11): 5829-5844, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593627

RESUMO

A powerful computational strategy to determine the equilibrium association constant of two macromolecules with explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is the "geometric route", which considers the reversible physical separation of the bound complex in solution. Nonetheless, multiple challenges remain to render this type of methodology reliable and computationally efficient in practice. In particular, in one, formulation of the geometric route relies on the potential of mean force (PMF) for physically separating the two binding partners restrained along a straight axis, which must be selected prior to the calculation. However, practical applications indicate that the calculation of the separation PMF along the predefined rectilinear pathway may be suboptimal and slowly convergent. Recognizing that a rectilinear straight separation pathway is generally not representative of how the protein complex physically separates in solution, we put forth a novel theoretical framework for binding free-energy calculations, leaning on the optimal curvilinear minimum free-energy path (MFEP) determined from the string method. The proposed formalism is validated by comparing the results obtained using both rectilinear and curvilinear pathways for a prototypical host-guest complex formed by cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) binding benzene, and for the barnase-barstar protein complex. On the basis of multi-microsecond MD calculations, we find that the calculations following the traditional rectilinear pathway and the string-based curvilinear pathway agree quantitatively, but convergence is faster with the latter.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Benzeno/química , Benzeno/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/metabolismo , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/química , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11584-11590, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566380

RESUMO

Ureolytic microbes play a pivotal role in the maintenance of soil fertility. Soil aggregates are supposed to provide heterogeneous habitats for microorganisms, which may result in distinct metabolic functions. However, limited information is available regarding the distribution patterns, driving factors, and activity of ureolytic microbiota at the aggregate scale. In this study, we characterized the ureolytic microbiota and urease activity of three soil aggregate fractions from an Inceptisol subjected to 5 years of different fertilization regimes. Correlations between soil chemical characteristics and ureolytic microbial communities were analyzed. The results showed that the total abundance as well as the relative abundance of copiotrophic ureolytic microbes generally increased with the increasing soil aggregate size. This trend was in line with the nutrient distribution patterns, including labile carbon, NH4+, total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Soil urease activity also increased significantly with the increasing soil aggregate size and was positively correlated with copiotrophic ureolyric microbes, such as Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Thus, we speculated that larger size soil aggregates with greater availability of labile carbon support more copiotrophic ureolyric microbes with a high growth rate, leading to a high density of total ureolytic microbes and higher urease activity. Smaller aggregates with less available carbon were associated with more oligotrophs, higher abundances of total ureolytic microbes, and higher urease activity. Our results suggest that larger soil aggregates and associated ureolyric microbes play a more important role in nutrient cycling for crop growth in this Inceptisol ecosystem.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Ureia/metabolismo , Urease/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Fósforo/metabolismo
19.
J Microbiol ; 57(10): 865-873, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571125

RESUMO

Lignocellulose composed of complex carbohydrates and aromatic heteropolymers is one of the principal materials for the production of renewable biofuels. Lignocellulose-degrading genes from cold-adapted bacteria have a potential to increase the productivity of biological treatment of lignocellulose biomass by providing a broad range of treatment temperatures. Antarctic soil metagenomes allow to access novel genes encoding for the cold-active lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, for biotechnological and industrial applications. Here, we investigated the metagenome targeting cold-adapted microbes in Antarctic organic matter-rich soil (KS 2-1) to mine lignolytic and celluloytic enzymes by performing single molecule, real-time metagenomic (SMRT) sequencing. In the assembled Antarctic metagenomic contigs with relative long reads, we found that 162 (1.42%) of total 11,436 genes were annotated as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy). Actinobacteria, the dominant phylum in this soil's metagenome, possessed most of candidates of lignocellulose catabolic genes like glycoside hydrolase families (GH13, GH26, and GH5) and auxiliary activity families (AA7 and AA3). The predicted lignocellulose degradation pathways in Antarctic soil metagenome showed synergistic role of various CAZyme harboring bacterial genera including Streptomyces, Streptosporangium, and Amycolatopsis. From phylogenetic relationships with cellular and environmental enzymes, several genes having potential for participating in overall lignocellulose degradation were also found. The results indicated the presence of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria in Antarctic tundra soil and the potential benefits of the lignocelluolytic enzymes as candidates for cold-active enzymes which will be used for the future biofuel-production industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Microbiologia do Solo , Regiões Antárticas , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Filogenia , Solo/química , Tundra
20.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583082

RESUMO

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl; bleach) is a powerful weapon used by our immune system to eliminate invading bacteria. Yet the way HOCl actually kills bacteria and how they defend themselves from its oxidative action have only started to be uncovered. As this molecule induces both protein oxidation and aggregation, bacteria need concerted efforts of chaperones and antioxidants to maintain proteostasis during stress. Recent advances in the field identified several stress-activated chaperones, like Hsp33, RidA, and CnoX, which display unique structural features and play a central role in protecting the bacterial proteome during HOCl stress.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Oxidantes/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxirredução , Proteólise
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