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1.
Genes Dev ; 33(17-18): 1191-1207, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371435

RESUMO

The vast majority of eukaryotes possess two DNA recombinases: Rad51, which is ubiquitously expressed, and Dmc1, which is meiosis-specific. The evolutionary origins of this two-recombinase system remain poorly understood. Interestingly, Dmc1 can stabilize mismatch-containing base triplets, whereas Rad51 cannot. Here, we demonstrate that this difference can be attributed to three amino acids conserved only within the Dmc1 lineage of the Rad51/RecA family. Chimeric Rad51 mutants harboring Dmc1-specific amino acids gain the ability to stabilize heteroduplex DNA joints with mismatch-containing base triplets, whereas Dmc1 mutants with Rad51-specific amino acids lose this ability. Remarkably, RAD-51 from Caenorhabditis elegans, an organism without Dmc1, has acquired "Dmc1-like" amino acids. Chimeric C. elegans RAD-51 harboring "canonical" Rad51 amino acids gives rise to toxic recombination intermediates, which must be actively dismantled to permit normal meiotic progression. We propose that Dmc1 lineage-specific amino acids involved in the stabilization of heteroduplex DNA joints with mismatch-containing base triplets may contribute to normal meiotic recombination.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/química , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Recombinases/química , Recombinases/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética/genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , Caenorhabditis elegans/enzimologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Mutação , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Recombinases/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2902, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263173

RESUMO

Exogenous metabolites from microbial and dietary origins have profound effects on host metabolism. Here, we report that a sub-population of lipid droplets (LDs), which are conserved organelles for fat storage, is defined by metabolite-modulated targeting of the C. elegans seipin ortholog, SEIP-1. Loss of SEIP-1 function reduces the size of a subset of LDs while over-expression of SEIP-1 has the opposite effect. Ultrastructural analysis reveals SEIP-1 enrichment in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain, which co-purifies with LDs. Analyses of C. elegans and bacterial genetic mutants indicate a requirement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and microbial cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) for SEIP-1 enrichment, as confirmed by dietary supplementation experiments. In mammalian cells, heterologously expressed SEIP-1 engages nascent lipid droplets and promotes their subsequent expansion in a conserved manner. Our results suggest that microbial and polyunsaturated fatty acids serve unexpected roles in regulating cellular fat storage by promoting LD diversity.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Transporte Proteico
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9277-9285, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353906

RESUMO

3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a digestive metabolite originating from cruciferous vegetables, has dietary potential for the treatment of various human intestinal diseases. Although intestinal permeability dysfunction is closely related to the initiation and progression of human intestinal inflammatory diseases (IBDs), the effect of DIM on intestinal permeability is unclear. We evaluated the effect of DIM on the intestinal permeability of human intestinal cell monolayers and the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans, which were treated with IL-1ß and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, to mimic IBD conditions. DIM substantially restored the intestinal permeability of differentiated Caco-2 cells by enhancing the expression of tight junction proteins (including occludin and ZO-1). Compared to the IL-1ß single treatment (551.0 ± 49.0 Ω·cm2), DIM (10 µM) significantly increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayers (919.0 ± 66.4 Ω·cm2, p < 0.001). DIM also ameliorated the impaired intestinal permeability and extended the lifespan of C. elegans fed P. aeruginosa. The mean lifespan of DIM-treated worms (10.8 ± 1.3 days) was higher than that of control-treated worms (9.7 ± 1.1 days, p < 0.01). Thus, DIM is a potential nutraceutical candidate for the treatment of leaky gut syndrome by improving intestinal permeability.


Assuntos
Indóis/administração & dosagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos , Masculino , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3042, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316054

RESUMO

Stress resistance and longevity are positively correlated but emerging evidence indicates that they are physiologically distinct. Identifying factors with distinctive roles in these processes is challenging because pro-longevity genes often enhance stress resistance. We demonstrate that TCER-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human transcription elongation and splicing factor, TCERG1, has opposite effects on lifespan and stress resistance. We previously showed that tcer-1 promotes longevity in germline-less C. elegans and reproductive fitness in wild-type animals. Surprisingly, tcer-1 mutants exhibit exceptional resistance against multiple stressors, including infection by human opportunistic pathogens, whereas, TCER-1 overexpression confers immuno-susceptibility. TCER-1 inhibits immunity only during fertile stages of life. Elevating its levels ameliorates the fertility loss caused by infection, suggesting that TCER-1 represses immunity to augment fecundity. TCER-1 acts through repression of PMK-1 as well as PMK-1-independent factors critical for innate immunity. Our data establish key roles for TCER-1 in coordinating immunity, longevity and fertility, and reveal mechanisms that distinguish length of life from functional aspects of aging.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Longevidade/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Fertilidade/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Modelos Animais , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 56, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptive responses to stress are essential for cell and organismal survival. In metazoans, little is known about the impact of environmental stress on RNA homeostasis. RESULTS: By studying the regulation of a cadmium-induced gene named numr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, we discovered that disruption of RNA processing acts as a signal for environmental stress. We find that NUMR-1 contains motifs common to RNA splicing factors and influences RNA splicing in vivo. A genome-wide screen reveals that numr-1 is strongly and specifically induced by silencing of genes that function in basal RNA metabolism including subunits of the metazoan integrator complex. Human integrator processes snRNAs for functioning with splicing factors, and we find that silencing of C. elegans integrator subunits disrupts snRNA processing, causes aberrant pre-mRNA splicing, and induces the heat shock response. Cadmium, which also strongly induces numr-1, has similar effects on RNA and the heat shock response. Lastly, we find that heat shock factor-1 is required for full numr-1 induction by cadmium. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with a model in which disruption of integrator processing of RNA acts as a molecular damage signal initiating an adaptive stress response mediated by heat shock factor-1. When numr-1 is induced via this pathway in C. elegans, its function in RNA metabolism may allow it to mitigate further damage and thereby promote tolerance to cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/fisiologia , Processamento de RNA , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
Nat Methods ; 16(8): 737-742, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308550

RESUMO

Protein complexes are key macromolecular machines of the cell, but their description remains incomplete. We and others previously reported an experimental strategy for global characterization of native protein assemblies based on chromatographic fractionation of biological extracts coupled to precision mass spectrometry analysis (chromatographic fractionation-mass spectrometry, CF-MS), but the resulting data are challenging to process and interpret. Here, we describe EPIC (elution profile-based inference of complexes), a software toolkit for automated scoring of large-scale CF-MS data to define high-confidence multi-component macromolecules from diverse biological specimens. As a case study, we used EPIC to map the global interactome of Caenorhabditis elegans, defining 612 putative worm protein complexes linked to diverse biological processes. These included novel subunits and assemblies unique to nematodes that we validated using orthogonal methods. The open source EPIC software is freely available as a Jupyter notebook packaged in a Docker container (https://hub.docker.com/r/baderlab/bio-epic/).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/isolamento & purificação , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/análise , Software , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/isolamento & purificação
7.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(8): 838-845, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320757

RESUMO

Excreted small-molecule signals can bias developmental trajectories and physiology in diverse animal species. However, the chemical identity of these signals remains largely obscure. Here we report identification of an unusual N-acylated glutamine derivative, nacq#1, that accelerates reproductive development and shortens lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Produced predominantly by C. elegans males, nacq#1 hastens onset of sexual maturity in hermaphrodites by promoting exit from the larval dauer diapause and by accelerating late larval development. Even at picomolar concentrations, nacq#1 shortens hermaphrodite lifespan, suggesting a trade-off between reproductive investment and longevity. Acceleration of development by nacq#1 requires chemosensation and is dependent on three homologs of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors. Unlike ascaroside pheromones, which are restricted to nematodes, fatty acylated amino acid derivatives similar to nacq#1 have been reported from humans and invertebrates, suggesting that related compounds may serve signaling functions throughout metazoa.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Oviposição/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Organismos Hermafroditas/fisiologia , Masculino , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 871-878, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234252

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is an ubiquitous and emerging contaminant that is widely present in food, agricultural crop, and the environment, posing a potential risk to human health. This study utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to decipher the toxic effects of early life exposure to DEHP on aging and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that exposure to DEHP at 0.1 and 1.5 mg/L inhibited locomotive behaviors. In addition, DEHP exposure significantly shortened the mean lifespan of the worms and further adversely affected pharyngeal pumping rate and defecation cycle in aged worms. Moreover, DEHP exposure also further enhanced accumulation of age-related biomarkers including lipofuscin, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species in aged worms. In addition, exposure to DEHP significantly suppressed gene expression of hsp-16.1, hsp-16.49, and hsp-70 in aged worms. Further evidences showed that mutation of genes involved in insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS) pathway (daf-2, age-1, pdk-1, akt-1, akt-2, and daf-16) restored lipid peroxidation accumulation upon DEHP exposure in aged worms, whereas skn-1 mutation resulted in enhanced lipid peroxidation accumulation. Therefore, IIS and SKN-1 may serve as an important molecular basis for DEHP-induced age-related declines in C. elegans. Since IIS and SKN-1 are highly conserved among species, the age-related declines caused by DEHP exposure may not be exclusive in C. elegans, leading to adverse human health consequences due to widespread and persistent DEHP contamination in the environment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/biossíntese , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/biossíntese , Insulina/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Genes Dev ; 33(13-14): 857-870, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147388

RESUMO

Piwi proteins are important for germ cell development in most animals. These proteins are guided to specific targets by small guide RNAs, referred to as piRNAs or 21U RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans In this organism, even though genetic screens have uncovered 21U RNA biogenesis factors, little is known about how these factors interact or what they do. Based on the previously identified 21U biogenesis factor PID-1 (piRNA-induced silencing-defective 1), we here define a novel protein complex, PETISCO (PID-3, ERH-2, TOFU-6, and IFE-3 small RNA complex), that is required for 21U RNA biogenesis. PETISCO contains both potential 5' cap and 5' phosphate RNA-binding domains and interacts with capped 21U precursor RNA. We resolved the architecture of PETISCO and revealed a second function for PETISCO in embryonic development. This essential function of PETISCO is mediated not by PID-1 but by the novel protein TOST-1 (twenty-one U pathway antagonist). In contrast, TOST-1 is not essential for 21U RNA biogenesis. Both PID-1 and TOST-1 interact directly with ERH-2 using a conserved sequence motif. Finally, our data suggest a role for TOST-1:PETISCO in SL1 homeostasis in the early embryo. Our work describes a key complex for 21U RNA processing in C. elegans and strengthens the view that 21U RNA biogenesis is built on an snRNA-related pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/biossíntese , Animais , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(11): 5603-5616, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216042

RESUMO

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains several types of endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) produced by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) complexes. Both 'silencing' siRNAs bound by Worm-specific Argonautes (WAGO) and 'activating' siRNAs bound by the CSR-1 Argonaute require the DRH-3 helicase, an RdRP component. Here, we show that, in the drh-3(ne4253) mutant deficient in RdRP-produced secondary endo-siRNAs, the silencing histone mark H3K9me3 is largely depleted, whereas in the csr-1 partially rescued null mutant strain (WM193), this mark is ectopically deposited on CSR-1 target genes. Moreover, we observe ectopic H3K9me3 at enhancer elements and an increased number of small RNAs that match enhancers in both drh-3 and csr-1 mutants. Finally, we detect accumulation of H3K27me3 at highly expressed genes in the drh-3(ne4253) mutant, which correlates with their reduced transcription. Our study shows that when abundant RdRP-produced siRNAs are depleted, there is ectopic elevation of noncoding RNAs linked to sites with increased silencing chromatin marks. Moreover, our results suggest that enhancer small RNAs may guide local H3K9 methylation.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cromatina/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Metilação
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2529, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175278

RESUMO

Substitution of lysine 27 with methionine in histone H3.3 is a recently discovered driver mutation of pediatric high-grade gliomas. Mutant cells show decreased levels and altered distribution of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). How these chromatin changes are established genome-wide and lead to tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here we show that H3.3K27M-mediated alterations in H3K27me3 distribution result in ectopic DNA replication and cell cycle progression of germ cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. By genetically inducing changes in the H3.3 distribution, we demonstrate that both H3.3K27M and pre-existing H3K27me3 act locally and antagonistically on Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The heterochromatin changes result in extensive gene misregulation, and genetic screening identified upregulation of JNK as an underlying cause of the germcell aberrations. Moreover, JNK inhibition suppresses the replicative fate in human tumor-derived H3.3K27M cells, thus establishing C. elegans as a powerful model for the identification of potential drug targets for treatment of H3.3K27M tumors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Replicação do DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Caenorhabditis elegans , Carcinogênese , Cromatina , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Glioma , Heterocromatina , Código das Histonas , Metilação , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 676: 767-781, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055208

RESUMO

Emission of ionizing radiation (IR) in the environment is a natural phenomenon which can be enhanced by human activities. Ecosystems are then chronically exposed to IR. But environmental risk assessment of chronic exposure suffers from a lack of knowledge. Extrapolation of data from acute to chronic exposure is not always relevant, and can lead to uncertainties as effects could be different between the two irradiation modes, especially regarding reproduction endpoint, which is an ecologically relevant parameter. In the present study, we decided to refine the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in response to acute and chronic γ-irradiation by a global proteome label free LC-MS/MS analysis. C. elegans were exposed to 3 common cumulated radiation doses for acute or chronic exposure condition and global modification of the proteome was studied. This analysis of protein expression has demonstrated the modulation of proteins involved in regulatory biological processes such as lipid transport, DNA replication, germ cell development, apoptosis, ion transport, cuticle development, and aging at lower doses than those for which individual effects on reproduction have been previously observed. Thus, these proteins could constitute early and sensitive markers of radio-induced reprotoxicity; more specifically HAT-1, RPS-19 in acute and VIT-3 for chronic conditions that are expressed in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, to focus on reproduction process, this analysis showed either repression or overexpression of 12 common proteins in organisms exposed to acute or chronic irradiation, respectively. These proteins include the vitellogenin cluster notably involved in lipid transport and oocyte maturation and proteins involved in cuticle development and molting i.e. COL-14, GLF-1, NOAH-1, NOAH-2, ACN-1. These results show that protein expression modulation is a sensitive and predictive marker of radio-induced reproductive effects, but also highlight limitation of data extrapolation from acute to chronic exposure for environmental risk assessment.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Proteoma/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Reprodução
13.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008150, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125345

RESUMO

Germ granules, termed P granules in nematode C. elegans, are the germline-specific cytoplasmic structures widely observed from worms to humans. P granules are known to have critical functions for postembryonic germline development likely through regulating RNA metabolism. They are localized at the perinuclear region of germ cells during most of the developmental stages. However, the biological significance of this specific localization remains elusive. PGL-1 and PGL-3, the defining components of P granules, were shown to be lost from the perinuclear region prior to germ cell apoptosis. Furthermore, this loss was shown to be significantly enhanced upon DNA damage. Here, we show that the removal of PGL-1 and PGL-3 from the perinuclear region following UV-induced DNA damage is significantly reduced in autophagy mutants. Autophagy was previously shown to be required for DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis. We show that the apoptosis defect of autophagy mutants is bypassed by depletion of pgl-1 or pgl-3. These findings are consistent with time-lapse observations of LGG-1 foci formation, showing that autophagy is activated following UV irradiation and that maximal accumulation of LGG-1 foci occurs before PGL-1 removal. We also show that some of the autophagy genes are transcriptionally activated following UV irradiation by CEP-1, the worm p53-like protein. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy is required to remove the major P granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, and that their removal is required for the full induction of DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis. Our study contributes to a better understanding of germ cell apoptosis, a process that leads to the elimination of the vast majority of germ cells in various animals from worms to mammals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
14.
RNA ; 25(8): 963-974, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110136

RESUMO

In the course of identifying and cleaving RNA, the RNAi machinery must encounter and contend with the megadalton-sized ribosomes that carry out translation. We investigated this interface by examining the fate of actively translated mRNAs subjected to RNAi in C. elegans Quantifying RNA levels (RNA-seq) and ongoing translation (Ribo-seq), we found there is a greater fold repression of ongoing translation than expected from loss of RNA alone, observing stronger translation repression relative to RNA repression for multiple, independent double-stranded RNA triggers, and for multiple genes. In animals that lack the RNA helicase SKI complex and the ribosome rescue factor PELOTA, ribosomes stall on the 3' edges of mRNAs at and upstream of the RNAi trigger. One model to explain these observations is that ribosomes are actively cleared from mRNAs by SKI and PELO during or following mRNA cleavage. Our results expand prior studies that show a role for the SKI RNA helicase complex in removing RNA targets following RNAi in flies and plants, illuminating the widespread role of the nonstop translation surveillance in RNA silencing during RNAi. Our results are also consistent with proposals that RNAi can attack messages during active translation.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Helmintos/genética , RNA de Helmintos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Mol Cells ; 42(5): 379-385, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094164

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) comprise various RNA species, including small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). ncRNAs regulate various cellular processes, including transcription and translation of target messenger RNAs. Recent studies also indicate that ncRNAs affect organismal aging and conversely aging influences ncRNA levels. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the roles of ncRNAs in aging and longevity, focusing on recent advances using the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Expression of various ncRNAs, including microRNA (miRNA), tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA), circular RNA (circRNA), and lncRNA, is altered during aging in C. elegans. Genetic modulation of specific ncRNAs affects longevity and aging rates by modulating established aging-regulating protein factors. Because many aging-regulating mechanisms in C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, these studies will provide key information regarding how ncRNAs modulate aging and lifespan in complex organisms, including mammals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 307: 125-135, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047916

RESUMO

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) found in tea is a natural activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a primary regulator of the cellular defense system. The adverse health effects resulting from methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in humans are of worldwide concern. We hypothesized that EGCG could induce a Nrf2-mediated protective response to antagonize MeHg toxicity. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nematode model, we observed that EGCG activated SKN-1 (the functional ortholog of Nrf2 in C. elegans), as shown by the increased skn-1 mRNA level, induction of the gene gst-4, and enhanced SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress resistance that were indicated by elevation of total antioxidant ability and reductions in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. Following exposure to MeHg, EGCG-treated C. elegans displayed increased survival rates, improved locomotion behaviors, decreased numbers of damaged neurons, and reduced oxidative damage compared to the controls. Moreover, the protective effects of EGCG against MeHg toxicity were counteracted by RNA-mediated interference of skn-1. These results demonstrated that EGCG could alleviate MeHg toxicity by upregulating the SKN-1-regulated protective response in C. elegans. Our study suggests a potentially beneficial effect of targeting Nrf2 by dietary EGCG in protecting humans against MeHg toxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catequina/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(14): 2719-2738, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037336

RESUMO

Precise neuronal wiring is critical for the function of the nervous system and is ultimately determined at the level of individual synapses. Neurons integrate various intrinsic and extrinsic cues to form synapses onto their correct targets in a stereotyped manner. In the past decades, the nervous system of nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) has provided the genetic platform to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms of synapse formation and specificity. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries in synapse formation and specificity in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Transdução de Sinais
18.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008122, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034475

RESUMO

Early exposure to some mild stresses can slow down the aging process and extend lifespan, raising the question of how early life stress might impact the somatic health of aged animals. Here, we reveal that early life heat experience triggers the establishment of epigenetic memory in soma, which promotes long-lasting stress responses and longevity in C. elegans. Unlike lethal heat shock, mild heat activates a unique transcriptional program mimicking pathogen defense responses, characterized by the enhanced expression of innate immune and detoxification genes. Surprisingly, the expression of defense response genes persists long after heat exposure, conferring enhanced stress resistance even in aged animals. Further studies identify the histone acetyltransferase CBP-1 and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex as epigenetic modulators of the long-lasting defense responses. Histone acetylation is elevated by heat stress and maintained into agedness thereafter. Accordingly, histone acetylation levels were increased on the promoters of defense genes. Moreover, disruption of epigenetic memory abrogates the longevity response to early hormetic heat stress, indicating that long-lasting defense responses are crucial for the survival of aged animals. Together, our findings provide mechanistic insights into how temperature stress experienced in early life provides animals with lifetime health benefits.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Histonas/metabolismo , Longevidade , Acetilação , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Temperatura Alta , Imunidade Inata , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1882, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015396

RESUMO

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, and impaired glutamate clearance following synaptic release promotes spillover, inducing extra-synaptic signaling. The effects of glutamate spillover on animal behavior and its neural correlates are poorly understood. We developed a glutamate spillover model in Caenorhabditis elegans by inactivating the conserved glial glutamate transporter GLT-1. GLT-1 loss drives aberrant repetitive locomotory reversal behavior through uncontrolled oscillatory release of glutamate onto AVA, a major interneuron governing reversals. Repetitive glutamate release and reversal behavior require the glutamate receptor MGL-2/mGluR5, expressed in RIM and other interneurons presynaptic to AVA. mgl-2 loss blocks oscillations and repetitive behavior; while RIM activation is sufficient to induce repetitive reversals in glt-1 mutants. Repetitive AVA firing and reversals require EGL-30/Gαq, an mGluR5 effector. Our studies reveal that cyclic autocrine presynaptic activation drives repetitive reversals following glutamate spillover. That mammalian GLT1 and mGluR5 are implicated in pathological motor repetition suggests a common mechanism controlling repetitive behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Locomoção/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5 , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/genética
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4774-4781, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963762

RESUMO

Targeted analysis of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora green coffees (total sample size n = 57) confirmed 2- O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin (6) as the quantitatively dominating carboxyatractyligenin derivative. Its abundance in Arabicas (2425 ± 549 nmol/g, n = 48) exceeded that in Robustas (34 ± 12 nmol/g, n = 9) roughly by a factor of 70. Coffee processing involving heat (e.g., steam treatment and decaffeination) reduced concentrations of 6 and increased those of the decarboxylated derivative. The bioavailability of compound 6 in Caenorhabditis elegans was demonstrated by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of extracts prepared from nematode cultures incubated in a liquid medium containing 6. A toxicity assay performed to assess the impact of 6 in vivo showed a 20-fold higher median lethal dose (LD50 = 11.7 ± 1.2 mM) concentration compared to that of the known phytotoxic adenine-nucleotide transporters inhibitor carboxyatractyloside (2, LD50 = 0.61 ± 0.05 mM), whereas 1 mM 6 and 0.1 mM 2 were sufficient to decrease the survival of wild type C. elegans, already 10-20-fold lower doses reduced reproduction. Because the insulin/insulin-like growth factors signaling cascade (IIS) is a key regulator of life span and stress resistance, the impact of compound 6 on the survival of long-living daf-2 C. elegans was tested. As the susceptibility of these nematodes to 6 was as high as that in wild type, an impact on central metabolic processes independent of IIS was suggested. Analysis of the in vivo adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of adult C. elegans revealed no changes after 1 and 24 h, but a 50% reduction after treatment with 1 mM 6 during the entire postembryonic development. These data speak for a developmental-stage-dependent modulation of the ATP pool by 6.


Assuntos
Atractilosídeo/análogos & derivados , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Coffea/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Atractilosídeo/farmacocinética , Atractilosídeo/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Coffea/toxicidade , Café/química , Feminino , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino
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