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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5065, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033237

RESUMO

The type VI protein secretion system (T6SS) is a powerful needle-like machinery found in Gram-negative bacteria that can penetrate the cytosol of receiving cells in milliseconds by physical force. Anchored by its membrane-spanning complex (MC) and a baseplate (BP), the T6SS sheath-tube is assembled in a stepwise process primed by TssA and terminated by TagA. However, the molecular details of its assembly remain elusive. Here, we systematically examined the initiation and termination of contractile and non-contractile T6SS sheaths in MC-BP, tssA and tagA mutants by fluorescence microscopy. We observe long pole-to-pole sheath-tube structures in the non-contractile MC-BP defective mutants but not in the Hcp tube or VgrG spike mutants. Combining overexpression and genetic mutation data, we demonstrate complex effects of TssM, TssA and TagA interactions on T6SS sheath-tube dynamics. We also report promiscuous interactions of TagA with multiple T6SS components, similar to TssA. Our results demonstrate that priming of the T6SS sheath-tube assembly is not dependent on TssA, nor is the assembly termination dependent on the distal end TssA-TagA interaction, and highlight the tripartite control of TssA-TssM-TagA on sheath-tube initiation and termination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4851, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978386

RESUMO

Cell factories converting bio-based precursors to chemicals present an attractive avenue to a sustainable economy, yet screening of genetically diverse strain libraries to identify the best-performing whole-cell biocatalysts is a low-throughput endeavor. For this reason, transcriptional biosensors attract attention as they allow the screening of vast libraries when used in combination with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). However, broad ligand specificity of transcriptional regulators (TRs) often prohibits the development of such ultra-high-throughput screens. Here, we solve the structure of the TR LysG of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which detects all three basic amino acids. Based on this information, we follow a semi-rational engineering approach using a FACS-based screening/counterscreening strategy to generate an L-lysine insensitive LysG-based biosensor. This biosensor can be used to isolate L-histidine-producing strains by FACS, showing that TR engineering towards a more focused ligand spectrum can expand the scope of application of such metabolite sensors.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ligantes , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Cristalografia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Lisina/metabolismo , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Termodinâmica
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000790, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776918

RESUMO

Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs), members of the solute carrier (SLC) 28 transporter family, facilitate the salvage of nucleosides and therapeutic nucleoside derivatives across the plasma membrane. Despite decades of investigation, the structures of human CNTs remain unknown. We determined the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human CNT (hCNT) 3 at an overall resolution of 3.6 Å. As with its bacterial homologs, hCNT3 presents a trimeric architecture with additional N-terminal transmembrane helices to stabilize the conserved central domains. The conserved binding sites for the substrate and sodium ions unravel the selective nucleoside transport and distinct coupling mechanism. Structural comparison of hCNT3 with bacterial homologs indicates that hCNT3 is stabilized in an inward-facing conformation. This study provides the molecular determinants for the transport mechanism of hCNTs and potentially facilitates the design of nucleoside drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Uridina/química , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Baculoviridae/genética , Baculoviridae/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte Biológico , Clonagem Molecular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Uridina/metabolismo
4.
Science ; 369(6507): 1094-1098, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855335

RESUMO

Bacterial production of gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethylene and methane affects soil environments and atmospheric climate. We demonstrate that biogenic methane and ethylene from terrestrial and freshwater bacteria are directly produced by a previously unknown methionine biosynthesis pathway. This pathway, present in numerous species, uses a nitrogenase-like reductase that is distinct from known nitrogenases and nitrogenase-like reductases and specifically functions in C-S bond breakage to reduce ubiquitous and appreciable volatile organic sulfur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and (2-methylthio)ethanol. Liberated methanethiol serves as the immediate precursor to methionine, while ethylene or methane is released into the environment. Anaerobic ethylene production by this pathway apparently explains the long-standing observation of ethylene accumulation in oxygen-depleted soils. Methane production reveals an additional bacterial pathway distinct from archaeal methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Etilenos/biossíntese , Metano/biossíntese , Metionina/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/química , Rhodospirillum rubrum/enzimologia , Anaerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biocatálise , Vias Biossintéticas , Oxirredutases/classificação , Oxirredutases/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1007898, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797038

RESUMO

New treatments for diseases caused by antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms can be developed by identifying unexplored therapeutic targets and by designing efficient drug screening protocols. In this study, we have screened a library of compounds to find ligands for the flavin-adenine dinucleotide synthase (FADS) -a potential target for drug design against tuberculosis and pneumonia- by implementing a new and efficient virtual screening protocol. The protocol has been developed for the in silico search of ligands of unexplored therapeutic targets, for which limited information about ligands or ligand-receptor structures is available. It implements an integrative funnel-like strategy with filtering layers that increase in computational accuracy. The protocol starts with a pharmacophore-based virtual screening strategy that uses ligand-free receptor conformations from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Then, it performs a molecular docking stage using several docking programs and an exponential consensus ranking strategy. The last filter, samples the conformations of compounds bound to the target using MD simulations. The MD conformations are scored using several traditional scoring functions in combination with a newly-proposed score that takes into account the fluctuations of the molecule with a Morse-based potential. The protocol was optimized and validated using a compound library with known ligands of the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS. Then, it was used to find new FADS ligands from a compound library of 14,000 molecules. A small set of 17 in silico filtered molecules were tested experimentally. We identified five inhibitors of the activity of the flavin adenylyl transferase module of the FADS, and some of them were able to inhibit growth of three bacterial species: C. ammoniagenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, where the last two are human pathogens. Overall, the results show that the integrative VS protocol is a cost-effective solution for the discovery of ligands of unexplored therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Nucleotidiltransferases , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Corynebacterium/enzimologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4196, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826907

RESUMO

Cells utilise specialized polymerases from the Primase-Polymerase (Prim-Pol) superfamily to maintain genome stability. Prim-Pol's function in genome maintenance pathways including replication, repair and damage tolerance. Mycobacteria contain multiple Prim-Pols required for lesion repair, including Prim-PolC that performs short gap repair synthesis during excision repair. To understand the molecular basis of Prim-PolC's gap recognition and synthesis activities, we elucidated crystal structures of pre- and post-catalytic complexes bound to gapped DNA substrates. These intermediates explain its binding preference for short gaps and reveal a distinctive modus operandi called Synthesis-dependent Template Displacement (STD). This mechanism enables Prim-PolC to couple primer extension with template base dislocation, ensuring that the unpaired templating bases in the gap are ushered into the active site in an ordered manner. Insights provided by these structures establishes the molecular basis of Prim-PolC's gap recognition and extension activities, while also illuminating the mechanisms of primer extension utilised by closely related Prim-Pols.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , DNA Primase/química , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química , DNA/química , Mycobacterium/genética , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Primase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide is an important drug against the latent stage of tuberculosis and is used in both first- and second-line treatment regimens. Pyrazinamide-susceptibility test usually takes a week to have a diagnosis to guide initial therapy, implying a delay in receiving appropriate therapy. The continued increase in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and the prevalence of pyrazinamide resistance in several countries makes the development of assays for prompt identification of resistance necessary. The main cause of pyrazinamide resistance is the impairment of pyrazinamidase function attributed to mutations in the promoter and/or pncA coding gene. However, not all pncA mutations necessarily affect the pyrazinamidase function. OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology to predict pyrazinamidase function from detected mutations in the pncA gene. METHODS: We measured the catalytic constant (kcat), KM, enzymatic efficiency, and enzymatic activity of 35 recombinant mutated pyrazinamidase and the wild type (Protein Data Bank ID = 3pl1). From all the 3D modeled structures, we extracted several predictors based on three categories: structural stability (estimated by normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics), physicochemical, and geometrical characteristics. We used a stepwise Akaike's information criterion forward multiple log-linear regression to model each kinetic parameter with each category of predictors. We also developed weighted models combining the three categories of predictive models for each kinetic parameter. We tested the robustness of the predictive ability of each model by 6-fold cross-validation against random models. RESULTS: The stability, physicochemical, and geometrical descriptors explained most of the variability (R2) of the kinetic parameters. Our models are best suited to predict kcat, efficiency, and activity based on the root-mean-square error of prediction of the 6-fold cross-validation. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a quick approach to predict the pyrazinamidase function only from the pncA sequence when point mutations are present. This can be an important tool to detect pyrazinamide resistance.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Amidoidrolases/química , Amidoidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Cinética , Modelos Lineares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4135, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811817

RESUMO

Complex I is the first and the largest enzyme of respiratory chains in bacteria and mitochondria. The mechanism which couples spatially separated transfer of electrons to proton translocation in complex I is not known. Here we report five crystal structures of T. thermophilus enzyme in complex with NADH or quinone-like compounds. We also determined cryo-EM structures of major and minor native states of the complex, differing in the position of the peripheral arm. Crystal structures show that binding of quinone-like compounds (but not of NADH) leads to a related global conformational change, accompanied by local re-arrangements propagating from the quinone site to the nearest proton channel. Normal mode and molecular dynamics analyses indicate that these are likely to represent the first steps in the proton translocation mechanism. Our results suggest that quinone binding and chemistry play a key role in the coupling mechanism of complex I.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Quinonas/química , Thermus thermophilus/enzimologia , Regulação Alostérica , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Conformação Proteica , Prótons , Quinonas/metabolismo , Thermus thermophilus/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4248, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843623

RESUMO

Femtosecond time-resolved crystallography (TRC) on proteins enables resolving the spatial structure of short-lived photocycle intermediates. An open question is whether confinement and lower hydration of the proteins in the crystalline state affect the light-induced structural transformations. Here, we measured the full photocycle dynamics of a signal transduction protein often used as model system in TRC, Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP), in the crystalline state and compared those to the dynamics in solution, utilizing electronic and vibrational transient absorption measurements from 100 fs over 12 decades in time. We find that the photocycle kinetics and structural dynamics of PYP in the crystalline form deviate from those in solution from the very first steps following photon absorption. This illustrates that ultrafast TRC results cannot be uncritically extrapolated to in vivo function, and that comparative spectroscopic experiments on proteins in crystalline and solution states can help identify structural intermediates under native conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/efeitos da radiação , Conformação Proteica , Análise Espectral
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4245, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843629

RESUMO

Diheme-containing succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductases (Sdh) are widespread in Gram-positive bacteria but little is known about the catalytic mechanisms they employ for succinate oxidation by menaquinone. Here, we present the 2.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Mycobacterium smegmatis Sdh, which forms a trimer. We identified the membrane-anchored SdhF as a subunit of the complex. The 3 kDa SdhF forms a single transmembrane helix and this helix plays a role in blocking the canonically proximal quinone-binding site. We also identified two distal quinone-binding sites with bound quinones. One distal binding site is formed by neighboring subunits of the complex. Our structure further reveals the electron/proton transfer pathway for succinate oxidation by menaquinone. Moreover, this study provides further structural insights into the physiological significance of a trimeric respiratory complex II. The structure of the menaquinone binding site could provide a framework for the development of Sdh-selective anti-mycobacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Mycobacterium smegmatis/enzimologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium smegmatis/química , Oxirredução , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 10): 348, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioinformatics has pervaded all fields of biology and has become an indispensable tool for almost all research projects. Although teaching bioinformatics has been incorporated in all traditional life science curricula, practical hands-on experiences in tight combination with wet-lab experiments are needed to motivate students. RESULTS: We present a tutorial that starts from a practical problem: finding novel enzymes from marine environments. First, we introduce the idea of metagenomics, a recent approach that extends biotechnology to non-culturable microbes. We presuppose that a probe for the screening of metagenomic cosmid library is needed. The students start from the chemical structure of the substrate that should be acted on by the novel enzyme and end with the sequence of the probe. To attain their goal, they discover databases such as BRENDA and programs such as BLAST and Clustal Omega. Students' answers to a satisfaction questionnaire show that a multistep tutorial integrated into a research wet-lab project is preferable to conventional lectures illustrating bioinformatics tools. CONCLUSION: Experimental biologists can better operate basic bioinformatics if a problem-solving approach is chosen.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/educação , Biologia Computacional/educação , Biologia Marinha/educação , Metagenômica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sequência de Bases , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Objetivos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Interface Usuário-Computador
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19720-19730, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732435

RESUMO

The synthesis of quinolinic acid from tryptophan is a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in mammals. Herein, the nonheme iron-based 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase responsible for quinolinic acid production was studied by performing time-resolved in crystallo reactions monitored by UV-vis microspectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Seven catalytic intermediates were kinetically and structurally resolved in the crystalline state, and each accompanies protein conformational changes at the active site. Among them, a monooxygenated, seven-membered lactone intermediate as a monodentate ligand of the iron center at 1.59-Å resolution was captured, which presumably corresponds to a substrate-based radical species observed by EPR using a slurry of small-sized single crystals. Other structural snapshots determined at around 2.0-Å resolution include monodentate and subsequently bidentate coordinated substrate, superoxo, alkylperoxo, and two metal-bound enol tautomers of the unstable dioxygenase product. These results reveal a detailed stepwise O-atom transfer dioxygenase mechanism along with potential isomerization activity that fine-tunes product profiling and affects the production of quinolinic acid at a junction of the metabolic pathway.


Assuntos
3-Hidroxiantranilato 3,4-Dioxigenase/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cupriavidus/enzimologia , 3-Hidroxiantranilato 3,4-Dioxigenase/genética , 3-Hidroxiantranilato 3,4-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cupriavidus/química , Cupriavidus/genética , Cinética , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19705-19712, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747579

RESUMO

Photosystem II (PS II) captures solar energy and directs charge separation (CS) across the thylakoid membrane during photosynthesis. The highly oxidizing, charge-separated state generated within its reaction center (RC) drives water oxidation. Spectroscopic studies on PS II RCs are difficult to interpret due to large spectral congestion, necessitating modeling to elucidate key spectral features. Herein, we present results from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations on the largest PS II RC model reported to date. This model explicitly includes six RC chromophores and both the chlorin phytol chains and the amino acid residues <6 Å from the pigments' porphyrin ring centers. Comparing our wild-type model results with calculations on mutant D1-His-198-Ala and D2-His-197-Ala RCs, our simulated absorption-difference spectra reproduce experimentally observed shifts in known chlorophyll absorption bands, demonstrating the predictive capabilities of this model. We find that inclusion of both nearby residues and phytol chains is necessary to reproduce this behavior. Our calculations provide a unique opportunity to observe the molecular orbitals that contribute to the excited states that are precursors to CS. Strikingly, we observe two high oscillator strength, low-lying states, in which molecular orbitals are delocalized over ChlD1 and PheD1 as well as one weaker oscillator strength state with molecular orbitals delocalized over the P chlorophylls. Both these configurations are a match for previously identified exciton-charge transfer states (ChlD1 +PheD1 -)* and (PD2 +PD1 -)*. Our results demonstrate the power of TDDFT as a tool, for studies of natural photosynthesis, or indeed future studies of artificial photosynthetic complexes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19731-19736, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759207

RESUMO

Cyanobacteriochromes are photoreceptors in cyanobacteria that exhibit a wide spectral coverage and unique photophysical properties from the photoinduced isomerization of a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, we integrate femtosecond-resolved fluorescence and transient-absorption methods and unambiguously showed the significant solvation dynamics occurring at the active site from a few to hundreds of picoseconds. These motions of local water molecules and polar side chains are continuously convoluted with the isomerization reaction, leading to a nonequilibrium processes with continuous active-site motions. By mutations of critical residues at the active site, the modified local structures become looser, resulting in faster solvation relaxations and isomerization reaction. The observation of solvation dynamics is significant and critical to the correct interpretation of often-observed multiphasic dynamic behaviors, and thus the previously invoked ground-state heterogeneity may not be relevant to the excited-state isomerization reaction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Isomerismo , Cinética , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/genética , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3974, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769995

RESUMO

Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 (Vegetative Insecticidal Protein 3) toxins are widely used in biotech crops to control Lepidopteran pests. These proteins are produced as inactive protoxins that need to be activated by midgut proteases to trigger cell death. However, little is known about their three-dimensional organization and activation mechanism at the molecular level. Here, we have determined the structures of the protoxin and the protease-activated state of Vip3Aa at 2.9 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. The reconstructions show that the protoxin assembles into a pyramid-shaped tetramer with the C-terminal domains exposed to the solvent and the N-terminal region folded into a spring-loaded apex that, after protease activation, drastically remodels into an extended needle by a mechanism akin to that of influenza haemagglutinin. These results provide the molecular basis for Vip3 activation and function, and serves as a strong foundation for the development of more efficient insecticidal proteins.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Tripsina/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008734, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853279

RESUMO

AMPylation, the post-translational modification with adenosine monophosphate (AMP), is catalyzed by effector proteins from a variety of pathogens. Legionella pneumophila is thus far the only known pathogen that, in addition to encoding an AMPylase (SidM/DrrA), also encodes a deAMPylase, called SidD, that reverses SidM-mediated AMPylation of the vesicle transport GTPase Rab1. DeAMPylation is catalyzed by the N-terminal phosphatase-like domain of SidD. Here, we determined the crystal structure of full length SidD including the uncharacterized C-terminal domain (CTD). A flexible loop rich in aromatic residues within the CTD was required to target SidD to model membranes in vitro and to the Golgi apparatus within mammalian cells. Deletion of the loop (Δloop) or substitution of its aromatic phenylalanine residues rendered SidD cytosolic, showing that the hydrophobic loop is the primary membrane-targeting determinant of SidD. Notably, deletion of the two terminal alpha helices resulted in a CTD variant incapable of discriminating between membranes of different composition. Moreover, a L. pneumophila strain producing SidDΔloop phenocopied a L. pneumophila ΔsidD strain during growth in mouse macrophages and displayed prolonged co-localization of AMPylated Rab1 with LCVs, thus revealing that membrane targeting of SidD via its CTD is a critical prerequisite for its ability to catalyze Rab1 deAMPylation during L. pneumophila infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/microbiologia , Legionella pneumophila/enzimologia , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/química , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3703, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710080

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen with a unique cell envelope including very long fatty acids, implicated in bacterial resistance and host immune modulation. FasR is a TetR-like transcriptional activator that plays a central role in sensing mycobacterial long-chain fatty acids and regulating lipid biosynthesis. Here we disclose crystal structures of M. tuberculosis FasR in complex with acyl effector ligands and with DNA, uncovering its molecular sensory and switching mechanisms. A long tunnel traverses the entire effector-binding domain, enabling long fatty acyl effectors to bind. Only when the tunnel is entirely occupied, the protein dimer adopts a rigid configuration with its DNA-binding domains in an open state, leading to DNA dissociation. The protein-folding hydrophobic core connects the two domains, and is completed into a continuous spine when the effector binds. Such a transmission spine is conserved in a large number of TetR-like regulators, offering insight into effector-triggered allosteric functional control.


Assuntos
Acil Coenzima A/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Sítio Alostérico , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA Bacteriano/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3740, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719356

RESUMO

Mfd couples transcription to nucleotide excision repair, and acts on RNA polymerases when elongation is impeded. Depending on impediment severity, this action results in either transcription termination or elongation rescue, which rely on ATP-dependent Mfd translocation on DNA. Due to its role in antibiotic resistance, Mfd is also emerging as a prime target for developing anti-evolution drugs. Here we report the structure of DNA-bound Mfd, which reveals large DNA-induced structural changes that are linked to the active site via ATPase motif VI. These changes relieve autoinhibitory contacts between the N- and C-termini and unmask UvrA recognition determinants. We also demonstrate that translocation relies on a threonine in motif Ic, widely conserved in translocases, and a family-specific histidine near motif IVa, reminiscent of the "arginine clamp" of RNA helicases. Thus, Mfd employs a mode of DNA recognition that at its core is common to ss/ds translocases that act on DNA or RNA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sítios de Ligação , DNA/química , DNA/ultraestrutura , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16324-16332, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601219

RESUMO

FadE, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, introduces unsaturation to carbon chains in lipid metabolism pathways. Here, we report that FadE5 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbFadE5) and Mycobacterium smegmatis (MsFadE5) play roles in drug resistance and exhibit broad specificity for linear acyl-CoA substrates but have a preference for those with long carbon chains. Here, the structures of MsFadE5 and MtbFadE5, in the presence and absence of substrates, have been determined. These reveal the molecular basis for the broad substrate specificity of these enzymes. FadE5 interacts with the CoA region of the substrate through a large number of hydrogen bonds and an unusual π-π stacking interaction, allowing these enzymes to accept both short- and long-chain substrates. Residues in the substrate binding cavity reorient their side chains to accommodate substrates of various lengths. Longer carbon-chain substrates make more numerous hydrophobic interactions with the enzyme compared with the shorter-chain substrates, resulting in a preference for this type of substrate.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/química , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/enzimologia , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium/genética , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603331

RESUMO

Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) are commonly found on bacterial plasmids and are generally involved in plasmid maintenance. In addition to plasmid maintenance, several plasmid-mediated TAS are also involved in bacterial stress response and virulence. Even though the same TAS are present in a variety of plasmid types and bacterial species, differences in their sequences, expression and functions are not well defined. Here, we aimed to identify commonly occurring plasmid TAS in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and compare the sequence, expression and plasmid stability function of their variants. 27 putative type II TAS were identified from 1063 plasmids of Klebsiella pneumoniae in GenBank. Among these, ccdAB and pemIK were found to be most common, also occurring in plasmids of E. coli. Comparisons of ccdAB variants, taken from E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealed sequence differences, while pemIK variants from IncF and IncL/M plasmids were almost identical. Similarly, the expression and plasmid stability functions of ccdAB variants varied according to the host strain and species, whereas the expression and functions of pemIK variants were consistent among host strains. The specialised functions of some TAS may determine the host specificity and epidemiology of major antibiotic resistance plasmids.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
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