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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980057

RESUMO

The resistance to dieldrin gene (Rdl) encodes a subunit of the insect γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor, and the encoded Rdl subunit is a major target site for cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides. Since the substitution of a single amino acid (Ala to Ser/Gly at position 302) of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene was first identified to confer high level resistance to dieldrin, mutations at the equivalent positions have been reported to confer resistance to dieldrin and/or fipronil in a wide range of different insects. In the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, there are two Rdl homologs (HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2) in close proximity on the Z chromosome, which as wild-type sequences, encode alanine and serine respectively at amino acid position 302. In the present study, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach to knock out HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 and establish two homozygous knockout strains (ΔRdl-1 and ΔRdl-2). The ΔRdl-1 strain showed low levels of resistance (8.0- to 9.3-fold) to three cyclodiene insecticides (endosulfan, aldrin and dieldrin) compared with the background SCD strain. In contrast, toxicity of the three cyclodiene insecticides to the ΔRdl-2 strain increased significantly (3.6- to 6.3-fold) when compared with the SCD strain. Genetic analysis indicated the obtained resistance to endosulfan and dieldrin in the ΔRdl-1 strain was sex-linked, which is consistent with the fact that HaRdl-1 locus is located on the Z chromosome. The above results demonstrate that both HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 are important determinants for the susceptibility of H. armigera SCD strain to the three cyclodiene insecticides, but have opposite effects. It was also found that HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 are involved, to some extent, in mediating sensitivity of H. armigera to avermectin and fipronil respectively. We speculate that the HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 subunits have different pharmacological properties, which contribute to the differential sensitivities of H. armigera to the tested cyclodienes and other insecticides.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Dieldrin/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Receptores de GABA/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Genética Reversa
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104680, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980059

RESUMO

The progression of neurodegenerative disease is very complex biological process and the molecular crosstalk of inflammatory cytokines during neurodegeneration is associated with multiple cascade signalling. Few evidences suggest that environmental toxin, Paraquat (PQ) administration activates the microglia and intensify the release of proinflamatory cytokines during progression of Parkinson''s disease (PD) but the proper aetiology remained unknown. However, the fundamental role of anti-inflammatory molecule Decapentaplegic (Dpp), homologue of the secreted mammalian Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signalling molecule during neurodegeneration of invertebrate fly model is yet to establish. To elucidate the molecular processes during early stage of Parkinson's disease, we observed neuro-toxin plays a determining role in the increased vulnerability to a particular PQ exposure that is attended by decreased lifespan, severe locomotor deficits, and more loss of dopaminergic (DA) neuron in PQ-treated Dpp deficient fly than wild type (WT). Simultaneously, activated microglia induced the inflammatory response with the release of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine in Drosophila during neurodegeneration. Moreover, neuro-toxin exposure altered the expression of innate immune genes in both WT and mutant fly compared to the respective PQ-treated flies. Interestingly, PQ exposure reduced the expression of innate immune genes in mutant fly compared to WT. It may indicate that PQ exposure had broken down the immune defence response in mutant fly than WT whereas, without PQ exposure the innate immune tolerance level was higher in fly with reduced Dpp expression than WT. Thus, we observed the conserve anti-inflammatory factor TGF-ß may exhibit a crucial defensive role during inflammation mediated neurodegeneration in invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Neuroglia , Paraquat/toxicidade
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4491, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901033

RESUMO

The functionality of the nervous system requires transmission of information along axons with high speed and precision. Conductance velocity depends on axonal diameter whereas signaling precision requires a block of electrical crosstalk between axons, known as ephaptic coupling. Here, we use the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila larvae to determine how glia regulates axonal properties. We show that wrapping glial differentiation depends on gap junctions and FGF-signaling. Abnormal glial differentiation affects axonal diameter and conductance velocity and causes mild behavioral phenotypes that can be rescued by a sphingosine-rich diet. Ablation of wrapping glia does not further impair axonal diameter and conductance velocity but causes a prominent locomotion phenotype that cannot be rescued by sphingosine. Moreover, optogenetically evoked locomotor patterns do not depend on conductance speed but require the presence of wrapping glial processes. In conclusion, our data indicate that wrapping glia modulates both speed and precision of neuronal signaling.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Axônios/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Larva/citologia , Larva/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Optogenética , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008976, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866141

RESUMO

Neural circuitry for mating and reproduction resides within the terminal segments of central nervous system (CNS) which express Hox paralogous group 9-13 (in vertebrates) or Abdominal-B (Abd-B) in Drosophila. Terminal neuroblasts (NBs) in A8-A10 segments of Drosophila larval CNS are subdivided into two groups based on expression of transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx). While the sex specific fate of Dsx-positive NBs is well investigated, the fate of Dsx-negative NBs is not known so far. Our studies with Dsx-negative NBs suggests that these cells, like their abdominal counterparts (in A3-A7 segments) use Hox, Grainyhead (Grh) and Notch to undergo cell death during larval development. This cell death also happens by transcriptionally activating RHG family of apoptotic genes through a common apoptotic enhancer in early to mid L3 stages. However, unlike abdominal NBs (in A3-A7 segments) which use increasing levels of resident Hox factor Abdominal-A (Abd-A) as an apoptosis trigger, Dsx-negative NBs (in A8-A10 segments) keep the levels of resident Hox factor Abd-B constant. These cells instead utilize increasing levels of the temporal transcription factor Grh and a rise in Notch activity to gain apoptotic competence. Biochemical and in vivo analysis suggest that Abdominal-A and Grh binding motifs in the common apoptotic enhancer also function as Abdominal-B and Grh binding motifs and maintains the enhancer activity in A8-A10 NBs. Finally, the deletion of this enhancer by the CRISPR-Cas9 method blocks the apoptosis of Dsx-negative NBs. These results highlight the fact that Hox dependent NB apoptosis in abdominal and terminal regions utilizes common molecular players (Hox, Grh and Notch), but seems to have evolved different molecular strategies to pattern CNS.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Receptores Notch/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Abdome/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1009003, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866139

RESUMO

Sensory systems rely on neuromodulators, such as serotonin, to provide flexibility for information processing as stimuli vary, such as light intensity throughout the day. Serotonergic neurons broadly innervate the optic ganglia of Drosophila melanogaster, a widely used model for studying vision. It remains unclear whether serotonin modulates the physiology of interneurons in the optic ganglia. To address this question, we first mapped the expression patterns of serotonin receptors in the visual system, focusing on a subset of cells with processes in the first optic ganglion, the lamina. Serotonin receptor expression was found in several types of columnar cells in the lamina including 5-HT2B in lamina monopolar cell L2, required for spatiotemporal luminance contrast, and both 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B in T1 cells, whose function is unknown. Subcellular mapping with GFP-tagged 5-HT2B and 5-HT1A constructs indicated that these receptors localize to layer M2 of the medulla, proximal to serotonergic boutons, suggesting that the medulla neuropil is the primary site of serotonergic regulation for these neurons. Exogenous serotonin increased basal intracellular calcium in L2 terminals in layer M2 and modestly decreased the duration of visually induced calcium transients in L2 neurons following repeated dark flashes, but otherwise did not alter the calcium transients. Flies without functional 5-HT2B failed to show an increase in basal calcium in response to serotonin. 5-HT2B mutants also failed to show a change in amplitude in their response to repeated light flashes but other calcium transient parameters were relatively unaffected. While we did not detect serotonin receptor expression in L1 neurons, they, like L2, underwent serotonin-induced changes in basal calcium, presumably via interactions with other cells. These data demonstrate that serotonin modulates the physiology of interneurons involved in early visual processing in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Receptor 5-HT1B de Serotonina/genética , Receptores 5-HT1 de Serotonina/genética , Receptores 5-HT2 de Serotonina/genética , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurotransmissores/genética , Receptores de Serotonina/genética , Serotonina/genética , Percepção Visual/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4653, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938923

RESUMO

Cancer cells demand excess nutrients to support their proliferation, but how tumours exploit extracellular amino acids during systemic metabolic perturbations remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a Drosophila model of high-sugar diet (HSD)-enhanced tumourigenesis to uncover a systemic host-tumour metabolic circuit that supports tumour growth. We demonstrate coordinate induction of systemic muscle wasting with tumour-autonomous Yorkie-mediated SLC36-family amino acid transporter expression as a proline-scavenging programme to drive tumourigenesis. We identify Indole-3-propionic acid as an optimal amino acid derivative to rationally target the proline-dependency of tumour growth. Insights from this whole-animal Drosophila model provide a powerful approach towards the identification and therapeutic exploitation of the amino acid vulnerabilities of tumourigenesis in the context of a perturbed systemic metabolic network.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/fisiopatologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Carcinogênese , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Larva , Debilidade Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Debilidade Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/etiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4677, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938929

RESUMO

The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) helps metazoan cells adapt to cellular stress by limiting the availability of initiator methionyl-tRNA for translation. Such limiting conditions paradoxically stimulate the translation of ATF4 mRNA through a regulatory 5' leader sequence with multiple upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs), thereby activating stress-responsive gene expression. Here, we report the identification of two critical regulators of such ATF4 induction, the noncanonical initiation factors eIF2D and DENR. Loss of eIF2D and DENR in Drosophila results in increased vulnerability to amino acid deprivation, susceptibility to retinal degeneration caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and developmental defects similar to ATF4 mutants. eIF2D requires its RNA-binding motif for regulation of 5' leader-mediated ATF4 translation. Consistently, eIF2D and DENR deficient human cells show impaired ATF4 protein induction in response to ER stress. Altogether, our findings indicate that eIF2D and DENR are critical mediators of ATF4 translational induction and stress responses in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Interferência de RNA , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4782, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963223

RESUMO

Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins maintain stable epigenetic memory of gene expression states for some genes, but many targets show highly dynamic regulation. Here we combine experiment and theory to examine the mechanistic basis of these different modes of regulation. We present a mathematical model comprising a Polycomb/Trithorax response element (PRE/TRE) coupled to a promoter and including Drosophila developmental timing. The model accurately recapitulates published studies of PRE/TRE mediated epigenetic memory of both silencing and activation. With minimal parameter changes, the same model can also recapitulate experimental data for a different PRE/TRE that allows dynamic regulation of its target gene. The model predicts that both cell cycle length and PRE/TRE identity are critical for determining whether the system gives stable memory or dynamic regulation. Our work provides a simple unifying framework for a rich repertoire of PRE/TRE functions, and thus provides insights into  genome-wide Polycomb/Trithorax regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Epigenômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Modelos Teóricos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Animais , Divisão Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Elementos de Resposta
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008962, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750047

RESUMO

Haspin, a highly conserved kinase in eukaryotes, has been shown to be responsible for phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3T3ph) during mitosis, in mammals and yeast. Here we report that haspin is the kinase that phosphorylates H3T3 in Drosophila melanogaster and it is involved in sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis. Our data reveal that haspin also phosphorylates H3T3 in interphase. H3T3ph localizes in broad silenced domains at heterochromatin and lamin-enriched euchromatic regions. Loss of haspin compromises insulator activity in enhancer-blocking assays and triggers a decrease in nuclear size that is accompanied by changes in nuclear envelope morphology. We show that haspin is a suppressor of position-effect variegation involved in heterochromatin organization. Our results also demonstrate that haspin is necessary for pairing-sensitive silencing and it is required for robust Polycomb-dependent homeotic gene silencing. Haspin associates with the cohesin complex in interphase, mediates Pds5 binding to chromatin and cooperates with Pds5-cohesin to modify Polycomb-dependent homeotic transformations. Therefore, this study uncovers an unanticipated role for haspin kinase in genome organization of interphase cells and demonstrates that haspin is required for homeotic gene regulation.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Mitose/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Centrômero/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Inativação Gênica , Heterocromatina/genética , Histonas/genética , Interfase/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/genética , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/genética , Treonina/genética
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008820, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750048

RESUMO

The core planar polarity proteins are essential mediators of tissue morphogenesis, controlling both the polarised production of cellular structures and polarised tissue movements. During development the core proteins promote planar polarisation by becoming asymmetrically localised to opposite cell edges within epithelial tissues, forming intercellular protein complexes that coordinate polarity between adjacent cells. Here we describe a novel protein complex that regulates the asymmetric localisation of the core proteins in the Drosophila pupal wing. DAnkrd49 (an ankyrin repeat protein) and Bride of Doubletime (Bdbt, a non-canonical FK506 binding protein family member) physically interact, and regulate each other's levels in vivo. Loss of either protein results in a reduction in core protein asymmetry and disruption of the placement of trichomes at the distal edge of pupal wing cells. Post-translational modifications are thought to be important for the regulation of core protein behaviour and their sorting to opposite cell edges. Consistent with this, we find that loss of DAnkrd49 or Bdbt leads to reduced phosphorylation of the core protein Dishevelled and to decreased Dishevelled levels both at cell junctions and in the cytoplasm. Bdbt has previously been shown to regulate activity of the kinase Discs Overgrown (Dco, also known as Doubletime or Casein Kinase Iε), and Dco itself has been implicated in regulating planar polarity by phosphorylating Dsh as well as the core protein Strabismus. We demonstrate that DAnkrd49 and Bdbt act as dominant suppressors of Dco activity. These findings support a model whereby Bdbt and DAnkrd49 act together to modulate the activity of Dco during planar polarity establishment.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Animais , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/genética , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Mutação com Perda de Função , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Asas de Animais/citologia , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008942, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764744

RESUMO

To remodel functional neuronal connectivity, neurons often alter dendrite arbors through elimination and subsequent regeneration of dendritic branches. However, the intrinsic mechanisms underlying this developmentally programmed dendrite regeneration and whether it shares common machinery with injury-induced regeneration remain largely unknown. Drosophila class IV dendrite arborization (C4da) sensory neurons regenerate adult-specific dendrites after eliminating larval dendrites during metamorphosis. Here we show that the microRNA miR-87 is a critical regulator of dendrite regeneration in Drosophila. miR-87 knockout impairs dendrite regeneration after developmentally-programmed pruning, whereas miR-87 overexpression in C4da neurons leads to precocious initiation of dendrite regeneration. Genetic analyses indicate that the transcriptional repressor Tramtrack69 (Ttk69) is a functional target for miR-87-mediated repression as ttk69 expression is increased in miR-87 knockout neurons and reducing ttk69 expression restores dendrite regeneration to mutants lacking miR-87 function. We further show that miR-87 is required for dendrite regeneration after acute injury in the larval stage, providing a mechanistic link between developmentally programmed and injury-induced dendrite regeneration. These findings thus indicate that miR-87 promotes dendrite regrowth during regeneration at least in part through suppressing Ttk69 in Drosophila sensory neurons and suggest that developmental and injury-induced dendrite regeneration share a common intrinsic mechanism to reactivate dendrite growth.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Regeneração Nervosa/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Dendritos/genética , Dendritos/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4067, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792493

RESUMO

The brain is organized morphologically and functionally into a columnar structure. According to the radial unit hypothesis, neurons from the same lineage form a radial unit that contributes to column formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that link neuronal lineage and column formation remain elusive. Here, we show that neurons from the same lineage project to different columns under control of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) in the fly brain. Dscam1 is temporally expressed in newly born neuroblasts and is inherited by their daughter neurons. The transient transcription of Dscam1 in neuroblasts enables the expression of the same Dscam1 splice isoform within cells of the same lineage, causing lineage-dependent repulsion. In the absence of Dscam1 function, neurons from the same lineage project to the same column. When the splice diversity of Dscam1 is reduced, column formation is significantly compromised. Thus, Dscam1 controls column formation through lineage-dependent repulsion.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
13.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000762, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760088

RESUMO

Centrosomes, the main microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) of metazoan cells, contain an older "mother" and a younger "daughter" centriole. Stem cells either inherit the mother or daughter-centriole-containing centrosome, providing a possible mechanism for biased delivery of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanisms regulating centrosome asymmetry and biased centrosome segregation are unclear. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and live-cell imaging, we show in fly neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that the mitotic kinase Polo and its centriolar protein substrate Centrobin (Cnb) accumulate on the daughter centriole during mitosis, thereby generating molecularly distinct mother and daughter centrioles before interphase. Cnb's asymmetric localization, potentially involving a direct relocalization mechanism, is regulated by Polo-mediated phosphorylation, whereas Polo's daughter centriole enrichment requires both Wdr62 and Cnb. Based on optogenetic protein mislocalization experiments, we propose that the establishment of centriole asymmetry in mitosis primes biased interphase MTOC activity, necessary for correct spindle orientation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Centríolos/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mitose , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Centríolos/ultraestrutura , Centrossomo/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Interfase , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236679, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760087

RESUMO

The Drosophila shaggy gene (sgg, GSK-3) encodes multiple protein isoforms with serine/threonine kinase activity and is a key player in diverse developmental signalling pathways. Currently it is unclear whether different Sgg proteoforms are similarly involved in signalling or if different proteoforms have distinct functions. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering to tag eight different Sgg proteoform classes and determined their localization during embryonic development. We performed proteomic analysis of the two major proteoform classes and generated mutant lines for both of these for transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis. We uncovered distinct tissue-specific localization patterns for all of the tagged proteoforms we examined, most of which have not previously been characterised directly at the protein level, including one proteoform initiating with a non-standard codon. Collectively, this suggests complex developmentally regulated splicing of the sgg primary transcript. Further, affinity purification followed by mass spectrometric analyses indicate a different repertoire of interacting proteins for the two major proteoforms we examined, one with ubiquitous expression (Sgg-PB) and one with nervous system specific expression (Sgg-PA). Specific mutation of these proteoforms shows that Sgg-PB performs the well characterised maternal and zygotic segmentations functions of the sgg locus, while Sgg-PA mutants show adult lifespan and locomotor defects consistent with its nervous system localisation. Our findings provide new insights into the role of GSK-3 proteoforms and intriguing links with the GSK-3α and GSK-3ß proteins encoded by independent vertebrate genes. Our analysis suggests that different proteoforms generated by alternative splicing are likely to perform distinct functions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Isoenzimas/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822370

RESUMO

The larvae of Drosophila melanogaster grow rapidly through use of a highly truncated cell cycle in which mitosis is entirely eliminated. The Drosophila homolog of the protooncogene transcription factor Myc plays a major role in promoting this endopolyploid (EP) growth. We have previously determined that the gene jim lovell (lov), which encodes a member of the BTB/POZ (Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, Broad/Pox virus zinc finger) domain family of transcription factors, is also required for EP growth in one larval tissue, the trachea. Here we show that lov promotes EP growth in three further tissues indicating a fundamental role in this process. However, epistasis experiments revealed heterogeneity in lov's action in these tissues. Whereas in the tracheae and salivary glands lov acts downstream of Myc, in the fat body, reduced expression of lov does not impede the action of Myc, indicating an upstream action for the gene. We show here that lov's regulation of the gene uninflatable (uif) in the tracheae is a component of this difference. uif is required for tracheal EP growth downstream of Myc and lov but has no equivalent role in the fat body. Although Uif is a transmembrane component of the plasma membrane in the tracheae, its action downstream of Myc suggests an intracellular role for the protein in the tracheae. In addition to regulating uif expression in some tissues we also show that lov locates to the nucleolus, indicating it can function in both polymerase I and polymerase II transcriptional events. Our major finding is that tissue-specific mechanisms can interact with universal growth promotion by Myc to generate the individual endopolyploid organs of the larvae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/análise , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epistasia Genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4263, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848132

RESUMO

Eukaryotic DNA replication initiation relies on the origin recognition complex (ORC), a DNA-binding ATPase that loads the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase onto replication origins. Here, we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of DNA-bound Drosophila ORC with and without the co-loader Cdc6. These structures reveal that Orc1 and Orc4 constitute the primary DNA binding site in the ORC ring and cooperate with the winged-helix domains to stabilize DNA bending. A loop region near the catalytic Walker B motif of Orc1 directly contacts DNA, allosterically coupling DNA binding to ORC's ATPase site. Correlating structural and biochemical data show that DNA sequence modulates DNA binding and remodeling by ORC, and that DNA bending promotes Mcm2-7 loading in vitro. Together, these findings explain the distinct DNA sequence-dependencies of metazoan and S. cerevisiae initiators in origin recognition and support a model in which DNA geometry and bendability contribute to Mcm2-7 loading site selection in metazoans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Complexo de Reconhecimento de Origem/química , Complexo de Reconhecimento de Origem/metabolismo , Origem de Replicação , Domínio AAA , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/química , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/genética , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Complexo de Reconhecimento de Origem/genética , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Origem de Replicação/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008963, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780743

RESUMO

Long-term memory (LTM) formation depends on the conversed cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene transcription followed by de novo protein synthesis. Thirsty fruit flies can be trained to associate an odor with water reward to form water-reward LTM (wLTM), which can last for over 24 hours without a significant decline. The role of de novo protein synthesis and CREB-regulated gene expression changes in neural circuits that contribute to wLTM remains unclear. Here, we show that acute inhibition of protein synthesis in the mushroom body (MB) αß or γ neurons during memory formation using a cold-sensitive ribosome-inactivating toxin disrupts wLTM. Furthermore, adult stage-specific expression of dCREB2b in αß or γ neurons also disrupts wLTM. The MB αß and γ neurons can be further classified into five different neuronal subsets including αß core, αß surface, αß posterior, γ main, and γ dorsal. We observed that the neurotransmission from αß surface and γ dorsal neuron subsets is required for wLTM retrieval, whereas the αß core, αß posterior, and γ main are dispensable. Adult stage-specific expression of dCREB2b in αß surface and γ dorsal neurons inhibits wLTM formation. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that αß surface and γ dorsal neurons form wLTM traces with different dynamic properties, and these memory traces are abolished by dCREB2b expression. Our results suggest that a small population of neurons within the MB circuits support long-term storage of water-reward memory in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Olfato/genética , Transativadores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Cálcio/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Recompensa , Olfato/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Água
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008989, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810129

RESUMO

Drosophila Myc (dMyc), as a broad-spectrum transcription factor, can regulate the expression of a large number of genes to control diverse cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. However, it remains largely unknown about whether dMyc can be involved in Drosophila innate immune response. Here, we have identified dMyc to be a negative regulator of Drosophila Imd pathway via the loss- and gain-of-function screening. We demonstrate that dMyc inhibits Drosophila Imd immune response via directly activating miR-277 transcription, which further inhibit the expression of imd and Tab2-Ra/b. Importantly, dMyc can improve the survival of flies upon infection, suggesting inhibiting Drosophila Imd pathway by dMyc is vital to restore immune homeostasis that is essential for survival. Taken together, our study not only reports a new dMyc-miR-277-imd/Tab2 axis involved in the negative regulation of Drosophila Imd pathway, and provides a new insight into the complex regulatory mechanism of Drosophila innate immune homeostasis maintenance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Divisão Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
19.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000548, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745077

RESUMO

Sleep is vital for survival. Yet under environmentally challenging conditions, such as starvation, animals suppress their need for sleep. Interestingly, starvation-induced sleep loss does not evoke a subsequent sleep rebound. Little is known about how starvation-induced sleep deprivation differs from other types of sleep loss, or why some sleep functions become dispensable during starvation. Here, we demonstrate that down-regulation of the secreted cytokine unpaired 2 (upd2) in Drosophila flies may mimic a starved-like state. We used a genetic knockdown strategy to investigate the consequences of upd2 on visual attention and sleep in otherwise well-fed flies, thereby sidestepping the negative side effects of undernourishment. We find that knockdown of upd2 in the fat body (FB) is sufficient to suppress sleep and promote feeding-related behaviors while also improving selective visual attention. Furthermore, we show that this peripheral signal is integrated in the fly brain via insulin-expressing cells. Together, these findings identify a role for peripheral tissue-to-brain interactions in the simultaneous regulation of sleep quality and attention, to potentially promote adaptive behaviors necessary for survival in hungry animals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inanição/genética , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Inanição/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3631, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686670

RESUMO

Macrophages are a major immune cell type infiltrating tumors and promoting tumor growth and metastasis. To elucidate the mechanism of macrophage recruitment, we utilize an overgrowth tumor model ("undead" model) in larval Drosophila imaginal discs that are attached by numerous macrophages. Here we report that changes to the microenvironment of the overgrown tissue are important for recruiting macrophages. First, we describe a correlation between generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage of the basement membrane (BM) in all neoplastic, but not hyperplastic, models examined. ROS and the stress kinase JNK mediate the accumulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), damaging the BM, which recruits macrophages to the tissue. We propose a model where macrophage recruitment to and activation at overgrowing tissue is a multi-step process requiring ROS- and JNK-mediated Mmp2 upregulation and BM damage. These findings have implications for understanding the role of the tumor microenvironment for macrophage activation.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/fisiologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Discos Imaginais/imunologia , Discos Imaginais/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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