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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670365

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive therapeutic targets and promising candidates as molecular biomarkers for various therapy-resistant tumors. However, the association between miRNAs and drug resistance in melanoma remains to be elucidated. We used an integrative genomic analysis to comprehensively study the miRNA expression profiles of drug-resistant melanoma patients and cell lines. MicroRNA-181a and -181b (miR181a/b) were identified as the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs in resistant melanoma patients and cell lines. Re-establishment of miR-181a/b expression reverses the resistance of melanoma cells to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. Introduction of miR-181 mimics markedly decreases the expression of TFAM in A375 melanoma cells resistant to BRAF inhibitors. Furthermore, melanoma growth was inhibited in A375 and M14 resistant melanoma cells transfected with miR-181a/b mimics, while miR-181a/b depletion enhanced resistance in sensitive cell lines. Collectively, our study demonstrated that miR-181a/b could reverse the resistance to BRAF inhibitors in dabrafenib resistant melanoma cell lines. In addition, miR-181a and -181b are strongly down-regulated in tumor samples from patients before and after the development of resistance to targeted therapies. Finally, melanoma tissues with high miR-181a and -181b expression presented favorable outcomes in terms of Progression Free Survival, suggesting that miR-181 is a clinically relevant candidate for therapeutic development or biomarker-based therapy selection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteínas Mitocondriais/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
Gene ; 780: 145487, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588039

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor which activates the transcription of TNFα and regulates cell apoptosis and inflammatory response. In the present study, a LITAF gene homologue was identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and was shown to be well conserved in the protein sequence, genomic organization and synteny with human LITAF. DrLITAF was constitutively expressed in tissues, with the highest expression detected in the gills. Its expression could be modulated by LPS, poly(I:C), and infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Aeromonus hydrophila and septicemia viremia of carp virus (SVCV). DrLITAF, when overexpressed, was shown to be located on the cellular membrane and nuclear membrane of HEK293T and ZF4 cells and was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Stimulation with LPS resulted in rapid translocation of DrLITAF into the nucleus. In addition, DrLITAF was able to induce cell apoptosis and the expression of caspase 3. The results demonstrate that DrLITAF is involved in the immune defence against bacterial and viral infection and plays a role in regulating inflammation and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/biossíntese , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Aeromonas hydrophila/metabolismo , Animais , Edwardsiella tarda/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(3): 755-765, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The transcription factors YY1 and CP2 have been associated with tumor promotion and suppression in various cancers. Recently, simultaneous expression of both markers was correlated with negative prognosis in cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of YY1 and CP2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and their association with survival. METHODS: First, we analyzed mRNA expression and copy number variations (CNVs) of YY1 and CP2 using "The Cancer Genome Atlas" (TCGA) with 510 HNSCC patients. Secondly, protein expression was investigated via immunohistochemistry in 102 patients, who were treated in the Vienna General Hospital, utilizing a tissue microarray. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 2.9 years (1.8-4.6) for the TCGA cohort and 10.3 years (6.5-12.8) for the inhouse tissue micro-array (TMA) cohort. The median overall survival of the TCGA cohort was decreased for patients with a high YY1 mRNA expression (4.0 vs. 5.7 years, p = 0.030, corr. p = 0.180) and high YY1-CNV (3.53 vs. 5.4 years, p = 0.0355, corr. p = 0.213). Furthermore, patients with a combined high expression of YY1 and CP2 mRNA showed a worse survival (3.5 vs. 5.4 years, p = 0.003, corr. p = 0.018). The mortality rate of patients with co-expression of YY1 and CP2 mRNA was twice as high compared to patients with low expression of one or both (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.11-3.58, p = 0.021). Protein expression of nuclear YY1 and CP2 showed no association with disease outcome in our inhouse cohort. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that simultaneous expression of YY1 and CP2 mRNA is associated with shorter overall survival. Thus, combined high mRNA expression might be a suitable prognostic marker for risk stratification in HNSCC patients. However, since we could not validate this finding at genomic or protein level, we hypothesize that unknown underlying mechanisms which regulate mRNA transcription of YY1 and CP2 are the actual culprits leading to a worse survival.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição YY1/biossíntese
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2199: 127-149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125648

RESUMO

The cell-free synthesis is an efficient strategy to produce in large scale protein samples for structural investigations. In vitro synthesis allows for significant reduction of production time, simplification of purification steps and enables production of both soluble and membrane proteins. The cell-free reaction is an open system and can be performed in presence of many additives such as cofactors, inhibitors, redox systems, chaperones, detergents, lipids, nanodisks, and surfactants to allow for the expression of toxic membrane proteins or intrinsically disordered proteins. In this chapter we present protocols to prepare E. coli S30 cellular extracts, T7 RNA polymerase, and their use for in vitro protein expression. Optimizations of the protocol are presented for preparation of protein samples enriched in deuterium, a prerequisite for the study of high-molecular-weight proteins by NMR spectroscopy. An efficient production of perdeuterated proteins is achieved together with a full protonation of all the amide NMR probes, without suffering from residual protonation on aliphatic carbons. Application to the production of the 468 kDa TET2 protein assembly for NMR investigations is presented.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Deutério/química , Escherichia coli/química , Marcação por Isótopo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Sistema Livre de Células/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0233197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946445

RESUMO

Levels of protein translation by ribosomes are governed both by features of the translation machinery as well as sequence properties of the mRNAs themselves. We focus here on a striking three-nucleotide periodicity, characterized by overrepresentation of GCN codons and underrepresentation of G at the second position of codons, that is observed in Open Reading Frames (ORFs) of mRNAs. Our examination of mRNA sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that this periodicity is particularly pronounced in the initial codons-the ramp region-of ORFs of genes with high protein expression. It is also found in mRNA sequences immediately following non-standard AUG start sites, located upstream or downstream of the standard annotated start sites of genes. To explore the possible influences of the ramp GCN periodicity on translation efficiency, we tested edited ramps with accentuated or depressed periodicity in two test genes, SKN7 and HMT1. Greater conformance to (GCN)n was found to significantly depress translation, whereas disrupting conformance had neutral or positive effects on translation. Our recent Molecular Dynamics analysis of a subsystem of translocating ribosomes in yeast revealed an interaction surface that H-bonds to the +1 codon that is about to enter the ribosome decoding center A site. The surface, comprised of 16S/18S rRNA C1054 and A1196 (E. coli numbering) and R146 of ribosomal protein Rps3, preferentially interacts with GCN codons, and we hypothesize that modulation of this mRNA-ribosome interaction may underlie GCN-mediated regulation of protein translation. Integration of our expression studies with large-scale reporter studies of ramp sequence variants suggests a model in which the C1054-A1196-R146 (CAR) interaction surface can act as both an accelerator and braking system for ribosome translation.


Assuntos
Códon de Iniciação/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Composição de Bases/genética , Códon de Iniciação/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/biossíntese , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/biossíntese , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
APMIS ; 128(10): 543-551, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794608

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway is a tumor suppressive pathway regulating Yes-associated protein-TEA domain-containing sequence-specific transcription factor (YAP-TEAD) complex. VGLL (Vestigial-like) proteins are transcriptional cofactors competing with YAP for TEAD binding and interfering oncogenic activity of YAP-TEAD complex. We evaluated the expression of VGLL4, YAP, and TEAD4 and assessed their correlations with clinicopathologic factors and prognostic effects in 295 colorectal cancers. VGLL4 was positive in 164 (55.6%) cases and correlated with small tumor size, low pT classification, and absence of lymph node metastasis. YAP and TEAD4 were highly expressed in 138 (46.8%) cases and 144 (48.8%) cases, respectively, and high expressions were associated with presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis, or distant metastasis. VGLL4 expression was significantly correlated with low YAP expression (p < 0.001) and had significantly better overall survival than negative expression (p < 0.001). High YAP (HR, 2.108; 95% confidence interval, 1.239-3.584; p = 0.006) and TEAD4 (1.724; 1.021-2.912; p = 0.042) expressions were associated with poor overall survivals. The combined VGLL4pos YAPlow expression showed the best overall survival than other groups (p < 0.001). VGLL4 expression (0.381; 0.212-0.683; p = 0.001) and combined VGLL4pos YAPlow expression (0.227; 0.108-0.475; p < 0.001) were independent good prognostic factors in colorectal cancers. The expressions of VGLL4, YAP, and TEAD4 can be used as prognostic markers in colorectal cancer patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658928

RESUMO

Based on microRNA (miR) microarray analysis, we previously found that miR22-5p expression is decreased in the mid-luteal endometrium of women with minimal/mild endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that miR22-5p targets ten-eleven translocation (TET2) 3'-untranslated region. This study aimed to determine the regulation and roles of miR22-5p in the pathogenesis of minimal/mild endometriosis-associated infertility. MiR22-5p and TET2 expression in the mid-luteal endometrium from women with or without minimal/mild endometriosis was analyzed. After transfection with miR22-5p mimics or inhibitor, TET2 expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (RT-q) PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine was determined by immunofluorescence and dot blotting. Expression and promoter methylation of estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) was measured by RT-qPCR and western blotting, and by bisulfite sequencing, respectively. We first established that miR22-5p expression decreased and TET2 expression increased in minimal/mild endometriosis during implantation window. TET2 was found to be a direct target of miR22-5p. MiR22-5p regulated the expression of ESR2, but did not directly affect methylation of its promoter region (-197/+359). Our results suggest that an imbalance in miR22-5p expression in the mid-luteal endometrium may be involved in minimal/mild endometriosis-associated infertility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Implantação do Embrião , Endometriose/complicações , Endométrio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/biossíntese , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/biossíntese , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , 5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , 5-Metilcitosina/análise , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3203-3208, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of gastric carcinoma with high excision repair cross complementing 1 (ERCC1) expression and the prognostic value of ERCC1 expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ERCC1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 309 surgically resected gastric carcinoma specimens using a tissue microarray. Cancer-related survival was analysed using competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Compared to ERCC1-low gastric carcinomas, ERCC1-high gastric carcinomas showed less local invasion (p=0.0013), lower N stage (p=0.0302), earlier pTNM stage (p=0.0003), and less frequent recurrence (p=0002). Patients with ERCC1-high gastric carcinoma showed lower cumulative incidence function estimate of cancer-related death [3.37; 95% confidence intervaI (CI)=0.89-8.75] than did those with ERCC1-low gastric carcinoma (17.12; 95% CI=12.24-22.69; p-value by Gray's test=0.0012). Adjusted proportional sub-distribution hazard ratio for cancer-related death in the patients with ERCC1-high tumour was 0.272 (95% CI=0.084-0.878; p=0.0295). CONCLUSION: High ERCC1 expression may be an independent positive prognostic marker for gastric carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Endonucleases/biossíntese , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Hematol ; 86: 21-27.e2, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437909

RESUMO

Our previous study revealed that expression of G protein-coupled receptor 68 (GPR68) was upregulated in MDSL cells, a cell line representing myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), in response to lenalidomide (LEN), and mediated a calcium/calpain proapoptotic pathway. Isx, a GPR68 agonist, enhanced the sensitivity to LEN in MDSL cells. The fact that Isx is not a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug prompts us to look for alternative candidates that could enhance the sensitivity of LEN in MDS as well as other hematologic malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the study described here, we found that regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin (CaN), was upregulated in MDSL cells in response to LEN, possibly through degradation of IKZF1. Consistently, cyclosporin (Cys), a pharmacological inhibitor of CaN, inhibited the activity of CaN and induced apoptosis in MDSL cells, indicating that CaN provided a prosurvival signal in MDSL cells. In addition, Cys enhanced the cytotoxic effect of LEN in MDS/AML cell lines as well as primary bone marrow cells from MDS patients and AML patient-derived xenograft models. Intriguingly, pretreatment with LEN reversed the suppressive effect of Cys on T-cell activation. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of action of LEN in mediating cytotoxicity in MDS/AML via upregulation of RCAN1, thus inhibiting the CaN prosurvival pathway. Our study also suggests that Cys enhances the sensitivity to LEN in MDS/AML cells without compromising T-cell activation.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lenalidomida/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclosporina/agonistas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/biossíntese , Lenalidomida/agonistas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20124, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384491

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of prostate cancer in men with Lynch syndrome driven by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, the incidence and clinical implication of MMR deficiency in sporadic prostate cancers remain poorly understood. We immunohistochemically stained for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 in a set of tissue microarray consisting of 220 radical prostatectomy specimens and evaluated the relationship between loss of their expression and available clinicopathological features. MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 were lost in 2 (0.9%), 6 (2.7%), 37 (16.8%), and 27 (12.3%) prostate cancers, respectively. Loss of at least 1 MMR protein was identified in 50 (22.7%) cases. There were no statistically significant associations between MMR deficiency and patient age, family history of prostate cancer, Gleason score, or pT/pN stage. Nonetheless, the levels of preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were significantly (P = .015) higher in patients with MMR deficiency (mean ±â€ŠSD: 9.12 ±â€Š9.01 ng/mL) than in those without abnormal MMR (5.76 ±â€Š3.17 ng/mL). There were 15 (6.8%) cases showing loss of at least 2 MMR proteins, which was not significantly associated with PSA level or tumor grade/stage. Additionally, 5 and 2 cases showed losses of at least 3 MMR proteins and all 4 proteins, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no significant associations between loss of MLH1 (P = .373), MSH2 (P = .348), MSH6 (P = .946), or PMS2 (P = .681), or at least 1 (P = .477), 2 (P = .486), or 3 (P = .352) MMR proteins and biochemical recurrence. Further analyses of the data on programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression previously stained in the same set of tissue microarray demonstrated associations between loss of ≥2 MMR proteins and a higher rate of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells (17.2% vs 5.2%; P = .033) as well as between cases showing both loss of ≥1 MMR protein(s) and PD-L1 expression in tumor-infiltrating immune cells vs a higher risk of biochemical recurrence (P = .045). MMR protein loss was seen in a subset of prostate cancers. Interestingly, it was associated with significantly higher levels of PSA. Moreover, immunohistochemical detection of MMR proteins together with other proteins, such as PD-L1, might be helpful in predicting tumor recurrence following radical prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/biossíntese , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/biossíntese , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/biossíntese , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Análise Serial de Proteínas
11.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(3): 538-546, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to explore the expression of mismatch repair (MMR) status and its correlation with clinicopathologic and survival characteristics in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). METHODS: Expression of four MMR proteins (MLH1, PMS, MSH2, and MSH6) were measured using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry in 120 OCCC patients. The associations of clinicopathologic parameters with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was further performed by the Cox regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 120 OCCC patients met the entry criteria, and their MMR status was detected, consisting of 24 patients with dMMR and 96 patients with proficient MMR (pMMR). Patients with dMMR were strongly associated with platinum-sensitive disease (P = .006) and large tumor volume (P = .038). Among all the patients who have received surgery, tumors with dMMR had a better RFS and OS than those with pMMR (hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence: 0.459 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = 0.224-0.940], P = .029; HR for death: 0.381 [95% CI = 0.170-0.853], P = .015). In subgroup analysis, dMMR patients experienced a better trend of RFS (HR = 0.273; P = .055) and OS (HR = 0.165; P = .040) than pMMR cases among early stages (I-II), but this difference was not observed in advanced stage (III-IV) patients. Meanwhile, pMMR was associated with a more favorable trend of prognosis than dMMR in platinum-resistant patients (RFS: HR = 0.317, P = .051; OS: HR = 0.370, P = .046). Multivariate analysis revealed that only advanced stages (III-IV) were adverse independent prognosticators for both RFS (HR = 5.938 [95% CI = 2.804-12.574]; P < .001) and OS (HR = 6.209 [95% CI = 2.724-14.156]; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Tumors with dMMR were related to better OS in OCCC on univariate analysis. Only the tumor stage was an independent prognosticator for both RFS and OS. MMR status is a potentially valuable prognostic index in OCCC patients, and larger prospective studies are required to validate its prognostic role.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/biossíntese , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/biossíntese , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/biossíntese , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Análise Serial de Tecidos
12.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 39(2): 170-177, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045390

RESUMO

Twenty-six Krukenberg tumors (16 lower gastrointestinal, 4 upper gastrointestinal, and 6 of unknown origin) and their primaries when known were stained with CDX2, SATB2, GATA3, TTF1, and PAX8 using a tissue microarray containing predominantly or exclusively signet ring cells. The most common primary was appendiceal mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. CDX2 and SATB2 were positive in all known lower gastrointestinal primary tumors and negative in nearly all known upper gastrointestinal primary tumors. Primaries showed identical immunophenotypes to their metastases. Among cases of unknown primary origin, 3 were positive and 3 were negative for CDX2 and SATB2. Chest images, upper endoscopies, colonoscopies, appendectomies, and mammogram were performed with negative results in all, 4, 2, 2, and 1 cases, respectively. No cystoscopies were attempted. PAX8, GATA3, and TTF1 were negative in all cases. The literature was reviewed with emphasis on immunohistochemistry of signet ring cell-containing carcinomas from the appendix, colon, stomach, breast, lung, and bladder. Three quarters of gastric primaries stain for CDX2 and only rare examples stain for SATB2. Colorectal primaries (most of them) and appendiceal primaries (all of them) are positive for CDX2 and SATB2. GATA3 stains almost all breast primaries and approximately half of bladder primaries. All pulmonary primaries are positive for TTF1. PAX8 is negative in the gastric, colorectal, and appendiceal primaries reported. This study shows that the panel of immunostains is useful in confirming the site of origin of a metastatic Krukenberg tumor when one is known and has limited diagnostic value for diagnosing metastases of unknown origin.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Tumor de Krukenberg/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/análise , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/análise , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/biossíntese , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Tumor de Krukenberg/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/análise , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/biossíntese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/análise , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese
13.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(3): 152826, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is part of the standard treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. ERCC1 is a potential predictive biomarker for platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine interobserver agreement on ERCC1 protein expression in primary colorectal cancer as well as corresponding liver metastasis. Furthermore, comparison of ERCC1-expression in primary tumor and the corresponding liver metastasis was performed. METHODS: Forty patients with primary colorectal cancers and corresponding liver metastases were included. One slide was stained with the anti-ERCC1 antibody, 4F9 clone (DAKO) and evaluated by two gastrointestinal pathology consultants and a pathology registrar separately. Interobserver agreement was evaluated for primary tumors and liver metastases using kappa (κ) statistics. Discordant scorings were reviewed, and consensus was obtained. The expression in primary tumor was compared with the corresponding liver metastases. RESULTS: For the primary tumors agreement was found in 85% of the tumors corresponding to an unweighted kappa value of 0,79 (95% CI 0,64-0,94). For the liver metastases agreement was found in 76% corresponding to an unweighted kappa value of 0,64 (95% CI 0,49-0,79). When comparing primary tumors to the corresponding metastases, no concordance in ERCC1-expression was observed. CONCLUSION: Interobserver agreement of ERCC1 expression was good for both primary tumors and liver metastases, which is crucial for a potential predictive biomarker. As no concordance between primary tumor and liver metastases was found it seems to be of high importance to use tissue from actual tumor burden for evaluation of ERCC1 expression. Further studies and correlation to clinical outcome are warranted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Endonucleases/análise , Endonucleases/biossíntese , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador
14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 437-443, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resistance to chemo-radiation therapy is a substantial obstacle that compromises treatment of advanced cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate if a proteomic panel associated with radioresistance could predict survival of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 181 frozen tissue samples were prospectively obtained from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer before chemoradiation. Expression levels of 22 total and phosphorylated proteins were evaluated using well-based reverse phase protein arrays. Selected proteins were validated with western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Performances of models were internally and externally validated. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering stratified patients into three major groups with different overall survival (OS, P = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS, P = 0.003) based on detection of BCL2, HER2, CD133, CAIX, and ERCC1. Reverse-phase protein array results significantly correlated with western blotting results (R2 = 0.856). The C-index of model was higher than clinical model in the prediction of OS (C-index: 0.86 and 0.62, respectively) and PFS (C-index: 0.82 and 0.64, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a dose-dependent prognostic significance of risk score for PFS and OS. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that the risk score was an independent predictor of PFS (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.9; P < 0.001) and OS (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.7-2.5; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A proteomic panel of BCL2, HER2, CD133, CAIX, and ERCC1 independently predicted survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. This prediction model can help identify chemoradiation responsive tumors and improve prediction for clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Antígeno AC133/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Anidrase Carbônica IX/biossíntese , Quimiorradioterapia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Endonucleases/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/biossíntese , Tolerância a Radiação , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4087928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998789

RESUMO

Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the most common chronic liver diseases. However, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is not still unclear. This study aims at evaluating the role of zinc finger and BTB domain-containing 7A (ZBTB7A) in NAFLD. Methods: Western blotting, real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry were submitted to evaluate the level of ZBTB7A in the high fatty diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD mouse model. In vitro, the expression of ZBTB7A was assessed in oleic acid- (OA-) induced HepG2 cells with western blotting and RT-PCR. The luciferase reporter assay was used to estimate the effect of ZBTB7A on the SREBP1 and NF-κB, and the ChIP assay was subjected to evaluate the direct binding to the SREBP1 promoter. Oil Red staining was used to detect lipid accumulation, and the ELISA was used to verify the levels of TG, T-CHO, and MDA. ZBTB7A was knocked down with siRNA, and RT-PCR was performed to analyze the lipogenesis-, fatty acid transporter-, and oxidation metabolism-related genes expression. The levels of ZBTB7A in primary hepatocyte, Kupffer, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were tested by RT-PCR. Results: The upregulation of ZBTB7A expression was assessed in NAFLD mice, and ZBTB7A expression was positively correlated with TNFα, IL-6, TG, T-CHO, and MDA. ZBTB7A was highly expressed in the hepatocytes. In vitro, OA-induced ZBTB7A expression and ZBTB7A expression were closely associated with SREBP1c. ZBTB7A could activate the promoter activity of SREBP1 and activate NF-κB activity. Interestingly, the direct binding of ZBTB7A in the SREBP1 promoter was acquired in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of ZBTB7A expression could attenuate OA-induced lipid accumulation, inhibit the expression of the lipogenesis-related genes and fatty acid transporter genes, and promote the expression of oxidation metabolism-related genes. Conclusion: ZBTB7A plays a significant role in the development process of NAFLD, and obesity-induced upregulation of ZBTB7A promotes lipid accumulation through activation of SREBP1 and NF-κB. ZBTB7A may be a potential novel target for the therapy of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Hep G2 , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 472-479, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Platinum-based therapy is the standard of care in patients who have HER2-negative, advanced esophagogastric cancer (AEGC). Retrospective data suggest that intratumoral ERCC1 levels may determine platinum sensitivity. A randomized, phase II study was performed in patients with AEGC to explore whether the efficacy of a platinum-based therapy with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) versus a non-platinum-containing regimen of irinotecan and docetaxel (IT) differed according to ERCC1 levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 202 untreated patients with HER2-negative AEGC and a Zubrod performance status of 0-1 were evaluated prospectively for mRNA expression of ERCC1 level and then randomly assigned to FOLFOX or IT, stratified by the intratumoral statuses of ERCC1 low (< 1.7) or high (≥ 1.7). Objectives were to assess progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in all patients treated with FOLFOX compared with IT, stratified by low and high ERCC1 levels, and to assess for interactive effects between ERCC1 expression and treatment arm. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of patients had ERCC1 values < 1.7. Thus, evaluation of the ERCC1-high subgroup was limited. Grade ≥ 3 anemia, dehydration, diarrhea, and fatigue were greater in patients with IT. Occurrences of grade ≥ 3 neuropathy and decreased neutrophils were greater in patients with FOLFOX. In all patients, FOLFOX had a statistically superior median PFS compared with IT (5.7 v 2.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.68; P = .02). In patients with ERCC1 levels < 1.7 receiving FOLFOX, PFS and response rate were statistically superior to IT, with no significant difference in OS. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of ERCC1 in patients with upper GI tumors was thwarted by an overwhelming predominance of low ERCC1 mRNA expression. Nonetheless, distribution of treatment effects on PFS did not vary with expression. For all patients and for those with low ERCC1 expression, FOLFOX was superior in efficacy to IT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Endonucleases/biossíntese , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(1): 68-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624087

RESUMO

13-Cis-retinoic acid (RA) is typically used in postremission maintenance therapy in patients with neuroblastoma. However, side effects and recurrence are often observed. We investigated the use of miRNAs as a strategy to replace RA as promoters of differentiation. miR-124 was identified as the top candidate in a functional screen. Genomic target analysis indicated that repression of a network of transcription factors (TF) could be mediating most of miR-124's effect in driving differentiation. To advance miR-124 mimic use in therapy and better define its mechanism of action, a high-throughput siRNA morphologic screen focusing on its TF targets was conducted and ELF4 was identified as a leading candidate for miR-124 repression. By altering its expression levels, we showed that ELF4 maintains neuroblastoma in an undifferentiated state and promotes proliferation. Moreover, ELF4 transgenic expression was able to counteract the neurogenic effect of miR-124 in neuroblastoma cells. With RNA sequencing, we established the main role of ELF4 to be regulation of cell-cycle progression, specifically through the DREAM complex. Interestingly, several cell-cycle genes activated by ELF4 are repressed by miR-124, suggesting that they might form a TF-miRNA regulatory loop. Finally, we showed that high ELF4 expression is often observed in neuroblastomas and is associated with poor survival. IMPLICATIONS: miR-124 induces neuroblastoma differentiation partially through the downregulation of TF ELF4, which drives neuroblastoma proliferation and its undifferentiated phenotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transfecção
18.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 35(1): 50-57, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657617

RESUMO

Background: Kinesin family member 22 (KIF22) is known as a regulator of cell mitosis and cellular vesicle transport. The alterations of KIF22 are associated with a series of tumors; however, its possible role in the progression of colon cancer is still unclear. Materials and Methods: This retrospective research collected 82 paired tissues with colon cancer. KIF22 protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry assays and Immunoblot assays, respectively. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmids were used to suppress the expression of KIF22 in HCT116 and HT29 cells, and the silencing efficiencies of shRNA plasmids targeted KIF22 were detected by quantitative PCR assays and immunoblot assays. In addition, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and xenograft tumor growth assays were performed to observe cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Results: In human colon cancer tissues, the expression level of KIF22 was increased and correlated with clinical pathological features, including tumor stage and clinical stage (p = 0.034, and p = 0.015, respectively). Suppression of KIF22 inhibited cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth. Conclusion: KIF22 might play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation in colon cancer and might therefore serve as a promising therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Cinesina/biossíntese , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HCT116 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transfecção
19.
Cell Prolif ; 53(1): e12700, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MATN1-AS1 is a newfound lncRNA that has been rarely explored in cancers. Herein, we would like to investigate its role in glioma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to examine gene expression in glioma. Then, MTT assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry analysis were applied to evaluate the function of MATN1-AS1 on glioma cells. Western blot was performed to measure the protein levels of genes. Besides, the luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down assay, RIP assay and Spearman's correlation analysis were also performed as needed. RESULTS: Firstly, a data from TCGA showed that MATN1-AS1 might be largely implicated in glioma. Meanwhile, MATN1-AS1 upregulation confirmed in glioma predicted poor clinical outcomes. Functionally, MATN1-AS1 knockdown restrained cell proliferation but stimulated apoptosis in vitro and repressed tumour growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations validated that MATN1-AS1 functioned as a ceRNA for miR-200b/c/429 to upregulate CHD1 which was also verified to exert a growth-promoting role in glioma cells here. Importantly, both CHD1 overexpression and miR-200b/c/429 inhibition could rescue the obstructive role of MATN1-AS1 silence in glioma cells. CONCLUSIONS: MATN1-AS1 promotes glioma progression through regulating miR-200b/c/429-CHD1 axis, suggesting MATN1-AS1 as a probable target for glioma treatment.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
20.
J Clin Invest ; 130(3): 1139-1155, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714900

RESUMO

Cortical hyperexcitability and mislocalization of the RNA-binding protein TDP43 are highly conserved features in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nevertheless, the relationship between these phenomena remains poorly defined. Here, we showed that hyperexcitability recapitulates TDP43 pathology by upregulating shortened TDP43 (sTDP43) splice isoforms. These truncated isoforms accumulated in the cytoplasm and formed insoluble inclusions that sequestered full-length TDP43 via preserved N-terminal interactions. Consistent with these findings, sTDP43 overexpression was toxic to mammalian neurons, suggesting neurodegeneration arising from complementary gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms. In humans and mice, sTDP43 transcripts were enriched in vulnerable motor neurons, and we observed a striking accumulation of sTDP43 within neurons and glia of ALS patients. Collectively, these studies uncover a pathogenic role for alternative TDP43 isoforms in ALS, and implicate sTDP43 as a key contributor to the susceptibility of motor neurons in this disorder.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/biossíntese , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
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