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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4909, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999291

RESUMO

Effectively activating macrophages against cancer is promising but challenging. In particular, cancer cells express CD47, a 'don't eat me' signal that interacts with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages to prevent phagocytosis. Also, cancer cells secrete stimulating factors, which polarize tumor-associated macrophages from an antitumor M1 phenotype to a tumorigenic M2 phenotype. Here, we report that hybrid cell membrane nanovesicles (known as hNVs) displaying SIRPα variants with significantly increased affinity to CD47 and containing M2-to-M1 repolarization signals can disable both mechanisms. The hNVs block CD47-SIRPα signaling axis while promoting M2-to-M1 repolarization within tumor microenvironment, significantly preventing both local recurrence and distant metastasis in malignant melanoma models. Furthermore, by loading a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, hNVs lead to potent tumor inhibition in a poorly immunogenic triple negative breast cancer model. hNVs are safe, stable, drug loadable, and suitable for genetic editing. These properties, combined with the capabilities inherited from source cells, make hNVs an attractive immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/secundário , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
2.
Virology ; 548: 73-81, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838948

RESUMO

The host protein SERINC5 inhibits the infectivity of HIV-1 virions in an Env-dependent manner and is counteracted by Nef. The conformation of the Env trimer reportedly correlates with sensitivity to SERINC5. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the "open" conformation of the Env trimer revealed by sensitivity to the V3-loop specific antibody 447-52D directly correlates with sensitivity to SERINC5. Of five Envs tested, SF162 was the most sensitive to neutralization by 447-52D, but it was not the most sensitive to SERINC5; instead the Env of LAI was substantially more sensitive to SERINC5 than all the other Envs. Mutational opening of the trimer by substitution of two tyrosines that mediate interaction between the V2 and V3 loops sensitized the Envs of JRFL and LAI to 447-52D as previously reported, but only BaL was sensitized to SERINC5. These data suggest that trimer "openness" is not sufficient for sensitivity to SERINC5.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
3.
Virology ; 548: 82-92, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838949

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an infectious pathogen spreading in a wide range of vertebrate species. Pigs are amplifying hosts of JEV and thought to be maintained in nature predominantly by avian-mosquito cycles. In the innate immune system, interferon-inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) is a small transmembrane protein family and has been identified as the first line of defense against a broad range of RNA virus invasion. In this paper, we found that swine IFITM (sIFITM) could restrict the replication of both JEV vaccine strain and wild strain NJ-2008. The cysteine S-palmitoylation modification of sIFITM plays important roles in their anti-JEV effects and intracellular distributions. Our findings show the anti-JEV activities of swine interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins and broaden the antiviral spectrum of IFITM protein family. The preliminary exploration of S-palmitoylation modification of sIFITM may contribute to understanding of the antiviral molecular mechanism of sIFITM.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/fisiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Lipoilação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Suínos , Replicação Viral
4.
Biochimie ; 177: 50-52, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805303

RESUMO

Various interferon (IFN)-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are known to be expressed in human tissues though only IFITM 1-3 are inducible by IFN. Numerous studies have shown that activation of IFITM3 could suppress infection by influenza and coronaviruses such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In view of the potential application of IFITM proteins' induction to target SARS-CoV-2 infection that causes COVID-19, this article layout insights into the known antiviral mechanisms and therapeutic agents related to IFITM. Blocking viral entry through various mechanisms and the potential application of the FDA approved immunosuppressant agent, mycophenolic acid, as inducer of IFITM3 are among those discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3382, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636381

RESUMO

The Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway initiates potent immune responses upon recognition of DNA. To initiate signaling, serine 365 (S365) in the C-terminal tail (CTT) of STING is phosphorylated, leading to induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Additionally, evolutionary conserved responses such as autophagy also occur downstream of STING, but their relative importance during in vivo infections remains unclear. Here we report that mice harboring a serine 365-to-alanine (S365A) mutation in STING are unexpectedly resistant to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1, despite lacking STING-induced type I IFN responses. By contrast, resistance to HSV-1 is abolished in mice lacking the STING CTT, suggesting that the STING CTT initiates protective responses against HSV-1, independently of type I IFNs. Interestingly, we find that STING-induced autophagy is a CTT- and TBK1-dependent but IRF3-independent process that is conserved in the STING S365A mice. Thus, interferon-independent functions of STING mediate STING-dependent antiviral responses in vivo.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/imunologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Autofagia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação Puntual , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 727-735, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541831

RESUMO

Stimulator-of-interferon genes (STING) is vital for sensing cytosolic DNA and initiating innate immune responses against microbial infection and tumors. Redox homeostasis is the balance of oxidative and reducing reactions present in all living systems. Yet, how the intracellular redox state controls STING activation is unclear. Here, we show that cellular redox homeostasis maintained by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is required for STING activation. GPX4 deficiency enhanced cellular lipid peroxidation and thus specifically inhibited the cGAS-STING pathway. Concordantly, GPX4 deficiency inhibited herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-induced innate antiviral immune responses and promoted HSV-1 replication in vivo. Mechanistically, GPX4 inactivation increased production of lipid peroxidation, which led to STING carbonylation at C88 and inhibited its trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Thus, cellular stress-induced lipid peroxidation specifically attenuates the STING DNA-sensing pathway, suggesting that GPX4 facilitates STING activation by maintaining redox homeostasis of lipids.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oximas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Carbonilação Proteica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Células THP-1 , Replicação Viral/imunologia
7.
Food Chem ; 331: 127355, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593042

RESUMO

Ara h1 is a major allergen from peanut. We investigated the effect of covalent conjugation of Ara h1 and dietary polyphenols on allergenicity and functional properties of Ara h1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the covalent conjugation of dietary polyphenols significantly reduced the IgE binding capacity of Ara h1. Covalent binding of dietary polyphenols with Ara h1 reduced histamine release by 40% in basophils. The decreased IgE binding capacity of Ara h1 could be ascribed to changes in protein conformation. The IgE epitope of Ara h1 might be blocked by polyphenols at the binding site. Analysis of pepsin digestion of Ara h1-polyphenol conjugates indicated that the covalent binding increased pepsin digestibility and reduced IgE binding capacity. Furthermore, covalent conjugation of Ara h1 with polyphenols decreased denaturation temperature and increased antioxidant activity. Ara h1 conjugated with polyphenols may be a promising approach for reducing the allergenicity of Ara h1.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Arachis/química , Basófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Basófilos/imunologia , Basófilos/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Catequina/imunologia , Catequina/metabolismo , Epitopos/metabolismo , Histamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13730-13739, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482869

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a lethal skin cancer that metastasizes rapidly. Few effective treatments are available for patients with metastatic MCC. Poor intratumoral T cell infiltration and activation are major barriers that prevent MCC eradication by the immune system. However, the mechanisms that drive the immunologically restrictive tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that the innate immune regulator stimulator of IFN genes (STING) is completely silenced in MCCs. To reactivate STING in MCC, we developed an application of a human STING mutant, STINGS162A/G230I/Q266I, which we found to be readily stimulated by a mouse STING agonist, DMXAA. This STING molecule was efficiently delivered to MCC cells via an AAV vector. Introducing STINGS162A/G230I/Q266I expression and stimulating its activity by DMXAA in MCC cells reactivates their antitumor inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. In response to MCC cells with restored STING, cocultured T cells expressing MCPyV-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) show increased cytokine production, migration toward tumor cells, and tumor cell killing. Our study therefore suggests that STING deficiency contributes to the immune suppressive nature of MCCs. More importantly, DMXAA stimulation of STINGS162A/G230I/Q266I causes robust cell death in MCCs as well as several other STING-silenced cancers. Because tumor antigens and DNA released by dying cancer cells have the potential to amplify innate immune response and activate antitumor adaptive responses, our finding indicates that targeted delivery and activation of STINGS162A/G230I/Q266I in tumor cells holds great therapeutic promise for the treatment of MCC and many other STING-deficient cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Xantonas/farmacologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2739, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483165

RESUMO

Synthetic biology is a powerful tool to create therapeutics which can be rationally designed to enable unique and combinatorial functionalities. Here we utilize non-pathogenic E coli Nissle as a versatile platform for the development of a living biotherapeutic for the treatment of cancer. The engineered bacterial strain, referred to as SYNB1891, targets STING-activation to phagocytic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the tumor and activates complementary innate immune pathways. SYNB1891 treatment results in efficacious antitumor immunity with the formation of immunological memory in murine tumor models and robust activation of human APCs. SYNB1891 is designed to meet manufacturability and regulatory requirements with built in biocontainment features which do not compromise its efficacy. This work provides a roadmap for the development of future therapeutics and demonstrates the transformative potential of synthetic biology for the treatment of human disease when drug development criteria are incorporated into the design process for a living medicine.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Biologia Sintética/tendências
10.
Neurology ; 94(22): e2290-e2301, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate autoimmune disease in association with contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2) antibodies in childhood, we reviewed the clinical phenotype of children with CASPR2 antibodies. METHODS: Retrospective assessment of patients recruited through laboratories specialized in autoimmune CNS disease. RESULTS: Ten children with serum CASPR2 antibodies were identified (age at manifestation 18 months to 17 years). Eight children with CASPR2 antibody titers from ≥1:160 to 1:5,120 had complex autoimmune diseases with an age-dependent clinical phenotype. Two children with structural epilepsy due to CNS malformations harbored nonspecific low-titer CASPR2 antibodies (serum titers 1:80). The clinical symptoms of the 8 children with high-titer CASPR2 antibodies were general weakness (8/8), sleep dysregulation (8/8), dysautonomia (8/8) encephalopathy (7/8), neuropathic pain (7/8), neuromyotonia (3/8), and flaccid paresis (3/8). Adolescents (3/8) showed pain, neuromyotonia, and encephalopathy, whereas younger children (5/8) displayed severe hypertension, encephalopathy, and hormonal dysfunction mimicking a systemic disease. No tumors were identified. Motor symptoms remitted with immunotherapy. Mild behavioral changes persisted in 1 child, and autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed during follow-up in a young boy. CONCLUSION: High-titer CASPR2 antibodies are associated with Morvan syndrome in children as young as 2 years. However, CASPR2 autoimmunity mimics systemic disease and hypertensive encephalopathy in children younger than 7 years. The outcome following immunotherapy was mostly favorable; long-term behavioral impairment may occur in younger children.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue , Siringomielia/sangue , Adolescente , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Siringomielia/imunologia , Siringomielia/terapia
11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(10): 1959-1972, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388678

RESUMO

Cancer vaccine development has proven challenging with the exception of some virally induced cancers for which prophylactic vaccines exist. Currently, there is only one FDA approved vaccine for the treatment of prostate cancer and as such prostate cancer continues to present a significant unmet medical need. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of a therapeutic cancer vaccine that combines the ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX) with the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and Flt3L, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand. We employed the TRAMP-C1 (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) model of prostate cancer and the self-protein mPAP (prostatic acid phosphatase) as the tumor antigen. ISCOMATRIX™-mPAP-Poly I:C-Flt3L was delivered in a therapeutic prime-boost regime that was consistently able to achieve complete tumor regression in 60% of animals treated and these tumor-free animals were protected upon rechallenge. Investigations into the underlying immunological mechanisms contributing to the effectiveness of this vaccine identified that both innate and adaptive responses are elicited and required. NK cells, CD4+ T cells and interferon-γ were all found to be critical for tumor control while tumor infiltrating CD8+ T cells became disabled by an immunosuppressive microenvironment. There is potential for broader application of this cancer vaccine, as we have been able to demonstrate effectiveness in two additional cancer models; melanoma (B16-OVA) and a model of B cell lymphoma (Eµ-myc-GFP-OVA).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008326, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463817

RESUMO

Salmonella and Shigella species are food- and water-borne pathogens that are responsible for enteric infections in both humans and animals and are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the emerging countries. The existence of multiple Salmonella and Shigella serotypes as well as the emergence of strains resistant to antibiotics require the development of broadly protective therapies. Those bacteria utilize a Type III Secretion System (T3SS), necessary for their pathogenicity. The structural proteins composing the T3SS are common to all virulent Salmonella and Shigella spp., particularly the needle-tip proteins SipD (Salmonella) and IpaD (Shigella). We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SipD and IpaD administered by intranasal and intragastric routes, in a mouse model of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) intestinal challenge. Robust IgG (in all immunization routes) and IgA (in intranasal and oral immunization routes) antibody responses were induced against both proteins. Mice immunized with SipD or IpaD were protected against lethal intestinal challenge with S. Typhimurium or Shigella flexneri (100 Lethal Dose 50%). We have shown that SipD and IpaD are able to induce a cross-protection in a murine model of infection by Salmonella and Shigella. We provide the first demonstration that Salmonella and Shigella T3SS SipD and IpaD are promising antigens for the development of a cross-protective Salmonella-Shigella vaccine. These results open the way to the development of cross-protective therapeutic molecules.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada , Disenteria Bacilar/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Vacinas contra Shigella/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Vacinas contra Shigella/administração & dosagem , Shigella flexneri/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12716, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249951

RESUMO

AIMS: Neuroinflammation can manifest upon infection with the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii (ME49), which can lead to brain injury and cognitive dysfunction. Rhoptry organelle proteins (ROPs) secreted by T gondii play critical roles in host invasion. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing T gondii ROP4 or ROP13 were generated to assess vaccination-induced changes in intracranial pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibody responses upon T gondii challenge infection. Compared to ROP13 VLPs, ROP4VLPs vaccination significantly limited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 in the brains of mice. Reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses by ROP4 VLPs and ROP13 VLPs correlated with significantly increased T gondii-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses in the brain, as well as IgG, IgG1 and IgM antibody responses in the sera. CONCLUSION: We concluded that influenza T gondii VLP vaccination induces antibody responses in sera and brain, which may contribute to the significant reduction of neuroinflammation during T gondii infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Encéfalo/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Sf9
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008457, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251420

RESUMO

The retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), including RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), sense cytoplasmic viral RNA and initiate innate antiviral responses. How RIG-I and MDA5 are differentially regulated remains enigmatic. In this study, we identified the guanylate-binding protein (GBP) and zinc-finger FYVE domain-containing protein ZFYVE1 as a negative regulator of MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral responses. ZFYVE1-deficiency promoted MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated transcription of downstream antiviral genes. Comparing to wild-type mice, Zfyve1-/- mice were significantly protected from lethality induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) that is sensed by MDA5, whereas Zfyve1-/- and Zfyve1+/+ mice were comparable to death induced by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that is sensed by RIG-I. Mechanistically, ZFYVE1 interacted with MDA5 but not RIG-I. ZFYVE1 bound to viral RNA and decreased the ligand binding and oligomerization of MDA5. These findings suggest that ZFYVE1 acts as a specific negative regulator of MDA5-mediated innate immune responses by inhibiting its ligand binding and oligomerization.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cardiovirus/imunologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/imunologia , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/fisiologia , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Cardiovirus/genética , Infecções por Cardiovirus/virologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/genética , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
15.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 200(2): 155-162, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297328

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockers improve the overall survival of a limited number of patients among different cancers. Identifying pathways that influence the immunological and clinical response to treatment is critical to improve the therapeutic efficacy and predict clinical responses. Recently, a key role has been assigned to innate immune mechanisms in checkpoint blockade-driven anti-tumor responses. However, inflammatory pathways can both improve and impair anti-tumor immunity. In this review, we discuss how different inflammatory pathways, particularly inflammasome activation, can influence the clinical outcome of immune checkpoint blockers. Inflammasome activation may reinforce anti-tumor immunity by boosting CD8+ T cell priming as well as by enhancing T helper type 17 (Th17) responses. In particular, we focus on the modulation of the cation channel transmembrane protein 176B (TMEM176B) and the ectonucleotidase CD39 as potential targets to unleash inflammasome activation leading to reinforced anti-tumor immunity and improved efficacy of immune checkpoint blockers. Future studies should be aimed at investigating the mechanisms and cell subsets involved in inflammasome-driven anti-tumor responses.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Apirase , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias , Animais , Apirase/antagonistas & inibidores , Apirase/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/patologia
16.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12715, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191816

RESUMO

Many pathogenicity factors are involved in the development of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by N fowleri. However, most of them are not exclusive for N fowleri and they have not even been described in other nonpathogenic Naegleria species. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify differential proteins and protein pattern recognition between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis using antibodies anti-N fowleri as strategy to find vaccine candidates against meningoencephalitis. Electrophoresis and Western blots conventional and 2-DE were performed for the identification of antigenic proteins, and these were analysed by the mass spectrometry technique. The results obtained in 2-DE gels and Western blot showed very notable differences in spot intensity between these two species, specifically those with relative molecular weight of 100, 75, 50 and 19 kDa. Some spots corresponding to these molecular weights were identified as actin fragment, myosin II, heat shock protein, membrane protein Mp2CL5 among others, with differences in theoretical post-translational modifications. In this work, we found differences in antigenic proteins between both species, proteins that could be used for a further development of vaccines against N fowleri infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Meningoencefalite/imunologia , Naegleria fowleri/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Meningoencefalite/parasitologia
17.
Neuron ; 106(5): 727-742.e6, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199103

RESUMO

Evidence suggests interplay among the three major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD): age, APOE genotype, and sex. Here, we present comprehensive datasets and analyses of brain transcriptomes and blood metabolomes from human apoE2-, apoE3-, and apoE4-targeted replacement mice across young, middle, and old ages with both sexes. We found that age had the greatest impact on brain transcriptomes highlighted by an immune module led by Trem2 and Tyrobp, whereas APOE4 was associated with upregulation of multiple Serpina3 genes. Importantly, these networks and gene expression changes were mostly conserved in human brains. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between age, APOE genotype, and sex on unfolded protein response pathway. In the periphery, APOE2 drove distinct blood metabolome profile highlighted by the upregulation of lipid metabolites. Our work identifies unique and interactive molecular pathways underlying AD risk factors providing valuable resources for discovery and validation research in model systems and humans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Serpinas/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fatores de Proteção , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008335, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187211

RESUMO

One of the fundamental reactions of the innate immune responses to pathogen infection is the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, processed by the NLRP3 inflammasome. The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) has the essential roles in innate immune response against pathogen infections. Here we reveal a distinct mechanism by which STING regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1ß secretion, and inflammatory responses in human cell lines, mice primary cells, and mice. Interestingly, upon HSV-1 infection and cytosolic DNA stimulation, STING binds to NLRP3 and promotes the inflammasome activation through two approaches. First, STING recruits NLRP3 and facilitates NLRP3 localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby facilitating the inflammasome formation. Second, STING interacts with NLRP3 and attenuates K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitination of NLRP3, thereby promoting the inflammasome activation. Collectively, we demonstrate that the cGAS-STING-NLRP3 signaling is essential for host defense against HSV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/genética , Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159971

RESUMO

The lungs and the immune and nervous systems functionally interact to respond to respiratory environmental exposures and infections. The lungs are innervated by vagal sensory neurons of the jugular and nodose ganglia, fused together in smaller mammals as the jugular-nodose complex (JNC). Whereas the JNC shares properties with the other sensory ganglia, the trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), these sensory structures express differential sets of genes that reflect their unique functionalities. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in mice to identify the differential transcriptomes of the three sensory ganglia types. Using a fluorescent retrograde tracer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we isolated a defined population of airway-innervating JNC neurons and determined their differential transcriptional map after pulmonary exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major mediator of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after infection with gram-negative bacteria or inhalation of organic dust. JNC neurons activated an injury response program, leading to increased expression of gene products such as the G protein-coupled receptor Cckbr, inducing functional changes in neuronal sensitivity to peptides, and Gpr151, also rapidly induced upon neuropathic nerve injury in pain models. Unique JNC-specific transcripts, present at only minimal levels in TG, DRG, and other organs, were identified. These included TMC3, encoding for a putative mechanosensor, and urotensin 2B, a hypertensive peptide. These findings highlight the unique properties of the JNC and reveal that ALI/ARDS rapidly induces a nerve injury-related state, changing vagal excitability.


Assuntos
Gânglio Nodoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/genética , Receptor de Colecistocinina B/genética , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Traumatismos do Nervo Vago/genética , Animais , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/imunologia , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gânglio Nodoso/imunologia , Gânglio Nodoso/patologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/imunologia , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Receptor de Colecistocinina B/imunologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Gânglio Trigeminal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglio Trigeminal/imunologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/patologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Vago/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismos do Nervo Vago/imunologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Vago/patologia
20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(8): 1143-1148, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205484

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma can be difficult to distinguish from other malignancies, particularly non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), without immunohistochemistry. However, conventional markers of mesothelial lineage all have variable degrees of cross-reactivity with other neoplasms, including NSCLCs, necessitating the use of multiple mesothelioma and carcinoma markers in every case for accurate diagnosis. A recently described monoclonal HEG homolog 1 (HEG1) antibody was proposed to be a specific marker for mesothelioma. Here we performed a large scale assessment of the SKM9-2 HEG1 antibody using tissue microarrays containing 69 epithelioid mesotheliomas, 32 sarcomatoid mesotheliomas, 167 NSCLCs, and 17 ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas. Strong membrane staining, usually diffuse, for HEG1 was seen in 65/69 (94%) epithelioid mesotheliomas, 0/60 pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas, 0/73 pulmonary adenocarcinomas, and 0/13 pulmonary large cell carcinomas. HEG1 showed staining in 14/32 (44%) sarcomatoid mesotheliomas compared with 0/21 sarcomatoid pulmonary carcinomas. Three of 17 (18%) high-grade serous carcinomas demonstrated membrane staining. Ten B3 thymoma whole sections were negative. On the microarrays, the conventional mesothelial markers calretinin, WT1, D2-40, and CK5/6 had sensitivities for epithelioid mesothelioma of 94%, 90%, 96%, and 91%, respectively. We conclude that HEG1 SKM9-2 antibody offers sensitivity comparable to conventional markers for epithelioid mesotheliomas, but provides considerably better specificity, such that the diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma versus NSCLC potentially could be confirmed with a combination of HEG1 and a suitable broad spectrum carcinoma marker such as claudin-4. HEG1 is specific but insensitive for separating sarcomatoid mesotheliomas from sarcomatoid lung carcinomas.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Células Epitelioides/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Mesotelioma/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Células Epitelioides/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Serial de Tecidos
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