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1.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 72-86.e7, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910895

RESUMO

Membrane protein biogenesis faces the challenge of chaperoning hydrophobic transmembrane helices for faithful membrane insertion. The guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway targets and inserts tail-anchored (TA) proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane with an insertase (yeast Get1/Get2 or mammalian WRB/CAML) that captures the TA from a cytoplasmic chaperone (Get3 or TRC40, respectively). Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions, native mass spectrometry, and structure-based mutagenesis of human WRB/CAML/TRC40 and yeast Get1/Get2/Get3 complexes. Get3 binding to the membrane insertase supports heterotetramer formation, and phosphatidylinositol binding at the heterotetramer interface stabilizes the insertase for efficient TA insertion in vivo. We identify a Get2/CAML cytoplasmic helix that forms a "gating" interaction with Get3/TRC40 important for TA insertion. Structural homology with YidC and the ER membrane protein complex (EMC) implicates an evolutionarily conserved insertion mechanism for divergent substrates utilizing a hydrophilic groove. Thus, we provide a detailed structural and mechanistic framework to understand TA membrane insertion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237743, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911484

RESUMO

The cGAS/STING pathway initiates an innate immune response when DNA is detected in the cytosol. DNA bound cGAS synthesizes cyclic dinucleotides which bind and activate the adaptor STING, leading to downstream secretion of Type I interferons and other pro-inflammatory NFκB pathway cytokines. In the mouse, the STING driven innate immune response is central to immune based clearance of various tumors and this has triggered a significant effort focused on the discovery of human STING agonists for the treatment of cancer. This report uses an in vitro kinase assay to show that G10, a previously identified STING pathway activator is actually a weak but direct STING agonist and identifies other more potent leads.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1
3.
Virology ; 548: 73-81, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838948

RESUMO

The host protein SERINC5 inhibits the infectivity of HIV-1 virions in an Env-dependent manner and is counteracted by Nef. The conformation of the Env trimer reportedly correlates with sensitivity to SERINC5. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the "open" conformation of the Env trimer revealed by sensitivity to the V3-loop specific antibody 447-52D directly correlates with sensitivity to SERINC5. Of five Envs tested, SF162 was the most sensitive to neutralization by 447-52D, but it was not the most sensitive to SERINC5; instead the Env of LAI was substantially more sensitive to SERINC5 than all the other Envs. Mutational opening of the trimer by substitution of two tyrosines that mediate interaction between the V2 and V3 loops sensitized the Envs of JRFL and LAI to 447-52D as previously reported, but only BaL was sensitized to SERINC5. These data suggest that trimer "openness" is not sufficient for sensitivity to SERINC5.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3914, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764676

RESUMO

Cell polarity is fundamental to the development of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, yet the mechanisms behind its formation are not well understood. Here we found that, phytohormone auxin-induced, sterol-dependent nanoclustering of cell surface transmembrane receptor kinase 1 (TMK1) is critical for the formation of polarized domains at the plasma membrane (PM) during the morphogenesis of cotyledon pavement cells (PC) in Arabidopsis. Auxin-induced TMK1 nanoclustering stabilizes flotillin1-associated ordered nanodomains, which in turn promote the nanoclustering of ROP6 GTPase that acts downstream of TMK1 to regulate cortical microtubule organization. In turn, cortical microtubules further stabilize TMK1- and flotillin1-containing nanoclusters at the PM. Hence, we propose a new paradigm for polarity formation: A diffusive signal triggers cell polarization by promoting cell surface receptor-mediated nanoclustering of signaling components and cytoskeleton-mediated positive feedback that reinforces these nanodomains into polarized domains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Mutação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Agregados Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3944, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769983

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TG) are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bilayer and packaged into organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are covered by a single phospholipid monolayer contiguous with the ER bilayer. This connection is used by several monotopic integral membrane proteins, with hydrophobic membrane association domains (HDs), to diffuse between the organelles. However, how proteins partition between ER and LDs is not understood. Here, we employed synthetic model systems and found that HD-containing proteins strongly prefer monolayers and returning to the bilayer is unfavorable. This preference for monolayers is due to a higher affinity of HDs for TG over membrane phospholipids. Protein distribution is regulated by PC/PE ratio via alterations in monolayer packing and HD-TG interaction. Thus, HD-containing proteins appear to non-specifically accumulate to the LD surface. In cells, protein editing mechanisms at the ER membrane would be necessary to prevent unspecific relocation of HD-containing proteins to LDs.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico , Triglicerídeos/química
6.
Protein Sci ; 29(10): 2038-2042, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822073

RESUMO

The Envelope protein (E) is one of the four structural proteins encoded by the genome of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Coronaviruses. It is an integral membrane protein, highly expressed in the host cell, which is known to have an important role in Coronaviruses maturation, assembly and virulence. The E protein presents a PDZ-binding motif at its C-terminus. One of the key interactors of the E protein in the intracellular environment is the PDZ containing protein PALS1. This interaction is known to play a key role in the SARS-CoV pathology and suspected to affect the integrity of the lung epithelia. In this paper we measured and compared the affinity of peptides mimicking the E protein from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 for the PDZ domain of PALS1, through equilibrium and kinetic binding experiments. Our results support the hypothesis that the increased virulence of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV may rely on the increased affinity of its Envelope protein for PALS1.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Núcleosídeo-Fosfato Quinase/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/química , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Núcleosídeo-Fosfato Quinase/química , Domínios PDZ , Pandemias , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Vírus da SARS/química , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3306, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620754

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is selectively degraded by autophagy (ER-phagy) through proteins called ER-phagy receptors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Atg40 acts as an ER-phagy receptor to sequester ER fragments into autophagosomes by binding Atg8 on forming autophagosomal membranes. During ER-phagy, parts of the ER are morphologically rearranged, fragmented, and loaded into autophagosomes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we find that Atg40 molecules assemble in the ER membrane concurrently with autophagosome formation via multivalent interaction with Atg8. Atg8-mediated super-assembly of Atg40 generates highly-curved ER regions, depending on its reticulon-like domain, and supports packing of these regions into autophagosomes. Moreover, tight binding of Atg40 to Atg8 is achieved by a short helix C-terminal to the Atg8-family interacting motif, and this feature is also observed for mammalian ER-phagy receptors. Thus, this study significantly advances our understanding of the mechanisms of ER-phagy and also provides insights into organelle fragmentation in selective autophagy of other organelles.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/química , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/química , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3533, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669552

RESUMO

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are second messengers conserved across all three domains of life. Within eukaryotes they mediate protective roles in innate immunity against malignant, viral, and bacterial disease, and exert pathological effects in autoimmune disorders. Despite their ubiquitous role in diverse biological contexts, CDN detection methods are limited. Here, using structure guided design of the murine STING CDN binding domain, we engineer a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based biosensor deemed BioSTING. Recombinant BioSTING affords real-time detection of CDN synthase activity and inhibition. Expression of BioSTING in live human cells allows quantification of localized bacterial and eukaryotic CDN levels in single cells with low nanomolar sensitivity. These findings establish BioSTING as a powerful kinetic in vitro platform amenable to high throughput screens and as a broadly applicable cellular tool to interrogate the temporal and spatial dynamics of CDN signaling in a variety of infectious, malignant, and autoimmune contexts.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/análise , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/química , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Ligantes , Camundongos , Mutagênese , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes
9.
Gene ; 757: 144949, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679290

RESUMO

Melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) has an unusual dual topology and influences the expression, localisation, signalling and internalisation of the melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2); the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor. Mutations in MRAP are associated with familial glucocorticoid deficiency type-2 and evidence is emerging of the importance of MRAP in adrenal development and ACTH signalling. Human MRAP has two functional splice variants: MRAP-α and MRAP-ß, unlike MRAP-ß, MRAP-α has little expression in brain but is highly expressed in ovary. MRAP2, identified through whole human genome sequence analysis, has approximately 40% sequence homology to MRAP. MRAP2 facilitates MC2 localisation to the cell surface but not ACTH signalling. MRAP and MRAP2 have been found to regulate the surface expression and signalling of all melanocortin receptors (MC1-5). Additionally, MRAP2 moderates the signalling of the G-protein coupled receptors (GCPRs): orexin, prokineticin and GHSR1a; the ghrelin receptor. Whilst MRAP appears to be mainly involved in glucocorticoid synthesis, an important role is emerging for MRAP2 in regulating appetite and energy homeostasis. Transgenic models indicate the importance of MRAP in adrenal gland formation. Like MC3R and MC4R knockout mice, MRAP2 knockout mice have an obese phenotype. In vitro studies indicate that MRAP2 enhances the MC3 and MC4 response to the agonist αMSH, which, like ACTH, is produced through precursor polypeptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cleavage. Analysis of cohorts of individuals with obesity have revealed several MRAP2 genetic variants with loss of function mutations which are causative of monogenic hyperphagic obesity with hyperglycaemia and hypertension. MRAP2 may also be associated with female infertility. This review summarises current knowledge of MRAP and MRAP2, their influence on GPCR signalling, and focusses on pathophysiology, particularly familial glucocorticoid deficiency type-2 and obesity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação do Apetite , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000755, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644996

RESUMO

Kindlin-1, -2, and -3 directly bind integrin ß cytoplasmic tails to regulate integrin activation and signaling. Despite their functional significance and links to several diseases, structural information on full-length kindlin proteins remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of human full-length kindlin-3, which reveals a novel homotrimer state. Unlike kindlin-3 monomer, which is the major population in insect and mammalian cell expression systems, kindlin-3 trimer does not bind integrin ß cytoplasmic tail as the integrin-binding pocket in the F3 subdomain of 1 protomer is occluded by the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of another protomer, suggesting that kindlin-3 is auto-inhibited upon trimer formation. This is also supported by functional assays in which kindlin-3 knockout K562 erythroleukemia cells reconstituted with the mutant kindlin-3 containing trimer-disrupting mutations exhibited an increase in integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading on fibronectin compared with those reconstituted with wild-type kindlin-3. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of kindlin auto-inhibition that involves its homotrimer formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/química , Multimerização Proteica , Movimento Celular , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Células K562 , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Nature ; 584(7820): 291-297, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728216

RESUMO

The majority of therapies that target individual proteins rely on specific activity-modulating interactions with the target protein-for example, enzyme inhibition or ligand blocking. However, several major classes of therapeutically relevant proteins have unknown or inaccessible activity profiles and so cannot be targeted by such strategies. Protein-degradation platforms such as proteolysis-targeting chimaeras (PROTACs)1,2 and others (for example, dTAGs3, Trim-Away4, chaperone-mediated autophagy targeting5 and SNIPERs6) have been developed for proteins that are typically difficult to target; however, these methods involve the manipulation of intracellular protein degradation machinery and are therefore fundamentally limited to proteins that contain cytosolic domains to which ligands can bind and recruit the requisite cellular components. Extracellular and membrane-associated proteins-the products of 40% of all protein-encoding genes7-are key agents in cancer, ageing-related diseases and autoimmune disorders8, and so a general strategy to selectively degrade these proteins has the potential to improve human health. Here we establish the targeted degradation of extracellular and membrane-associated proteins using conjugates that bind both a cell-surface lysosome-shuttling receptor and the extracellular domain of a target protein. These initial lysosome-targeting chimaeras, which we term LYTACs, consist of a small molecule or antibody fused to chemically synthesized glycopeptide ligands that are agonists of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). We use LYTACs to develop a CRISPR interference screen that reveals the biochemical pathway for CI-M6PR-mediated cargo internalization in cell lines, and uncover the exocyst complex as a previously unidentified-but essential-component of this pathway. We demonstrate the scope of this platform through the degradation of therapeutically relevant proteins, including apolipoprotein E4, epidermal growth factor receptor, CD71 and programmed death-ligand 1. Our results establish a modular strategy for directing secreted and membrane proteins for lysosomal degradation, with broad implications for biochemical research and for therapeutics.


Assuntos
Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/síntese química , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/síntese química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Solubilidade , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18711-18718, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690697

RESUMO

KREMEN1 (KRM1) has been identified as a functional receptor for Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), a causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which poses a great threat to infants globally. However, the underlying mechanisms for the viral entry process are not well understood. Here we determined the atomic structures of different forms of CV-A10 viral particles and its complex with KRM1 in both neutral and acidic conditions. These structures reveal that KRM1 selectively binds to the mature viral particle above the canyon of the viral protein 1 (VP1) subunit and contacts across two adjacent asymmetry units. The key residues for receptor binding are conserved among most KRM1-dependent enteroviruses, suggesting a uniform mechanism for receptor binding. Moreover, the binding of KRM1 induces the release of pocket factor, a process accelerated under acidic conditions. Further biochemical studies confirmed that receptor binding at acidic pH enabled CV-A10 virion uncoating in vitro. Taken together, these findings provide high-resolution snapshots of CV-A10 entry and identify KRM1 as a two-in-one receptor for enterovirus infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo , Enterovirus Humano A , Proteínas de Membrana , Internalização do Vírus , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Enterovirus Humano A/química , Enterovirus Humano A/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Vírion/química , Vírion/metabolismo , Desenvelopamento do Vírus
13.
J Biol Chem ; 295(36): 12686-12696, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675285

RESUMO

Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a group of enzymes participating in diverse biological processes. Some members of the TTSP family are implicated in viral infection. TMPRSS11A is a TTSP expressed on the surface of airway epithelial cells, which has been shown to cleave and activate spike proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (CoVs). In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the activation cleavage of TMPRSS11A that converts the one-chain zymogen to a two-chain enzyme. By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis. Moreover, we found that TMPRSS11A activation cleavage occurred before the protein reached the cell surface, as indicated by studies with trypsin digestion to remove cell surface proteins, treatment with cell organelle-disturbing agents to block intracellular protein trafficking, and analysis of a soluble form of TMPRSS11A without the transmembrane domain. We also showed that TMPRSS11A was able to cleave the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results reveal an intracellular autocleavage mechanism in TMPRSS11A zymogen activation, which differs from the extracellular zymogen activation reported in other TTSPs. These findings provide new insights into the diverse mechanisms in regulating TTSP activation.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteólise , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo
14.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(6): 295-308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683365

RESUMO

Intramolecular coevolution of amino acid sites has repeatedly been studied to improve predictions on protein structure and function. Thereby, the focus was on bacterial proteins with available crystallographic data. However, intramolecular coevolution has not yet been compared between protein sets along a gradient of functional proximity to fertilization. This is especially true for the potential effect of external selective forces on intraprotein coevolution. In this study, we investigated both aspects in equally sized sets of mammalian proteins representing spermatozoa, testis, entire body, and liver. For coevolutionary analyses, we derived the proportion of covarying sites per protein from amino acid alignments of 10 mammalian orthologues each. In confirmation of the validity of our coevolution proxy, we found positive associations with the nonsynonymous or amino acid substitution rate in all protein sets. However, our coevolution proxy negatively correlated with the number of protein interactants (node degree) in male reproductive protein sets alone. In addition, a negative association of our coevolution proxy with protein hydrophobicity was significant in sperm proteins only. Accordingly, the restrictive effect of protein interactants was most pronounced in male reproductive proteins, and the tendency of sperm proteins to form internal structures decreased the more coevolutionary sites they had. Both aspects illustrate that the share of outward and thus functional coevolution increases with greater proximity to fertilization. We found this conclusion confirmed by additional comparisons within sperm proteins. Thus, sperm proteins with high hydrophobicity had the lowest proportions of covarying sites and, according to gene annotations, localized more frequently to internal cellular structures. They should therefore be less exposed to postcopulatory forms of sexual selection. Their counterparts with low hydrophobicity had larger proportions of covarying sites and more often resided at the cell membrane or were secreted. At the cellular level, they are thus closer to externally induced forces of postcopulatory selection which are known for their potential to increase substitution rates. In addition, we show that the intermediary status of the testicular protein set in correlation analyses is probably due to a special combination of reproductive and somatic involvements.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Fertilização , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/química , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Doença , Fertilização/genética , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas/genética , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/metabolismo , Suínos
15.
Nature ; 583(7816): 473-478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528179

RESUMO

Mitochondria, chloroplasts and Gram-negative bacteria are encased in a double layer of membranes. The outer membrane contains proteins with a ß-barrel structure1,2. ß-Barrels are sheets of ß-strands wrapped into a cylinder, in which the first strand is hydrogen-bonded to the final strand. Conserved multi-subunit molecular machines fold and insert these proteins into the outer membrane3-5. One subunit of the machines is itself a ß-barrel protein that has a central role in folding other ß-barrels. In Gram-negative bacteria, the ß-barrel assembly machine (BAM) consists of the ß-barrel protein BamA, and four lipoproteins5-8. To understand how the BAM complex accelerates folding without using exogenous energy (for example, ATP)9, we trapped folding intermediates on this machine. Here we report the structure of the BAM complex of Escherichia coli folding BamA itself. The BamA catalyst forms an asymmetric hybrid ß-barrel with the BamA substrate. The N-terminal edge of the BamA catalyst has an antiparallel hydrogen-bonded interface with the C-terminal edge of the BamA substrate, consistent with previous crosslinking studies10-12; the other edges of the BamA catalyst and substrate are close to each other, but curl inward and do not pair. Six hydrogen bonds in a membrane environment make the interface between the two proteins very stable. This stability allows folding, but creates a high kinetic barrier to substrate release after folding has finished. Features at each end of the substrate overcome this barrier and promote release by stepwise exchange of hydrogen bonds. This mechanism of substrate-assisted product release explains how the BAM complex can stably associate with the substrate during folding and then turn over rapidly when folding is complete.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Cloroplastos/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Mitocôndrias/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
Nature ; 582(7810): 115-118, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494070

RESUMO

During cell division, remodelling of the nuclear envelope enables chromosome segregation by the mitotic spindle1. The reformation of sealed nuclei requires ESCRTs (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) and LEM2, a transmembrane ESCRT adaptor2-4. Here we show how the ability of LEM2 to condense on microtubules governs the activation of ESCRTs and coordinated spindle disassembly. The LEM motif of LEM2 binds BAF, conferring on LEM2 an affinity for chromatin5,6, while an adjacent low-complexity domain (LCD) promotes LEM2 phase separation. A proline-arginine-rich sequence within the LCD binds to microtubules and targets condensation of LEM2 to spindle microtubules that traverse the nascent nuclear envelope. Furthermore, the winged-helix domain of LEM2 activates the ESCRT-II/ESCRT-III hybrid protein CHMP7 to form co-oligomeric rings. Disruption of these events in human cells prevented the recruitment of downstream ESCRTs, compromised spindle disassembly, and led to defects in nuclear integrity and DNA damage. We propose that during nuclear reassembly LEM2 condenses into a liquid-like phase and coassembles with CHMP7 to form a macromolecular O-ring seal at the confluence between membranes, chromatin and the spindle. The properties of LEM2 described here, and the homologous architectures of related inner nuclear membrane proteins7,8, suggest that phase separation may contribute to other critical envelope functions, including interphase repair8-13 and chromatin organization14-17.


Assuntos
Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Anáfase , Cromatina/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microtúbulos/química , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/química , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14202-14208, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513722

RESUMO

FtsK protein contains a fast DNA motor that is involved in bacterial chromosome dimer resolution. During cell division, FtsK translocates double-stranded DNA until both dif recombination sites are placed at mid cell for subsequent dimer resolution. Here, we solved the 3.6-Å resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of the motor domain of FtsK while translocating on its DNA substrate. Each subunit of the homo-hexameric ring adopts a unique conformation and one of three nucleotide states. Two DNA-binding loops within four subunits form a pair of spiral staircases within the ring, interacting with the two DNA strands. This suggests that simultaneous conformational changes in all ATPase domains at each catalytic step generate movement through a mechanism related to filament treadmilling. While the ring is only rotating around the DNA slowly, it is instead the conformational states that rotate around the ring as the DNA substrate is pushed through.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Translocação Genética/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14209-14219, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513731

RESUMO

The physical dimensions of proteins and glycans on cell surfaces can critically affect cell function, for example, by preventing close contact between cells and limiting receptor accessibility. However, high-resolution measurements of molecular heights on native cell membranes have been difficult to obtain. Here we present a simple and rapid method that achieves nanometer height resolution by localizing fluorophores at the tip and base of cell surface molecules and determining their separation by radially averaging across many molecules. We use this method, which we call cell surface optical profilometry (CSOP), to quantify the height of key multidomain proteins on a model cell, as well as to capture average protein and glycan heights on native cell membranes. We show that average height of a protein is significantly smaller than its contour length, due to thermally driven bending and rotation on the membrane, and that height strongly depends on local surface and solution conditions. We find that average height increases with cell surface molecular crowding but decreases with solution crowding by solutes, both of which we confirm with molecular dynamics simulations. We also use experiments and simulations to determine the height of an epitope, based on the location of an antibody, which allows CSOP to profile various proteins and glycans on a native cell surface using antibodies and lectins. This versatile method for profiling cell surfaces has the potential to advance understanding of the molecular landscape of cells and the role of the molecular landscape in cell function.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Anticorpos , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Epitopos , Imunofluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lectinas , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Proteínas de Membrana/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14168-14177, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513719

RESUMO

The ordered environment of cholesterol-rich membrane nanodomains is thought to exclude many transmembrane (TM) proteins. Nevertheless, some multispan helical transmembrane proteins have been proposed to partition into these environments. Here, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) were employed to quantitatively show that the helical tetraspan peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) exhibits a pronounced preference for, promotes the formation of, and stabilizes ordered membrane domains. Neither S-palmitoylation of PMP22 nor its putative cholesterol binding motifs are required for this preference. In contrast, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-causing mutations that disrupt the stability of PMP22 tertiary structure reduce or eliminate this preference in favor of the disordered phase. These studies demonstrate that the ordered phase preference of PMP22 derives from global structural features associated with the folded form of this protein, providing a glimpse at the structural factors that promote raft partitioning for multispan helical membrane proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Membranas/metabolismo , Proteínas da Mielina/química , Proteínas da Mielina/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Membranas/química , Mutação , Proteínas da Mielina/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2993, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532970

RESUMO

The accumulation of protein aggregates is involved in the onset of many neurodegenerative diseases. Aggrephagy is a selective type of autophagy that counteracts neurodegeneration by degrading such aggregates. In this study, we found that LC3C cooperates with lysosomal TECPR1 to promote the degradation of disease-related protein aggregates in neural stem cells. The N-terminal WD-repeat domain of TECPR1 selectively binds LC3C which decorates matured autophagosomes. The interaction of LC3C and TECPR1 promotes the recruitment of autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Augmented expression of TECPR1 in neural stem cells reduces the number of protein aggregates by promoting their autophagic clearance, whereas knockdown of LC3C inhibits aggrephagy. The PH domain of TECPR1 selectively interacts with PtdIns(4)P to target TECPR1 to PtdIns(4)P containing lysosomes. Exchanging the PH against a tandem-FYVE domain targets TECPR1 ectopically to endosomes. This leads to an accumulation of LC3C autophagosomes at endosomes and prevents their delivery to lysosomes.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/ultraestrutura , Autofagia/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/química , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise , Interferência de RNA
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