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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 405-408, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have spread rapidly through the countries and continents to become a global concern. One of the main reservoirs of NDM-1 positive strains from the Enterobacteriaceae family is the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Pakistan, India). MATERIAL AND METHODS: During June 2017 - June 2018, rectal swab samples were collected routinely in all patients returning to Poland from South and South-East Asia. During molecular examinations gene blaNDM-1 encoding NDM-1 carbapenemase was detected. RESULTS: 31 patients were examined after returning to Poland from a trip to South and South-East Asia. The presence of New Delhi Metallo-ß-lactamase-1 producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was confirmed in three patients (9.7%) returning to Poland from travels to India. All the positive patients were hospitalized during the trip in a New Delhi hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Digestive tract carriage of NDM in a group of Polish travelers is a significant health and epidemiological problem. The study confirms the necessity for screening for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), particularly among travellers. Rectal swabs should be collected in every case of patients returning from international trips, and the possibility of environment-associated infections should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Viagem , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia , beta-Lactamases/genética
2.
Gene ; 720: 144094, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476407

RESUMO

Fourteen different insertion sequences belonging to seven families were identified in the genome of Streptococcus agalactiae. Among them, IS1548, a mobile element of the ISAs1 family, was linked to clonal complex (CC) 19 strains associated with neonatal meningitis and endocarditis. IS1548 impacts S. agalactiae in two reported ways: i) inactivation of virulence genes by insertion in an open reading frame (e.g. hylB or cpsD), ii) positive modulation of the expression of a downstream gene by insertion in an intergenic region (e.g. lmb). We previously identified an unknown integration site of IS1548 in the intergenic region between the folK and the murB genes involved in folate and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, respectively. In this work, we analyzed the prevalence of IS1548 in a large collection of nine hundred and eleven S. agalactiae strains. IS1548 positive strains belong to twenty-nine different sequence types and to ten CCs. The majority of them were, however, clustered within sequence type 19 and sequence type 22, belonging to CC19 and CC22, respectively. In contrast, IS1548 targets the folK-murB intergenic region exclusively in CC19 strains. We evaluated the impact of the insertion of IS1548 on the expression of murB by locating transcriptional promoters influencing its expression in the presence or absence of IS1548 and by comparative ß-galactosidase transcriptional fusion assays. We found that in the absence of IS1548, genes involved in folate biosynthesis are co-transcribed with murB. As it was postulated that a folic acid mediated reaction may be involved in cell wall synthesis, this co-transcription could be necessary to synchronize these two processes. The insertion of IS1548 in the folK-murB intergenic region disrupt this co-transcription. Interestingly, we located a promoter at the right end of IS1548 that is able to initiate additional transcripts of murB. The insertion of IS1548 in this region has thus a dual and divergent impact on the expression of murB. By comparative ß-galactosidase transcriptional fusion assays, we showed that, consequently, the overall impact of the insertion of IS1548 results in a minor decrease of murB gene transcription. This study provides new insights into gene expression effects mediated by IS1548 in S. agalactiae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Intergênico , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Mutagênese Insercional , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus agalactiae/metabolismo
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 1-8, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400771

RESUMO

We examined the molecular regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis and protective responses in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) expressing Bradyrhizobium japonicum Fe-chelatase (BjFeCh) after treatment with acifluorfen (AF). During the photodynamic stress imposed by AF, transcript levels of BjFeCh in transgenic plants increased greatly; moreover, transcript levels of OsFeCh2 remained almost constant, whereas in wild type (WT) plants they were considerably down-regulated. In the heme branch, transgenic plants exhibited greater levels of OsFC and HO transcripts than WT plants in the untreated stems as well as in the AF-treated leaves and stems. Both WT and transgenic plants treated with AF substantially decreased transcript levels for all the genes in the chlorophyll branch, with less decline in transgenic plants. After AF treatment, ascorbate (Asc) content and the redox Asc state greatly decreased in leaves of WT plants; however, in transgenic plants both parameters remained constant in leaves and the Asc redox state increased by 20% in stems. In response to AF, the leaves of WT plants greatly up-regulated CatA, CatB, and GST compared to those of transgenic plants, whereas, in the stems, transgenic plants showed higher levels of CatA, CatC, APXb, BCH, and VDE. Photochemical quenching, qP, was considerably dropped by 31% and 18% in WT and transgenic plants, respectively in response to AF, whereas non-radiative energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching increased by 77% and 38% in WT and transgenic plants, respectively. Transgenic plants treated with AF exhibited higher transcript levels of nucleus-encoded photosynthetic genes, Lhcb1 and Lhcb6, as well as levels of Lhcb6 protein compared to those of WT plants. Our study demonstrates that expression of BjFeCh in transgenic plants influences not only the regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis through maintaining higher levels of gene expression in the heme branch, but also the Asc redox function during photodynamic stress caused by AF.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bradyrhizobium/enzimologia , Ferroquelatase/metabolismo , Nitrobenzoatos/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Porfirinas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ferroquelatase/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 140, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451938

RESUMO

Pseudomonas species are the most versatile of all known bacteria for metabolic flexibility and the extent of host range from plants to humans that remains unmatched. The evolution of diverse metabolic strategies in these species to adapt to the fluctuating environment guarantees high fitness as well as the ability to withstand stress at multiple levels. These abilities in Pseudomonas species are imprinted by an adaptable genetic repertoire through the integration of external and internal signals via complex regulatory networks. One of the main regulatory networks that lead to optimal growth, survival and cellular robustness is the phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Even though a large array of information is available, the molecular machinery and the mechanism of CCR in Pseudomonas are distinctly diverse from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In Pseudomonas, the Crc and Hfq proteins, CbrAB two-component systems and the CrcZ/CrcY small RNA are key components of CCR. The main focus of this review is to elucidate the mechanism of CCR and the accessories involved in regulation of preferred carbon source utilisation over non-preferred ones and how CCR influences the virulence, antibiotic resistance, bioremediation and plant growth promotion pathways. Furthermore, we have also tried to shed some light on the "omics" approaches which can provide deep mechanistic insights into the regulation of CCR. Understanding the mechanistic picture of key regulatory entities and mechanism responsible for metabolic flexibility will create opportunities for exploitation of these versatile prokaryotes in several biotechnological processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Repressão Catabólica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo
5.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126303, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421717

RESUMO

The inhibitory action that a Brevibacillus laterosporus strain isolated from the honeybee body causes against the American Foulbrood (AFB) etiological agent Paenibacillus larvae was studied by in-vitro experiments. A protein fraction isolated from B. laterosporus culture supernatant was involved in the observed inhibition of P. larvae vegetative growth and spore germination. As a result of LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses, the bacteriocin laterosporulin was found to be the major component of this fraction, followed by other antimicrobial proteins and substances including lectins, chaperonins, various enzymes and a number of putative uncharacterized proteins. The results obtained in this study highlight the potential of B. laterosporus as a biological control agent for preserving and improving honeybee health.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Abelhas/microbiologia , Brevibacillus/metabolismo , Paenibacillus larvae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Brevibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10373-10379, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453692

RESUMO

Agarose can be hydrolyzed into agarooligosaccharides (AOSs) by α-agarase, which is an important enzyme for efficient saccharification of agarose or preparation of bioactive oligosaccharides from agarose. Although many ß-agarases have been reported and characterized, there are only a few studies on α-agarases. Here, we cloned a novel α-agarase named CaLJ96 with a molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 96 from Catenovulum agarivorans. CaLJ96 has good pH stability and exhibits maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 7.0. The hydrolyzed products of agarose by CaLJ96 are analyzed as agarobiose (A2), agarotetraose (A4), and agarohexaose (A6), in which A4 is the dominant product. CaLJ96 can hydrolyze agaropentaose (A5) into A2 and agarotriose (A3) and A6 into A2 and A4 but cannot act on A2, A3, or A4. This is the first report to characterize the α-agarase action on AOSs in detail. Therefore, CaLJ96 has potential for the manufacture of bioactive AOSs.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Alteromonadaceae/química , Alteromonadaceae/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sefarose/química , Sefarose/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9868-9876, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389242

RESUMO

Amylosucrase (EC 2.4.1.4, ASase), a typical carbohydrate-active enzyme, can catalyze 5 types of reactions and recognize more than 50 types of glycosyl acceptors. However, most ASases are unstable even at 50 °C, which limits their practical industrial applications. In this study, an extremely thermostable ASase was discovered from Calidithermus timidus DSM 17022 (CT-ASase) with an optimal activity temperature of 55 °C, half-life of 1.09 h at 70 °C, and melting temperature of 74.47 °C. The recombinant CT-ASase was characterized as the first tetrameric ASase, and a structure-based truncation mutation was conducted to confirm the effect of tetrameric conformation on its thermostability. In addition, α-1,4-glucan was found to be the predominant product of CT-ASase at pH 6.0-8.0 and 30-60 °C.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Glucosiltransferases/química , Thermus/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Thermus/química , Thermus/genética
8.
Gene ; 715: 144008, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362038

RESUMO

Deinococcus radiodurans is a model microorganism used for studies on DNA repair and antioxidation due to its extraordinary tolerance to ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents. Various transcriptome analyses have revealed that hundreds of genes are induced and that many other genes are repressed during recovery of D. radiodurans following irradiation, suggesting that gene regulation is of great importance for the extreme resistance of this microorganism to ionizing radiation. In this article, we focus on some reported strategies that are employed by D. radiodurans to regulate the genes implicated in its extreme tolerance to ionizing radiation for a comprehensive understanding of the reasons this bacterium can survive such extraordinary stress. We expect this review to shed light on potential radioprotective agents and applications for use in a range of fields.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/efeitos da radiação , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Deinococcus/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Deinococcus/genética
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8548-8558, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266305

RESUMO

Herein, we report a double enzyme system to degrade 12 phthalate esters (PAEs), particularly bulky PAEs, such as the widely used bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in a one-pot cascade process. A PAE-degrading bacterium, Gordonia sp. strain 5F, was isolated from soil polluted with plastic waste. From this strain, a novel esterase (GoEst15) and a mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate hydrolase (GoEstM1) were identified by homology-based cloning. GoEst15 showed broad substrate specificity, hydrolyzing DEHP and 10 other PAEs to monoalkyl phthalates, which were further degraded by GoEstM1 to phthalic acid. GoEst15 and GoEstM1 were heterologously coexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), which could then completely degrade 12 PAEs (5 mM), within 1 and 24 h for small and bulky substrates, respectively. To our knowledge, GoEst15 is the first DEHP hydrolase with a known protein sequence, which will enable protein engineering to enhance its catalytic performance in the future.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Esterases/química , Ésteres/química , Gordonia (Bactéria)/enzimologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dietilexilftalato/química , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Esterases/genética , Esterases/metabolismo , Ésteres/metabolismo , Gordonia (Bactéria)/genética , Gordonia (Bactéria)/isolamento & purificação , Gordonia (Bactéria)/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8527-8535, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298526

RESUMO

l-Valine belongs to the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and is an essential amino acid that is crucial for all living organisms. l-Valine is industrially produced by the nonpathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum and is synthesized by the BCAA biosynthetic pathway. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) is the second enzyme in the BCAA pathway and catalyzes the conversion of (S)-2-acetolactate into (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate, or the conversion of (S)-2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate into (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate. To elucidate the enzymatic properties of KARI from C. glutamicum (CgKARI), we successfully produced CgKARI protein and determined its crystal structure in complex with NADP+ and two Mg2+ ions. Based on the complex structure, docking simulations, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we revealed that CgKARI belongs to Class I KARI and identified key residues involved in stabilization of the substrate, metal ions, and cofactor. Furthermore, we confirmed the difference in the binding of metal ions that depended on the conformational change.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Corynebacterium glutamicum/enzimologia , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Corynebacterium glutamicum/química , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/genética , Cetol-Ácido Redutoisomerase/metabolismo , Metais/química , Metais/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NADP/química , NADP/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8581-8589, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321975

RESUMO

Intermediates in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis can serve as substrates for the synthesis of bioactive compounds. In this study we used two intermediates in the shikimate pathway of Escherichia coli, chorismate and anthranilate, to synthesize three bioactive compounds: 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC), 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ), and 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolone (NMQ). We introduced genes for the synthesis of salicylic acid from chorismate to supply the substrate for 4-HC and the gene encoding N-methyltransferase for the synthesis of N-methylanthranilate from anthranilate. Polyketide synthases and coenzyme (Co)A ligases were tested to determine the optimal combination of genes for the synthesis of each compound. We also tested several constructs and identified the best one for increasing levels of endogenous substrates for chorismate, anthranilate, and malonyl-CoA. With the use of these strategies, 255.4 mg/L 4-HC, 753.7 mg/L DHQ, and 17.5 mg/L NMQ were synthesized. This work provides a basis for the synthesis of diverse coumarin and quinoline derivatives with potential medical applications.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Quinolinas/metabolismo , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Corísmico/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Photorhabdus/enzimologia , Photorhabdus/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Quinolinas/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 115, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332542

RESUMO

Antibiotic and arsenic (As) contaminations are worldwide public health problems. Previously, the bacterial ABC-type efflux protein MacAB reportedly conferred resistance to macrolide-type antibiotics but not to other metal(loid)s. In this study, the roles of MacAB for the co-resistance of different antibiotics and several metal(loid)s were analyzed in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A, a strain resistant to arsenite [As(III)] and several types of antibiotics. The macA and macB genes were cotranscribed, and macB was deleted in A. tumefaciens 5A and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli AW3110 and E. coli S17-1. Compared to the wild-type strain 5A, the macB deletion strain reduced bacterial resistance levels to several macrolide-type and penicillin-type antibiotics but not to cephalosporin-type antibiotics. In addition, the macB deletion strain showed lower resistance to As(III) but not to arsenate [As(V)], antimonite [Sb(III)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)]. The mutant strain 5A-ΔmacB cells accumulated more As(III) than the cells of the wild-type. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MacAB in E. coli S17-1 showed that MacAB was essential for resistance to macrolide, several penicillin-type antibiotics and As(III) but not to As(V). Heterologous expression of MacAB in E. coli AW3110 reduced the cellular accumulation of As(III) but not of As(V), indicating that MacAB is responsible for the efflux of As(III). These results demonstrated that, in addition to macrolide-type antibiotics, MacAB also conferred resistance to penicillin-type antibiotics and As(III) by extruding them out of cells. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the bacterial resistance mechanisms of antibiotics and metal(loid)s.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolismo , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Penicilinas/farmacologia
13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 102(1): e21591, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257641

RESUMO

In Brazil, the use of transgenic plants expressing the insect-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin has been successfully used as pest control management since 2013 in transgenic soybean lineages against pest caterpillars such as Helicoverpa armigera. These toxins, endogenously expressed by the plants or sprayed over the crops, are ingested by the insect and bind to receptors in the midgut of these animals, resulting in disruption of digestion and lower insect survival rates. Here, we identified and characterized a membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis, the main soybean defoliator pest in Brazil, and data suggested that it binds to Cry1Ac toxin in vitro. Our data showed a peak of ALP activity in homogenate samples of the midgut dissected from the 4th and 5th instars larvae. The brush border membrane vesicles obtained from the midgut of these larvae were used to purify a 60 kDa ALP, as detected by in-gel activity and in vitro biochemical characterization using pharmacological inhibitors and mass spectrometry. When Cry1Ac toxin was supplied to the diet, it was efficient in decreasing larval weight gain and survival. Indeed, in vitro incubation of Cry1Ac toxin with the purified ALP resulted in a 43% decrease in ALP specific activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that ALP interacts with Cry1Ac toxin in vitro, thus suggesting that ALP could function as a Cry toxin ligand. This is a first report characterizing an ALP in A. gemmatalis.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Larva/enzimologia , Mariposas/enzimologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase Alcalina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Microvilosidades/enzimologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8382-8392, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271032

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections. Treatment of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infection needs effective antibacterial agents. Thymol, a generally recognized safe natural compound, has potential as an alternative to treat S. aureus infections. However, the targets and mechanisms of action of thymol were not fully understood. Bioinformatics analysis showed that IolS, a predicted aldo-keto reductase (AKR) in S. aureus, could be a potential target of thymol. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis demonstrated that thymol directly binds IolS and amino acid residues (Y30 and L33) are essential for such binding. Deletion of IolS or mutation of Y30A and L33A reduced the bactericidal activity of thymol at the concentration of 200 µg/mL, suggesting that thymol mediates bactericidal activity via binding with IolS. Biochemical analysis showed that addition of thymol significantly increased AKR activity of IolS from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 2.4 ± 0.2 U (p < 0.05). The content of NADPH within S. aureus cells decreased significantly from 105 ± 5 to 72 ± 3 pmol/108 cells (p < 0.05) following thymol treatment at the concentration of 200 µg/mL. Importantly, addition of NADPH could alleviate the bactericidal effect of thymol on S. aureus, indicating that the depletion of NADPH is responsible for thymol-mediated bactericidal activity. Overall, these results demonstrated that thymol could directly bind IolS and increase its AKR activity, leading to the depletion of NADPH and bactericidal effect. AKR activity of IolS could be a promising target for the development of new antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Aldo-Ceto Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , NADP/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Timol/farmacologia , Aldo-Ceto Redutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
15.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 10-18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284939

RESUMO

Microbial oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] to antimonate [Sb(V)] is a detoxification process which contributes to Sb(III) resistance. Antimonite oxidase AnoA is essential for Sb(III) oxidation, however, the regulation mechanism is still unknown. Recently, we found that the expressions of phosphate transporters were induced by Sb(III) using proteomics analysis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, thus, we predicted that the phosphate regulator PhoB may regulate bacterial Sb(III) oxidation and resistance. In this study, comprehensive analyses were performed and the results showed that (1) Genomic analysis revealed two phoB (named as phoB1 and phoB2) and one phoR gene in strain GW4; (2) Reporter gene assay showed that both phoB1 and phoB2 were induced in low phosphate condition (50 µM), but only phoB2 was induced by Sb(III); (3) Genes knock-out/complementation, Sb(III) oxidation and Sb(III) resistance tests showed that deletion of phoB2 significantly inhibited the expression of anoA and decreased bacterial Sb(III) oxidation efficiency and Sb(III) resistant. In contrast, deletion of phoB1 did not obviously affect anoA's expression level and Sb(III) oxidation/resistance; (4) A putative Pho motif was predicted in several A. tumefaciens strains and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PhoB2 could bind with the promoter sequence of anoA; (5) Site-directed mutagenesis and short fragment EMSA revealed the exact DNA binding sequence for the protein-DNA interaction. These results showed that PhoB2 positively regulates Sb(III) oxidation and PhoB2 is also associated with Sb(III) resistance. Such regulation mechanism may provide a great contribution for bacterial survival in the environment with Sb and for bioremediation application.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolismo , Antimônio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteômica
16.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 34-40, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284942

RESUMO

Carotenoid composition has been studied in mesophilic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 grown photoautotrophically, under diazotrophic conditions at four different temperatures (15 °C, 23 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C). The relative accumulation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and proteins was the highest at temperature of 23 °C. At a suboptimal temperature (15 °C) ß-carotene was the dominant carotenoid compound, whereas the increase in temperature caused ketocarotenoids (echinenone, canthaxanthin, keto-myxoxanthophyll) to accumulate. A significant increase in the accumulation of phytoene synthase (CrtB) transcript was observed at both extreme growth temperatures (15 °C and 37 °C). The relative amount of ß-carotene ketolase (CrtW) transcript directly corresponded to the accumulation of its product (keto-myxoxanthophyll) with a maximum at 30 °C and a profound decrease at 37 °C, whereas the transcription level of ß-carotene ketolase (CrtO) was significantly decreased only at a suboptimal temperature (15 °C). These results show that temperature affects the functioning of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Anabaena cells under photoautotrophic growth. Specifically, the balance between ß-carotene and ketocarotenoids is altered according to temperature conditions. The transcriptional regulation of genes encoding enzymes active both at the early (CrtB) and the final steps (CrtO, CrtW) of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway may participate in the acclimation mechanism of cyanobacteria to low and high temperatures.


Assuntos
Anabaena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anabaena/metabolismo , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Temperatura Ambiente , Anabaena/enzimologia , Anabaena/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/fisiologia , Cantaxantina , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , beta Caroteno/biossíntese
17.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 48-54, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284944

RESUMO

The Burkholderia pseudomallei complex consists of six phylogenetically related Gram-negative bacterial species that include environmental saprophytes and mammalian pathogens. These microbes possess multiple type VI secretion systems (T6SS) that provide a fitness advantage in diverse niches by translocating effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in a contact-dependent manner. Several recent studies have elucidated the regulation and function of T6SS-2, a novel contact-independent member of the T6SS family. Expression of the T6SS-2 gene cluster is repressed by OxyR, Zur and TctR and is activated by GvmR and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two genes of the T6SS-2 gene cluster encode a zincophore (TseZ) and a manganeseophore (TseM) that are exported into the extracellular milieu in a contact-independent fashion when microbes encounter oxidative stress. TseZ and TseM bind Zn2+ and Mn2+, respectively, and deliver them to bacteria where they provide protection against the lethal effects of ROS. The TonB-dependent transporters that interact with TseZ and TseM, and actively transport Zn2+ and Mn2+ across the outer membrane, have also been identified. Finally, T6SS-2 provides a contact-independent growth advantage in nutrient limited environments and is critical for virulence in Galleria mellonella larvae, but is dispensable for virulence in rodent models of infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Burkholderia pseudomallei/genética , Burkholderia pseudomallei/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Burkholderia pseudomallei/classificação , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reguladores/genética , Homeostase , Larva , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Metiltransferases , Família Multigênica , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8393-8401, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291721

RESUMO

The ginsenoside 20-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol or compound K is an essential ingredient in functional food, cosmetics, and traditional medicines. However, no study has reported the complete conversion of all protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides from ginseng extract into compound K using whole-cell conversion. To increase the production of compound K from ginseng extract using whole recombinant cells, the ß-glucosidase enzyme from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii was coexpressed with a chaperone expression system (pGro7), and the cells expressing the coexpression system were permeabilized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The permeabilized cells carrying the chaperone coexpression system showed a 2.6-fold increase in productivity and yield as compared with nontreated cells, and completely converted all PPD-type ginsenosides from ginseng root extract into compound K with the highest productivity among the results reported so far. Our results will contribute to the industrial biological production of compound K.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Firmicutes/enzimologia , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Escherichia coli/química , Firmicutes/genética , Engenharia Genética , Ginsenosídeos/química , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Panax/química , Sapogeninas/química , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2917, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266949

RESUMO

Novel antibacterial agents are needed to address the emergence of global antibiotic resistance. MraY is a promising candidate for antibiotic development because it is the target of five classes of naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitors with potent antibacterial activity. Although these natural products share a common uridine moiety, their core structures vary substantially and they exhibit different activity profiles. An incomplete understanding of the structural and mechanistic basis of MraY inhibition has hindered the translation of these compounds to the clinic. Here we present crystal structures of MraY in complex with representative members of the liposidomycin/caprazamycin, capuramycin, and mureidomycin classes of nucleoside inhibitors. Our structures reveal cryptic druggable hot spots in the shallow inhibitor binding site of MraY that were not previously appreciated. Structural analyses of nucleoside inhibitor binding provide insights into the chemical logic of MraY inhibition, which can guide novel approaches to MraY-targeted antibiotic design.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Nucleosídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transferases/química , Aminoglicosídeos/química , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/química , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Transferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transferases/genética , Transferases/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2916, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266954

RESUMO

Sterols and hopanoids are chemically and structurally related lipids mostly found in eukaryotic and bacterial cell membranes. Few bacterial species have been reported to produce sterols and this anomaly had originally been ascribed to lateral gene transfer (LGT) from eukaryotes. In addition, the functions of sterols in these bacteria are unknown and the functional overlap between sterols and hopanoids is still unclear. Gemmata obscuriglobus is a bacterium from the Planctomycetes phylum that synthesizes sterols, in contrast to its hopanoid-producing relatives. Here we show that sterols are essential for growth of G. obscuriglobus, and that sterol depletion leads to aberrant membrane structures and defects in budding cell division. This report of sterol essentiality in a prokaryotic species advances our understanding of sterol distribution and function, and provides a foundation to pursue fundamental questions in evolutionary cell biology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Planctomycetales/metabolismo , Esteróis/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Planctomycetales/genética , Planctomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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