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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3409-3417, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: ER-positive breast cancer patients commonly undergo endocrine therapy with drugs such as tamoxifen. Despite tamoxifen being a highly effective drug, long-term treatment results in resistance in one-third of the patients. Although many explanations for the development of tamoxifen resistance have been put forward, a clearly defined underlying mechanism is still lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression level of HOXB5 was evaluated between MCF7 breast cancer cells and tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 (TAMR) cells by RT-PCR. Then, the effect of HOXB5 on invasion and migration abilities as well as on cancer stemness were investigated through 3D culture and spheroid formation assay. RESULTS: In this study, we provide evidence that HOXB5 is up-regulated in TAMR cells. EGFR is concurrently overexpressed, and the EGFR signaling cascade is activated, resulting in migratory and invasive phenotypes in TAMR cells compared to MCF7 cells. However, HOXB5 knockdown in TAMR cells resulted in the de-activation of the EGFR signaling pathway, less aggressive phenotypes and restoration of sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. More interestingly, TAMR cells expressed higher levels of stem cell markers, and as a result, their enhanced stemness allowed for a better formation of spheroids than MCF7 cells. When HOXB5 was overexpressed in MCF7 cells, they were able to form a larger number of spheroids as in TAMR cells. CONCLUSION: HOXB5 is one of the key factors involved in tumor aggression and progression in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células-Tronco/patologia , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200146

RESUMO

Prolonged hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in infancy can result in developmental sequelae. A mutation in the paired box-6 gene (PAX6) has been reported to cause disorders in oculogenesis and neurogenesis. A limited number of cases of diabetes mellitus in adults with a PAX6 mutation suggest that the gene also plays a role in glucose homeostasis. The present case report describes a boy with a PAX6 mutation, born with anophthalmia, who underwent hypoglycemic seizures starting at 5 months old, and showed a prediabetic condition at 60 months. This patient provides novel evidence that connects PAX6 to glucose homeostasis and highlights that life-threatening hypoglycemia or early onset glucose intolerance may be encountered. The role of PAX6 in glucose metabolism and insulin regulation should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Aniridia , Adulto , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Linhagem , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3707, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140478

RESUMO

While the major drivers of melanoma initiation, including activation of NRAS/BRAF and loss of PTEN or CDKN2A, have been identified, the role of key transcription factors that impose altered transcriptional states in response to deregulated signaling is not well understood. The POU domain transcription factor BRN2 is a key regulator of melanoma invasion, yet its role in melanoma initiation remains unknown. Here, in a BrafV600E PtenF/+ context, we show that BRN2 haplo-insufficiency promotes melanoma initiation and metastasis. However, metastatic colonization is less efficient in the absence of Brn2. Mechanistically, BRN2 directly induces PTEN expression and in consequence represses PI3K signaling. Moreover, MITF, a BRN2 target, represses PTEN transcription. Collectively, our results suggest that on a PTEN heterozygous background somatic deletion of one BRN2 allele and temporal regulation of the other allele elicits melanoma initiation and progression.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fatores do Domínio POU/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Haploinsuficiência , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/secundário , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Análise em Microsséries , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores do Domínio POU/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3708, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140506

RESUMO

3D genome alternations can dysregulate gene expression by rewiring enhancer-promoter interactions and lead to diseases. We report integrated analyses of 3D genome alterations and differential gene expressions in 18 newly diagnosed T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients and 4 healthy controls. 3D genome organizations at the levels of compartment, topologically associated domains and loop could hierarchically classify different subtypes of T-ALL according to T cell differentiation trajectory, similar to gene expressions-based classification. Thirty-four previously unrecognized translocations and 44 translocation-mediated neo-loops are mapped by Hi-C analysis. We find that neo-loops formed in the non-coding region of the genome could potentially regulate ectopic expressions of TLX3, TAL2 and HOXA transcription factors via enhancer hijacking. Importantly, both translocation-mediated neo-loops and NUP98-related fusions are associated with HOXA13 ectopic expressions. Patients with HOXA11-A13 expressions, but not other genes in the HOXA cluster, have immature immunophenotype and poor outcomes. Here, we highlight the potentially important roles of 3D genome alterations in the etiology and prognosis of T-ALL.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/genética , Conformação Molecular , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Translocação Genética , Acetilação , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Criança , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Cromossomos/genética , Progressão da Doença , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Ontologia Genética , Hematopoese/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Science ; 372(6546): 1085-1091, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083488

RESUMO

Whereas coding variants often have pleiotropic effects across multiple tissues, noncoding variants are thought to mediate their phenotypic effects by specific tissue and temporal regulation of gene expression. Here, we investigated the genetic and functional architecture of a genomic region within the FTO gene that is strongly associated with obesity risk. We show that multiple variants on a common haplotype modify the regulatory properties of several enhancers targeting IRX3 and IRX5 from megabase distances. We demonstrate that these enhancers affect gene expression in multiple tissues, including adipose and brain, and impart regulatory effects during a restricted temporal window. Our data indicate that the genetic architecture of disease-associated loci may involve extensive pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, shared allelic effects across tissues, and temporally restricted effects.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(2): 329-342, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies have noted that zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is a master transcription regulator, affecting the expression of nearly 2000 genes in breast cancer cells, especially in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. We now tested the role of ZEB1 on the oxidative stress of cancer cells and explored its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Two human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 were selected for the ROS test, PCR, immunofluorescence, Western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, luciferase assay, and enzyme assay. Mouse models experiments and bioinformatics analysis were conducted to test the indicated molecules. RESULTS: We observed ZEB1 could inhibit GPX4 transcription by binding to the E-box motifs and promote breast cancer progression by accumulating intracellular ROS. From the perspective of ROS clearance, Vitamin E enhanced GPX4 function to consume L-glutathione and eliminated excess intracellular ROS. CONCLUSIONS: ZEB1 could not only regulate EMT, but also inhibit GPX4 transcription by binding to the E-box motif. It was important to note that the ZEB1/GPX4 axis had a therapeutic effect on breast cancer metabolism.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/genética
7.
Stem Cell Res ; 53: 102367, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087996

RESUMO

Type 1 early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE1) is a severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with arrest of psychomotor development caused by hemizygous mutations in the ARX gene, which encodes a transcription factor in fundamental brain developmental processes. A human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, termed as OGHFUi001-A, was generated using non-integrating episomal vector technique from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 7-year-old male EIEE1 patient, who had a hemizygous (c.989G > T: p.R330L) mutation in the ARX gene. OGHFUi001-A offers a useful cell resource to investigate pathogenic mechanisms in EIEE1, as well as a cell-based model for drug development for EIEE1.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Espasmos Infantis , Criança , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Mutação , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3354, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099670

RESUMO

Barrett's esophagus in gastrointestinal reflux patients constitutes a columnar epithelium with distal characteristics, prone to progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma. HOX genes are known mediators of position-dependent morphology. Here we show HOX collinearity in the adult gut while Barrett's esophagus shows high HOXA13 expression in stem cells and their progeny. HOXA13 overexpression appears sufficient to explain both the phenotype (through downregulation of the epidermal differentiation complex) and the oncogenic potential of Barrett's esophagus. Intriguingly, employing a mouse model that contains a reporter coupled to the HOXA13 promotor we identify single HOXA13-positive cells distally from the physiological esophagus, which is mirrored in human physiology, but increased in Barrett's esophagus. Additionally, we observe that HOXA13 expression confers a competitive advantage to cells. We thus propose that Barrett's esophagus and associated esophageal adenocarcinoma is the consequence of expansion of this gastro-esophageal HOXA13-expressing compartment following epithelial injury.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Adulto , Animais , Esôfago de Barrett/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Família Multigênica/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos
9.
Hum Genet ; 140(8): 1229-1239, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159400

RESUMO

The extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity of congenital limb malformation calls for comprehensive genome-wide analysis of genetic variation. Genome sequencing (GS) has the potential to identify all genetic variants. Here we aim to determine the diagnostic potential of GS as a comprehensive one-test-for-all strategy in a cohort of undiagnosed patients with congenital limb malformations. We collected 69 cases (64 trios, 1 duo, 5 singletons) with congenital limb malformations with no molecular diagnosis after standard clinical genetic testing and performed genome sequencing. We also developed a framework to identify potential noncoding pathogenic variants. We identified likely pathogenic/disease-associated variants in 12 cases (17.4%) including four in known disease genes, and one repeat expansion in HOXD13. In three unrelated cases with ectrodactyly, we identified likely pathogenic variants in UBA2, establishing it as a novel disease gene. In addition, we found two complex structural variants (3%). We also identified likely causative variants in three novel high confidence candidate genes. We were not able to identify any noncoding variants. GS is a powerful strategy to identify all types of genomic variants associated with congenital limb malformation, including repeat expansions and complex structural variants missed by standard diagnostic approaches. In this cohort, no causative noncoding SNVs could be identified.


Assuntos
Heterogeneidade Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Expressão Gênica , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/deficiência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(6): 1098-1108, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167624

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common tumors worldwide and has one of the highest mortalities. The progression of OSCC is accompanied by changes in the levels of many genes. Iroquois homeobox 5 (IRX5), a novel protein involved in several embryonic developmental processes, has been found in recent years to play a significant role in regulating the growth of malignant tumors. However, its role and mechanism in OSCC are still unclear. In this study, we used nano-PCR to examine the levels of IRX5 in OSCC tissues. Through overexpression and knockdown experiments, we researched the role of IRX5 in regulating OSCC cell multiplication, metastasis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results demonstrated that IRX5 expression is higher in OSCC tissues in contrast to adjacent tissues. Overexpression of IRX5 promotes the multiplication, metastasis, invasion, and EMT of OSCC cells. Additional bioinformatics analysis showed that miRNA-147 can target the 3'UTR end of IRX5 and negatively regulate its expression, and overexpression of miRNA-147 can weaken the cancer-promoting effect of IRX5. In conclusion, this study found that IRX5 plays a role in promoting cancer in OSCC, and IRX5 is also negatively regulated by miRNA-147.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
11.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 55(3): 362-391, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097673

RESUMO

WOX (WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX) is a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors in plants. WOX proteins maintain the activity of different types of meristems and regulate the formation of plant organs, controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Study of the WOX family is important for the development of plant transformation and genome editing techniques. Here we review the functions of the WOX transcription factors as well as their targets, partners, and regulators. The WOX family can be divided into three phylogenetically distinct clades; so-called ancient, intermediate, and WUS clade; each clade is covered in a separate section. The WOX genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are described most comprehensively, with their orthologs in other plant species also considered. Summary tables with the described targets, regulators and partners of WOX family members are provided.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072618

RESUMO

Adaptive immunity relies on the V(D)J DNA recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes, which enables the recognition of highly diverse antigens and the elicitation of antigen-specific immune responses. This process is mediated by recombination-activating gene (Rag) 1 and Rag2 (Rag1/2), whose expression is strictly controlled in a cell type-specific manner; the expression of Rag1/2 genes represents a hallmark of lymphoid lineage commitment. Although Rag genes are known to be evolutionally conserved among jawed vertebrates, how Rag genes are regulated by lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) and how their regulatory system evolved among vertebrates have not been fully elucidated. Here, we reviewed the current body of knowledge concerning the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of Rag genes and the evolution of the basic helix-loop-helix TF E protein regulating Rag gene CREs, as well as the evolution of the antagonist of this protein, the Id protein. This may help to understand how the adaptive immune system develops along with the evolution of responsible TFs and enhancers.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Recombinação V(D)J
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072771

RESUMO

Recently, we documented a hematopoietic NKL-code mapping physiological expression patterns of NKL homeobox genes in human myelopoiesis including monocytes and their derived dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we enlarge this map to include normal NKL homeobox gene expressions in progenitor-derived DCs. Analysis of public gene expression profiling and RNA-seq datasets containing plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells (pDC and cDC) demonstrated HHEX activity in both entities while cDCs additionally expressed VENTX. The consequent aim of our study was to examine regulation and function of VENTX in DCs. We compared profiling data of VENTX-positive cDC and monocytes with VENTX-negative pDC and common myeloid progenitor entities and revealed several differentially expressed genes encoding transcription factors and pathway components, representing potential VENTX regulators. Screening of RNA-seq data for 100 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines identified prominent VENTX expression in an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, MUTZ-3 containing inv(3)(q21q26) and t(12;22)(p13;q11) and representing a model for DC differentiation studies. Furthermore, extended gene analyses indicated that MUTZ-3 is associated with the subtype cDC2. In addition to analysis of public chromatin immune-precipitation data, subsequent knockdown experiments and modulations of signaling pathways in MUTZ-3 and control cell lines confirmed identified candidate transcription factors CEBPB, ETV6, EVI1, GATA2, IRF2, MN1, SPIB, and SPI1 and the CSF-, NOTCH-, and TNFa-pathways as VENTX regulators. Live-cell imaging analyses of MUTZ-3 cells treated for VENTX knockdown excluded impacts on apoptosis or induced alteration of differentiation-associated cell morphology. In contrast, target gene analysis performed by expression profiling of knockdown-treated MUTZ-3 cells revealed VENTX-mediated activation of several cDC-specific genes including CSFR1, EGR2, and MIR10A and inhibition of pDC-specific genes like RUNX2. Taken together, we added NKL homeobox gene activities for progenitor-derived DCs to the NKL-code, showing that VENTX is expressed in cDCs but not in pDCs and forms part of a cDC-specific gene regulatory network operating in DC differentiation and function.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Homeobox , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Transcriptoma
14.
Gene ; 794: 145746, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062258

RESUMO

The expression of HOXB2, a homeobox transcription factor, is altered in a variety of solid tumors. Using an in vivo screen to identify regulators of breast tumor growth in murine mammary fat pads, Boimel and co-workers recently identified HOXB2 as a tumor suppressor. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of its role in breast cancer is not understood. Given the emerging interaction of estrogen-regulated gene expression and altered HOX gene expression network in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, this study addressed the relationship between estrogen signaling and HOXB2 expression. Using a mouse model and human breast cancer cell lines, we show that estrogen suppresses HOXB2 expression. Suppression of HOXB2 by PPT, a known ERα agonist, in MCF-7 and T47D cells indicated the involvement of ERα, which was confirmed by siRNA-mediated ERα knockdown experiments. In-silico analysis of the upstream promoter region revealed the presence of three putative EREs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that upon estrogen binding, ERα engaged with EREs in the 5' upstream region of HOXB2 in MCF-7 and T47D cells. Future investigations should address the implications of estrogen-mediated suppression on the proposed tumor suppressor function of HOXB2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fenóis/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pirazóis/farmacologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3330, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099664

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived pancreatic ß cells are an attractive cell source for treating diabetes. However, current derivation methods remain inefficient, heterogeneous, and cell line dependent. To address these issues, we first devised a strategy to efficiently cluster hPSC-derived pancreatic progenitors into 3D structures. Through a systematic study, we discovered 10 chemicals that not only retain the pancreatic progenitors in 3D clusters but also enhance their potentiality towards NKX6.1+/INS+ ß cells. We further systematically screened signaling pathway modulators in the three steps from pancreatic progenitors toward ß cells. The implementation of all these strategies and chemical combinations resulted in generating ß cells from different sources of hPSCs with high efficiency. The derived ß cells are functional and can reverse hyperglycemia in mice within two weeks. Our protocol provides a robust platform for studying human ß cells and developing hPSC-derived ß cells for cell replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3611, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127673

RESUMO

Yeast is an integral part of mammalian microbiome, and like commensal bacteria, has the potential of being harnessed to influence immunity in clinical settings. However, functional specificities of yeast-derived immunoregulatory molecules remain elusive. Here we find that while under steady state, ß-1,3-glucan-containing polysaccharides potentiate pro-inflammatory properties, a relatively less abundant class of cell surface polysaccharides, dubbed mannan/ß-1,6-glucan-containing polysaccharides (MGCP), is capable of exerting potent anti-inflammatory effects to the immune system. MGCP, in contrast to previously identified microbial cell surface polysaccharides, through a Dectin1-Cox2 signaling axis in dendritic cells, facilitates regulatory T (Treg) cell induction from naïve T cells. Furthermore, through a TLR2-dependent mechanism, it restrains Th1 differentiation of effector T cells by suppressing IFN-γ expression. As a result, administration of MGCP display robust suppressive capacity towards experimental inflammatory disease models of colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, thereby highlighting its potential therapeutic utility against clinically relevant autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Glucanos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Imunidade , Lectinas Tipo C , Mananas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1 , Zimosan , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 280: 14-17, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190053

RESUMO

AIS is three-dimensional spinal deformity with unclear etiopathogenesis. LBX1 is so far the only multi-centers validated AIS predisposing gene. The imbalance of posterior paraspinal muscles is an important factor in AIS etiopathogenesis. It is poorly understood how LBX1 contributes to the abnormal paraspinal muscles and onset/progression of AIS. We aimed to evaluate the expression of LBX1 in paraspinal muscles at the concave and convex side in AIS, and whether alternation of LBX1 expression could affect myoblastsactivities and potentially influence muscle-bone interaction via myokines expression. Paraspinal muscles from AIS and age- and curvature-matched congenital scoliosis (CS) patients were collected for fiber types analysis. Biopsies were also subjected to qPCR to validate expression of myogenic markers, selected myokines and LBX1. Human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) was used for LBX1 loss-of-function study in vitro. Muscle fiber types analysis showed type I and type IIX/IIAX fibers proportion were significantly different between AIS concave and convex but not in two sides of CS. LBX1, myogenic markers and one myokine were significantly imbalanced in AIS but not in CS. Loss-of-function study showed knockdown of LBX1 could inhibit myogenic markers expression and myokines as well. This study provides new insight into the association between imbalanced paraspinal muscle and potential muscle-bone crosstalk in AIS patients and the biological function of predisposing gene LBX1. Further investigation with appropriate animal models is warranted to explore if asymmetric expression of LBX1 could result in distinct muscle phenotypes and bone qualities thus affect the progression of spine curvature in AIS.


Assuntos
Escoliose , Adolescente , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Mioblastos , Músculos Paraespinais , Fenótipo , Escoliose/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2679-2691, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949040

RESUMO

BCR-ABL1 gene fusion associated with additional DNA lesions involves the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) from a chronic phase (CP) to a blast crisis of B lymphoid (CML-LBC) lineage and BCR-ABL1+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1+ ALL). The recombination-activating gene RAG1 and RAG2 (collectively, RAG) proteins that assemble a diverse set of antigen receptor genes during lymphocyte development are abnormally expressed in CML-LBC and BCR-ABL1+ ALL. However, the direct involvement of dysregulated RAG in disease progression remains unclear. Here, we generate human wild-type (WT) RAG and catalytically inactive RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1+ and BCR-ABL1- cell lines, respectively, and demonstrate that BCR-ABL1 specifically collaborates with RAG recombinase to promote cell survival in vitro and in xenograft mice models. WT RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1+ cell lines and primary CD34+ bone marrow cells from CML-LBC samples maintain more double-strand breaks (DSB) compared to catalytically inactive RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1+ cell lines and RAG-deficient CML-CP samples, which are measured by γ-H2AX. WT RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1+ cells are biased to repair RAG-mediated DSB by the alternative non-homologous end joining pathway (a-NHEJ), which could contribute genomic instability through increasing the expression of a-NHEJ-related MRE11 and RAD50 proteins. As a result, RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1+ cells decrease sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) by activating BCR-ABL1 signaling but independent of the levels of BCR-ABL1 expression and mutations in the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase domain. These findings identify a surprising and novel role of RAG in the functional specialization of disease progression in BCR-ABL1+ leukemia through its endonuclease activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/metabolismo , Animais , Crise Blástica/genética , Crise Blástica/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Xenoenxertos , Histonas/análise , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2482, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931647

RESUMO

While oncogenes promote tumorigenesis, they also induce deleterious cellular stresses, such as apoptosis, that cancer cells must combat by coopting adaptive responses. Whether tumor suppressor gene haploinsufficiency leads to such phenomena and their mechanistic basis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that elevated levels of the anti-apoptotic factor, CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR), promotes apoptosis evasion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells haploinsufficient for the cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) transcription factor, whose loss is associated with dismal clinical prognosis. Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening identifies CFLAR as a selective, acquired vulnerability in CUX1-deficient AML, which can be mimicked therapeutically using inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists in murine and human AML cells. Mechanistically, CUX1 deficiency directly alleviates CUX1 repression of the CFLAR promoter to drive CFLAR expression and leukemia survival. These data establish how haploinsufficiency of a tumor suppressor is sufficient to induce advantageous anti-apoptosis cell survival pathways and concurrently nominate CFLAR as potential therapeutic target in these poor-prognosis leukemias.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/genética , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteínas Repressoras/deficiência , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3042, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031394

RESUMO

Controlling off-target editing activity is one of the central challenges in making CRISPR technology accurate and applicable in medical practice. Current algorithms for analyzing off-target activity do not provide statistical quantification, are not sufficiently sensitive in separating signal from noise in experiments with low editing rates, and do not address the detection of translocations. Here we present CRISPECTOR, a software tool that supports the detection and quantification of on- and off-target genome-editing activity from NGS data using paired treatment/control CRISPR experiments. In particular, CRISPECTOR facilitates the statistical analysis of NGS data from multiplex-PCR comparative experiments to detect and quantify adverse translocation events. We validate the observed results and show independent evidence of the occurrence of translocations in human cell lines, after genome editing. Our methodology is based on a statistical model comparison approach leading to better false-negative rates in sites with weak yet significant off-target activity.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Edição de Genes/métodos , Algoritmos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Software , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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