Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.585
Filtrar
2.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 1024-1036.e5, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871103

RESUMO

Bacterial ribosomal RNAs are synthesized by a dedicated, conserved transcription-elongation complex that transcribes at high rates, shields RNA polymerase from premature termination, and supports co-transcriptional RNA folding, modification, processing, and ribosomal subunit assembly by presently unknown mechanisms. We have determined cryo-electron microscopy structures of complete Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA transcription elongation complexes, comprising RNA polymerase; DNA; RNA bearing an N-utilization-site-like anti-termination element; Nus factors A, B, E, and G; inositol mono-phosphatase SuhB; and ribosomal protein S4. Our structures and structure-informed functional analyses show that fast transcription and anti-termination involve suppression of NusA-stabilized pausing, enhancement of NusG-mediated anti-backtracking, sequestration of the NusG C-terminal domain from termination factor ρ, and the ρ blockade. Strikingly, the factors form a composite RNA chaperone around the RNA polymerase RNA-exit tunnel, which supports co-transcriptional RNA folding and annealing of distal RNA regions. Our work reveals a polymerase/chaperone machine required for biosynthesis of functional ribosomes.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/ultraestrutura , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Dobramento de RNA/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Ribossômicas/ultraestrutura , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/química , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/ultraestrutura
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3796, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732900

RESUMO

The ter region of the bacterial chromosome, where replication terminates, is the last to be segregated before cell division in Escherichia coli. Delayed segregation is controlled by the MatP protein, which binds to specific sites (matS) within ter, and interacts with other proteins such as ZapB. Here, we investigate the role of MatP by combining short-time mobility analyses of the ter locus with biochemical approaches. We find that ter mobility is similar to that of a non ter locus, except when sister ter loci are paired after replication. This effect depends on MatP, the persistence of catenanes, and ZapB. We characterise MatP/DNA complexes and conclude that MatP binds DNA as a tetramer, but bridging matS sites in a DNA-rich environment remains infrequent. We propose that tetramerisation of MatP links matS sites with ZapB and/or with non-specific DNA to promote optimal pairing of sister ter regions until cell division.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3802, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732903

RESUMO

The Sec translocon moves proteins across lipid bilayers in all cells. The Sec channel enables passage of unfolded proteins through the bacterial plasma membrane, driven by the cytosolic ATPase SecA. Whether SecA generates mechanical force to overcome barriers to translocation posed by structured substrate proteins is unknown. Here, we kinetically dissect Sec-dependent translocation by monitoring translocation of a folded substrate protein with tunable stability at high time resolution. We find that substrate unfolding constitutes the rate-limiting step during translocation. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we also define the response of the protein to mechanical force. Relating the kinetic and force measurements reveals that SecA generates at least 10 piconewtons of mechanical force to actively unfold translocating proteins, comparable to cellular unfoldases. Combining biochemical and single-molecule measurements thus allows us to define how the SecA motor ensures efficient and robust export of proteins that contain stable structure.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Desdobramento de Proteína , Canais de Translocação SEC/metabolismo , Proteínas SecA/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metotrexato/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas SecA/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4013, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782250

RESUMO

Antibiotics that interfere with translation, when combined, interact in diverse and difficult-to-predict ways. Here, we explain these interactions by "translation bottlenecks": points in the translation cycle where antibiotics block ribosomal progression. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drug interactions between translation inhibitors, we generate translation bottlenecks genetically using inducible control of translation factors that regulate well-defined translation cycle steps. These perturbations accurately mimic antibiotic action and drug interactions, supporting that the interplay of different translation bottlenecks causes these interactions. We further show that growth laws, combined with drug uptake and binding kinetics, enable the direct prediction of a large fraction of observed interactions, yet fail to predict suppression. However, varying two translation bottlenecks simultaneously supports that dense traffic of ribosomes and competition for translation factors account for the previously unexplained suppression. These results highlight the importance of "continuous epistasis" in bacterial physiology.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Modelos Teóricos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Epistasia Genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 187-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833213

RESUMO

Biotin-based proximity labeling circumvents major pitfalls of classical biochemical approaches to identify protein-protein interactions. It consists of enzyme-catalyzed biotin tags ubiquitously apposed on proteins located in close proximity of the labeling enzyme, followed by affinity purification and identification of biotinylated proteins by mass spectrometry. Here we outline the methods by which the molecular microenvironment of the coronavirus replicase/transcriptase complex (RTC), i.e., proteins located within a close perimeter of the RTC, can be determined by different proximity labeling approaches using BirAR118G (BioID), TurboID, and APEX2. These factors represent a molecular signature of coronavirus RTCs and likely contribute to the viral life cycle, thereby constituting attractive targets for the development of antiviral intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Enzimas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Biotinilação , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/genética , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Imunofluorescência , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8545-8561, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735661

RESUMO

A crucial bacterial strategy to avoid killing by antibiotics is to enter a growth arrested state, yet the molecular mechanisms behind this process remain elusive. The conditional overexpression of mazF, the endoribonuclease toxin of the MazEF toxin-antitoxin system in Staphylococcus aureus, is one approach to induce bacterial growth arrest, but its targets remain largely unknown. We used overexpression of mazF and high-throughput sequence analysis following the exact mapping of non-phosphorylated transcriptome ends (nEMOTE) technique to reveal in vivo toxin cleavage sites on a global scale. We obtained a catalogue of MazF cleavage sites and unearthed an extended MazF cleavage specificity that goes beyond the previously reported one. We correlated transcript cleavage and abundance in a global transcriptomic profiling during mazF overexpression. We observed that MazF affects RNA molecules involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell wall synthesis, cell division and RNA turnover and thus deliver a plausible explanation for how mazF overexpression induces stasis. We hypothesize that autoregulation of MazF occurs by directly modulating the MazEF operon, such as the rsbUVW genes that regulate the sigma factor SigB, including an observed cleavage site on the MazF mRNA that would ultimately play a role in entry and exit from bacterial stasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Óperon/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Especificidade por Substrato , Transcriptoma/genética
8.
Science ; 369(6503): 566-571, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732424

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas-guided base editors convert A•T to G•C, or C•G to T•A, in cellular DNA for precision genome editing. To understand the molecular basis for DNA adenosine deamination by adenine base editors (ABEs), we determined a 3.2-angstrom resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of ABE8e in a substrate-bound state in which the deaminase domain engages DNA exposed within the CRISPR-Cas9 R-loop complex. Kinetic and structural data suggest that ABE8e catalyzes DNA deamination up to ~1100-fold faster than earlier ABEs because of mutations that stabilize DNA substrates in a constrained, transfer RNA-like conformation. Furthermore, ABE8e's accelerated DNA deamination suggests a previously unobserved transient DNA melting that may occur during double-stranded DNA surveillance by CRISPR-Cas9. These results explain ABE8e-mediated base-editing outcomes and inform the future design of base editors.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , Adenosina Desaminase/química , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Edição de Genes , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Desaminação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4292, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855421

RESUMO

Cost competitive conversion of biomass-derived sugars into biofuel will require high yields, high volumetric productivities and high titers. Suitable production parameters are hard to achieve in cell-based systems because of the need to maintain life processes. As a result, next-generation biofuel production in engineered microbes has yet to match the stringent cost targets set by petroleum fuels. Removing the constraints imposed by having to maintain cell viability might facilitate improved production metrics. Here, we report a cell-free system in a bioreactor with continuous product removal that produces isobutanol from glucose at a maximum productivity of 4 g L-1 h-1, a titer of 275 g L-1 and 95% yield over the course of nearly 5 days. These production metrics exceed even the highly developed ethanol fermentation process. Our results suggest that moving beyond cells has the potential to expand what is possible for bio-based chemical production.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/métodos , Butanóis/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Acetolactato Sintase/química , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Bioquímica/instrumentação , Reatores Biológicos , Sistema Livre de Células , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Enzimas/química , Enzimas/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008776, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845938

RESUMO

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a diarrheagenic pathotype associated with traveler's diarrhea, foodborne outbreaks and sporadic diarrhea in industrialized and developing countries. Regulation of virulence in EAEC is mediated by AggR and its negative regulator Aar. Together, they control the expression of at least 210 genes. On the other hand, we observed that about one third of Aar-regulated genes are related to metabolism and transport. In this study we show the AggR/Aar duo controls the metabolism of lipids. Accordingly, we show that AatD, encoded in the AggR-regulated aat operon (aatPABCD) is an N-acyltransferase structurally similar to the essential Apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase Lnt and is required for the acylation of Aap (anti-aggregation protein). Deletion of aatD impairs post-translational modification of Aap and causes its accumulation in the bacterial periplasm. trans-complementation of 042aatD mutant with the AatD homolog of ETEC or with the N-acyltransferase Lnt reestablished translocation of Aap. Site-directed mutagenesis of the E207 residue in the putative acyltransferase catalytic triad disrupted the activity of AatD and caused accumulation of Aap in the periplasm due to reduced translocation of Aap at the bacterial surface. Furthermore, Mass spectroscopy revealed that Aap is acylated in a putative lipobox at the N-terminal of the mature protein, implying that Aap is a lipoprotein. Lastly, deletion of aatD impairs bacterial colonization of the streptomycin-treated mouse model. Our findings unveiled a novel N-acyltransferase family associated with bacterial virulence, and that is tightly regulated by AraC/XylS regulators in the order Enterobacterales.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AraC/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acilação , Animais , Fator de Transcrição AraC/química , Fator de Transcrição AraC/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óperon , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Virulência
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109222, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771325

RESUMO

Extensive application of methylene blue (MB) for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, and reports for unwanted side effects, demand better understanding of the mechanisms of biological action of this thiazine dye. Because MB is redox-active, its biological activities have been attributed to transfer of electrons, generation of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant action. Results of this study show that MB is more toxic to a superoxide dismutase-deficient Escherichia coli mutant than to its SOD-proficient parent, which indicates that superoxide anion radical is involved. Incubation of E. coli with MB induced the enzymes fumarase C, SOD, nitroreductase A, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, all controlled by the soxRS regulon. Induction of these enzymes was prevented by blocking protein synthesis with chloramphenicol and was not observed when soxRS-negative mutants were incubated with MB. These results show that MB is capable of inducing the soxRS regulon of E. coli, which plays a key role in protecting bacteria against oxidative stress and redox-cycling compounds. Irrespective of the abundance of heme-containing proteins in living cells, which are preferred acceptors of electrons from the reduced form of MB, reduction of oxygen to superoxide radical still takes place. Induction of the soxRS regulon suggests that in humans, beneficial effects of MB could be attributed to activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors like Nrf2 and FoxO. If defense systems are compromised or genes coding for protective proteins are not induced, MB would have deleterious effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Regulon/efeitos dos fármacos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Science ; 369(6502): 440-445, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703877

RESUMO

The rational design of enzymes is an important goal for both fundamental and practical reasons. Here, we describe a process to learn the constraints for specifying proteins purely from evolutionary sequence data, design and build libraries of synthetic genes, and test them for activity in vivo using a quantitative complementation assay. For chorismate mutase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, we demonstrate the design of natural-like catalytic function with substantial sequence diversity. Further optimization focuses the generative model toward function in a specific genomic context. The data show that sequence-based statistical models suffice to specify proteins and provide access to an enormous space of functional sequences. This result provides a foundation for a general process for evolution-based design of artificial proteins.


Assuntos
Corismato Mutase , Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Corismato Mutase/química , Corismato Mutase/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética
13.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Oxidative stress is responsible for generating DNA lesions and the 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is the most commonly lesion found in DNA damage. When this base is incorporated during DNA replication, it could generate double-strand DNA breaks and cellular death. MutT enzyme hydrolyzes the 8-oxoG from the nucleotide pool, preventing its incorporation during DNA replication. OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of 8-oxoG in Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis, in this study we analysed the impact of heterologous expression of Escherichia coli MutT (EcMutT) enzyme in drug-resistance phenotype and defense against oxidative stress. METHODS Comparative analysis of L. braziliensis and L. infantum H2O2 tolerance and cell cycle profile were performed. Lines of L. braziliensis and L. infantum expressing EcMutT were generated and evaluated using susceptibility tests to H2O2 and SbIII, cell cycle analysis, γH2A western blotting, and BrdU native detection assay. FINDINGS Comparative analysis of tolerance to oxidative stress generated by H2O2 showed that L. infantum is more tolerant to exogenous H2O2 than L. braziliensis. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that L. infantum, after treatment with H2O2, remains in G1 phase, returning to its normal growth rate after 72 h. In contrast, after treatment with H2O2, L. braziliensis parasites continue to move to the next stages of the cell cycle. Expression of the E. coli MutT gene in L. braziliensis and L. infantum does not interfere in parasite growth or in susceptibility to SbIII. Interestingly, we observed that L. braziliensis EcMutT-expressing clones were more tolerant to H2O2 treatment, presented lower activation of γH2A, a biomarker of genotoxic stress, and lower replication stress than its parental non-transfected parasites. In contrast, the EcMutT is not involved in protection against oxidative stress generated by H2O2 in L. infantum. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that 8-oxoG clearance in L. braziliensis is important to avoid misincorporation during DNA replication after oxidative stress generated by H2O2.


Assuntos
Antimônio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirofosfatases , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Guanina/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Leishmania braziliensis/enzimologia , Leishmania infantum/enzimologia , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Pirofosfatases/genética , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Coelhos , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008610, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716926

RESUMO

Two-component systems and phosphorelays play central roles in the ability of bacteria to rapidly respond to changing environments. In E. coli and related enterobacteria, the complex Rcs phosphorelay is a critical player in the bacterial response to antimicrobial peptides, beta-lactam antibiotics, and other disruptions at the cell surface. The Rcs system is unusual in that an inner membrane protein, IgaA, is essential due to its negative regulation of the RcsC/RcsD/RcsB phosphorelay. While it is known that IgaA transduces signals from the outer membrane lipoprotein RcsF, how it interacts with the phosphorelay has remained unknown. Here we performed in vivo interaction assays and genetic dissection of the critical proteins and found that IgaA interacts with the phosphorelay protein RcsD, and that this interaction is necessary for regulation. Interactions between IgaA and RcsD within their respective periplasmic domains of these two proteins anchor repression of signaling. However, the signaling response depends on a second interaction between cytoplasmic loop 1 of IgaA and a truncated Per-Arndt-Sim (PAS-like) domain in RcsD. A single point mutation in the PAS-like domain increased interactions between the two proteins and blocked induction of the phosphorelay. IgaA may regulate RcsC, the histidine kinase that initiates phosphotransfer through the phosphorelay, indirectly, via its contacts with RcsD. Unlike RcsD, and unlike many other histidine kinases, the periplasmic domain of RcsC is dispensable for the response to signals that induce the Rcs phosphorelay system. The multiple contacts between IgaA and RcsD constitute a poised sensing system, preventing potentially toxic over-activation of this phosphorelay while enabling it to rapidly and quantitatively respond to signals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 544, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify ten different 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes (rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, armA, rmtF, npmA, rmtH, rmtE and rmtG) and their coexisting ESBL and carbapenemase with the emergence of three E.coli clones within a single study centre. METHODS: A total of 329 non-duplicate E.coli isolates were studied to detect the presence of 16S rRNA methyltransferases along with ß-lactamases (TEM, SHV, OXA, VEB, GES, PER,CTX-M types, NDM, OXA-48,VIM, IMP and KPC) using PCR assay. Horizontal transferability were validated by transformation and conjugation analysis. Plasmid incompatibility typing and MLST analysis was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 117 isolates were found to be resistant to at least one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. It was observed that 77 (65.8%) were positive for 16S rRNA methyltransferases. Among them thirty nine isolates were found to harbour only blaCTX-M-15, whereas combination of genes were observed in three isolates (blaVEB+ blaCTX-M-15 in 2 isolates and blaPER + blaCTX-M-15 in 1 isolate). blaNDM and blaOXA-48 like genes were found in 23 and 9 isolates, respectively. All the resistance genes were conjugatively transferable, and incompatibility typing showed multiple 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes were originated from a single Inc. I1 group. MLST analysis detected 3 clones of E.coliST4410, ST1341 and ST3906. CONCLUSION: The present study identified emergence of three clones of E.coli, resistant to aminoglycoside -cephalosporin- carbapenem. This warrants immediate measures to trace their transmission dynamics in order to slow down their spread in clinical setting.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18737-18743, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675245

RESUMO

The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria confers innate resistance to toxins and antibiotics. Integral ß-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) function to establish and maintain the selective permeability of the OM. OMPs are assembled into the OM by the ß-barrel assembly machine (BAM), which is composed of one OMP-BamA-and four lipoproteins-BamB, C, D, and E. BamB, C, and E can be removed individually with only minor effects on barrier function; however, depletion of either BamA or BamD causes a global defect in OMP assembly and results in cell death. We have identified a gain-of-function mutation, bamA E470K , that bypasses the requirement for BamD. Although bamD::kan bamA E470K cells exhibit growth and OM barrier defects, they assemble OMPs with surprising robustness. Our results demonstrate that BamD does not play a catalytic role in OMP assembly, but rather functions to regulate the activity of BamA.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Membrana Externa Bacteriana , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/química , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18582-18590, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680961

RESUMO

Cells consist of molecular modules which perform vital biological functions. Cellular modules are key units of adaptive evolution because organismal fitness depends on their performance. Theory shows that in rapidly evolving populations, such as those of many microbes, adaptation is driven primarily by common beneficial mutations with large effects, while other mutations behave as if they are effectively neutral. As a consequence, if a module can be improved only by rare and/or weak beneficial mutations, its adaptive evolution would stall. However, such evolutionary stalling has not been empirically demonstrated, and it is unclear to what extent stalling may limit the power of natural selection to improve modules. Here we empirically characterize how natural selection improves the translation machinery (TM), an essential cellular module. We experimentally evolved populations of Escherichia coli with genetically perturbed TMs for 1,000 generations. Populations with severe TM defects initially adapted via mutations in the TM, but TM adaptation stalled within about 300 generations. We estimate that the genetic load in our populations incurred by residual TM defects ranges from 0.5 to 19%. Finally, we found evidence that both epistasis and the depletion of the pool of beneficial mutations contributed to evolutionary stalling. Our results suggest that cellular modules may not be fully optimized by natural selection despite the availability of adaptive mutations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Mutação/genética , Fator Tu de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17924-17931, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661175

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance frequently evolves through fitness trade-offs in which the genetic alterations that confer resistance to a drug can also cause growth defects in resistant cells. Here, through experimental evolution in a microfluidics-based turbidostat, we demonstrate that antibiotic-resistant cells can be efficiently inhibited by amplifying the fitness costs associated with drug-resistance evolution. Using tavaborole-resistant Escherichia coli as a model, we show that genetic mutations in leucyl-tRNA synthetase (that underlie tavaborole resistance) make resistant cells intolerant to norvaline, a chemical analog of leucine that is mistakenly used by tavaborole-resistant cells for protein synthesis. We then show that tavaborole-sensitive cells quickly outcompete tavaborole-resistant cells in the presence of norvaline due to the amplified cost of the molecular defect of tavaborole resistance. This finding illustrates that understanding molecular mechanisms of drug resistance allows us to effectively amplify even small evolutionary vulnerabilities of resistant cells to potentially enhance or enable adaptive therapies by accelerating posttreatment competition between resistant and susceptible cells.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Resistência a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Variação Genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8445-8460, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644157

RESUMO

DNA lesions or other barriers frequently compromise replisome progress. The SF2 helicase RecG is a key enzyme in the processing of postreplication gaps or regressed forks in Escherichia coli. A deletion of the recG gene renders cells highly sensitive to a range of DNA damaging agents. Here, we demonstrate that RecG function is at least partially complemented by another SF2 helicase, RadD. A ΔrecGΔradD double mutant exhibits an almost complete growth defect, even in the absence of stress. Suppressors appear quickly, primarily mutations that compromise priA helicase function or recA promoter mutations that reduce recA expression. Deletions of uup (encoding the UvrA-like ABC system Uup), recO, or recF also suppress the ΔrecGΔradD growth phenotype. RadD and RecG appear to avoid toxic situations in DNA metabolism, either resolving or preventing the appearance of DNA repair intermediates produced by RecA or RecA-independent template switching at stalled forks or postreplication gaps. Barriers to replisome progress that require intervention by RadD or RecG occur in virtually every replication cycle. The results highlight the importance of the RadD protein for general chromosome maintenance and repair. They also implicate Uup as a new modulator of RecG function.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Mutação/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8490-8508, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687193

RESUMO

Several functions have been proposed for the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV (pol IV). Although much research has focused on a potential role for pol IV in assisting pol III replisomes in the bypass of lesions, pol IV is rarely found at the replication fork in vivo. Pol IV is expressed at increased levels in E. coli cells exposed to exogenous DNA damaging agents, including many commonly used antibiotics. Here we present live-cell single-molecule microscopy measurements indicating that double-strand breaks induced by antibiotics strongly stimulate pol IV activity. Exposure to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim leads to the formation of double strand breaks in E. coli cells. RecA and pol IV foci increase after treatment and exhibit strong colocalization. The induction of the SOS response, the appearance of RecA foci, the appearance of pol IV foci and RecA-pol IV colocalization are all dependent on RecB function. The positioning of pol IV foci likely reflects a physical interaction with the RecA* nucleoprotein filaments that has been detected previously in vitro. Our observations provide an in vivo substantiation of a direct role for pol IV in double strand break repair in cells treated with double strand break-inducing antibiotics.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase beta/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Exodesoxirribonuclease V/ultraestrutura , Recombinases Rec A/genética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase beta/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Exodesoxirribonuclease V/genética , Imagem Individual de Molécula
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA