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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 620, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most widely cultivated fishes in China. High stocking density can reportedly affect fish growth and immunity. Herein we performed PacBio long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and Illumina RNA sequencing to evaluate the effects of high stocking density on grass carp transcriptome. RESULTS: SMRT sequencing led to the identification of 33,773 genes (14,946 known and 18,827 new genes). From the structure analysis, 8,009 genes were detected with alternative splicing events, 10,219 genes showed alternative polyadenylation sites and 15,521 long noncoding RNAs. Further, 1,235, 962, and 213 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the intestine, muscle, and brain tissues, respectively. We performed functional enrichment analyses of DEGs, and they were identified to be significantly enriched in nutrient metabolism and immune function. The expression levels of several genes encoding apolipoproteins and activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate enzymolysis were found to be upregulated in the high stocking density group, indicating that lipid metabolism and carbohydrate decomposition were accelerated. Besides, four isoforms of grass carp major histocompatibility complex class II antigen alpha and beta chains in the aforementioned three tissue was showed at least a 4-fold decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggesting that fish farmed at high stocking densities face issues associated with the metabolism and immune system. To conclude, our results emphasize the importance of maintaining reasonable density in grass carp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Transcriptoma
2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 948, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373576

RESUMO

The preoptic area (POA) is one of the most evolutionarily conserved regions of the vertebrate brain and contains subsets of neuropeptide-expressing neurons. Here we found in the teleost medaka that two neuropeptides belonging to the secretin family, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (Pacap) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), exhibit opposite patterns of sexually dimorphic expression in the same population of POA neurons that project to the anterior pituitary: Pacap is male-biased, whereas Vip is female-biased. Estrogen secreted by the ovary in adulthood was found to attenuate Pacap expression and, conversely, stimulate Vip expression in the female POA, thereby establishing and maintaining their opposite sexual dimorphism. Pituitary organ culture experiments demonstrated that both Pacap and Vip can markedly alter the expression of various anterior pituitary hormones. Collectively, these findings show that males and females use alternative preoptic neuropeptides to regulate anterior pituitary hormones as a result of their different estrogen milieu.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oryzias/metabolismo , Hormônios Hipofisários/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279385

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities of the methanol extracts and their fractions of two edible halophytic Limonium species, L. effusum (LE) and L. sinuatum (LS). The total phenolic content resulted about two-fold higher in the ethyl acetate fraction of LE (522.82 ± 5.67 mg GAE/g extract) than in that of LS (274.87 ± 1.87 mg GAE/g extract). LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that tannic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both species (71,439.56 ± 3643.3 µg/g extract in LE and 105,453.5 ± 5328.1 µg/g extract in LS), whereas hyperoside was the most abundant flavonoid (14,006.90 ± 686.1 µg/g extract in LE and 1708.51 ± 83.6 µg/g extract in LS). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and TAC assays, and the stronger antioxidant activity in ethyl acetate fractions was highlighted. Both species were more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram negatives and showed considerable growth inhibitions against tested fungi. Interestingly, selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was observed with LE and LS. Particularly, the water fraction of LS strongly inhibited AChE (IC50 = 0.199 ± 0.009 µg/mL). The ethyl acetate fractions of LE and LS, as well as the n-hexane fraction of LE, exhibited significant antityrosinase activity (IC50 = 245.56 ± 3.6, 295.18 ± 10.57 and 148.27 ± 3.33 µg/mL, respectively). The ethyl acetate fraction and methanol extract of LS also significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 83.76 ± 4.19 and 162.2 ± 7.29 µg/mL, respectively). Taken together, these findings warrant further investigations to assess the potential of LE and LS as a bioactive source that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plumbaginaceae/química , Polifenóis/análise , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299159

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are proteins that contain highly conserved functional domains and sequence motifs that are correlated with their unique biophysical activities, to regulate cardiac pacemaker activity and synaptic transmission. These pacemaker proteins have been studied in mammalian species, but little is known now about their heart distribution in lower vertebrates and c-AMP modulation. Here, we characterized the pacemaker system in the heart of the wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), with respect to primary pacemaker molecular markers. Special focus is given to the structural, ultrastructural and molecular characterization of the pacemaker domain, through the expression of HCN channel genes and the immunohistochemistry of HCN isoforms, including the location of intracardiac neurons that are adjacent to the sinoatrial region of the heart. Similarly to zebrafish and mammals, these neurons are immunoreactive to ChAT, VAChT and nNOS. It has been shown that cardiac pacemaking can be modulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways, and the existence of intracardiac neurons projecting back to the central nervous system provide a plausible link between them.


Assuntos
Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/química , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Gadus morhua/genética , Gadus morhua/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coração/inervação , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Isoformas de Proteínas , Transmissão Sináptica
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112504, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265533

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the intoxication mechanism of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) exposed to high ammonia levels and the effects on the immune and antioxidant mechanisms of gills. Juvenile golden pompano was exposed to ammonia (total ammonia: 26.9 mg/L) to induce 96 h of ammonia stress, and a 96 h recovery experiment was performed after poisoning. Then, we evaluated hematological parameters, the histological structure and the expression of related genes. In this experiment, continuous exposure to high levels of ammonia led to a significant increase in plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (P < 0.05), and the levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of antioxidant genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) increased (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ammonia activates the active osmotic regulatory mechanism of fish gills and participates in defense and immune responses. However, with prolonged exposure to ammonia, the balance of the defense system is disrupted, leading to oxidative damage and inflammation of the gill tissue. This research not only helps elucidate the intoxication mechanism of golden pompano by ammonia at the molecular level but also provides a theoretical basis for further research on detoxification mechanisms.


Assuntos
Amônia , Brânquias , Amônia/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1299-1311, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241762

RESUMO

Genistein is an abundant phytoestrogen in soybean. This study aimed to determine the effects of genistein on cholesterol distribution and metabolism in female yellow catfish. Three hundred fish (49.2 ± 1.4 g) were randomly divided into five treatments and received intraperitoneal injections as follows: (1) blank, no injection; (2) control, vehicle only; (3) E2, 17ß-estradiol at 10 µg·g-1 body weight; (4) low genistein doses, genistein at 10 µg·g-1 body weight; (5) high genistein doses, genistein at 100 µg·g-1 body weight. Both high and low genistein doses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum TC and LDL-C 24 h after injection. Moreover, the high genistein doses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum HDL-C. Both high and low doses of genistein significantly increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TC. Only high genistein doses significantly increased (p < 0.05) ovary TC. In the liver, both high and low genistein doses significantly increased (p < 0.05) protein and mRNA expression of ldlr. Meanwhile, high genistein doses significantly decreased (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of hmgcr. In ovary tissue, high genistein doses significantly decreased (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of cyp11a1. These results suggested that genistein affected the cholesterol distribution in female yellow catfish. Both high and low doses of genistein reduced cholesterol content in blood and increased its content in the liver by increasing the uptake of blood cholesterol. Meanwhile, high genistein doses may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Additionally, high genistein doses could increase cholesterol transfer from serum into the ovary and disturb cholesterol conversion to pregnenolone.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Genisteína/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Peixes-Gato/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299350

RESUMO

Leptin is a cytokine that regulates appetite and energy expenditure, where in fishes it is primarily produced in the liver and acts to mobilize carbohydrates. Most fishes have only one leptin receptor (LepR/LepRA1), however, paralogs have recently been documented in a few species. Here we reveal a second leptin receptor (LepRA2) in rainbow trout that is 77% similar to trout LepRA1. Phylogenetic analyses show a salmonid specific genome duplication event as the probable origin of the second LepR in trout. Tissues distributions showed tissue specific expression of these receptors, with lepra1 highest in the ovaries, nearly 50-fold higher than lepra2. Interestingly, lepra2 was most highly expressed in the liver while hepatic lepra1 levels were low. Feed deprivation elicited a decline in plasma leptin, an increase in hepatic lepra2 by one week and remained elevated at two weeks, while liver expression of lepra1 remained low. By contrast, muscle lepra1 mRNA increased at one and two weeks of fasting, while adipose lepra1 was concordantly lower in fasted fish. lepra2 transcript levels were not affected in muscle and fat. These data show lepra1 and lepra2 are differentially expressed across tissues and during feed deprivation, suggesting paralog- and tissue-specific functions for these leptin receptors.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200212

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) play important roles in the biological processes of immune regulation, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis. TRAF4 belongs to the TRAF family and plays a major role in many biological processes. Compared with other TRAF proteins, the functions of TRAF4 in teleosts have been largely unknown. In the present study, the TRAF4 homologue (EcTRAF4) of the orange-spotted grouper was characterized. EcTRAF4 consisted of 1413 bp encoding a 471-amino-acid protein, and the predicted molecular mass was 54.27 kDa. EcTRAF4 shares 99.79% of its identity with TRAF4 of the giant grouper (E. lanceolatus). EcTRAF4 transcripts were ubiquitously and differentially expressed in all the examined tissues. EcTRAF4 expression in GS cells was significantly upregulated after stimulation with red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). EcTRAF4 protein was distributed in the cytoplasm of GS cells. Overexpressed EcTRAF4 promoted RGNNV replication during viral infection in vitro. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that EcTRAF4 interacted with the coat protein (CP) of RGNNV. EcTRAF4 inhibited the activation of IFN3, IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Overexpressed EcTRAF4 also reduced the expression of interferon (IFN)-related molecules and pro-inflammatory factors. Together, these results demonstrate that EcTRAF4 plays crucial roles in RGNNV infection.


Assuntos
Bass/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Fator 4 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Bass/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Fator 4 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209244

RESUMO

Oreochromis fishes exhibit variability of sex-determination (SD) genes whose characterization contributes to understanding of the sex differentiation network, and to effective tilapia farming, which requires all-male culture. However, O. niloticus (On) amh is the only master-key regulator (MKR) of SD that has been mapped (XY/XX SD-system on LG23). In O. aureus (Oa), LG3 controls a WZ/ZZ SD-system that has recently been delimited to 9.2 Mbp, with an embedded interval rich with female-specific variation, harboring two paics genes and banf2. Developing genetic markers within this interval and using a hybrid Oa stock that demonstrates no recombination repression in LG3, we mapped the critical SD region to 235 Kbp on the orthologous On physical map (p < 1.5 × 10-26). DNA-seq assembly and peak-proportion analysis of variation based on Sanger chromatograms allowed the characterization of copy-number variation (CNV) of banf2. Oa males had three exons capable of encoding 90-amino-acid polypeptides, yet in Oa females, we found an extra copy with an 89-amino-acid polypeptide and three non-conservative amino acid substitutions, designated as banf2w. CNV analysis suggested the existence of two to five copies of banf2 in diploidic Cichlidae. Disrupting the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 4.2 × 10-3), banf2w was concordant with female determination in Oa and in three cichlids with LG3 WZ/ZZ SD-systems (O. tanganicae, O. hornorum and Pelmatolapia mariae). Furthermore, exclusive RNA-seq expression in Oa females strengthened the candidacy of banf2w as the long-sought LG3 SD MKR. As banf genes mediate nuclear assembly, chromatin organization, gene expression and gonad development, banf2w may play a fundamental role inducing female nucleus formation that is essential for WZ/ZZ SD.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes , Proteínas Nucleares , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Diferenciação Sexual , Tilápia , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Tilápia/genética , Tilápia/metabolismo
10.
J Immunol ; 207(3): 784-798, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290106

RESUMO

In mammals, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) recognizes cytosolic dsDNA to induce the type I IFN response. However, the functional role of cGAS in the IFN response of fish remains unclear or controversial. In this study, we report that cGAS orthologs from crucian carp Carassius auratus (CacGAS) and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (CicGAS) target the dsRNA sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) for negative regulation of the IFN response. First, poly(deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic) acid-, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-, and spring viremia of carp virus-induced IFN responses were impaired by overexpression of CacGAS and CicGAS. Then, CacGAS and CicGAS interacted with CiRIG-I and CiMAVS and inhibited CiRIG-I- and CiMAVS-mediated IFN induction. Moreover, the K63-linked ubiquitination of CiRIG-I and the interaction between CiRIG-I and CiMAVS were attenuated by CacGAS and CicGAS. Finally, CacGAS and CicGAS decreased CiRIG-I-mediated the cellular antiviral response and facilitated viral replication. Taken together, data in this study identify CacGAS and CicGAS as negative regulators in RIG-I-like receptor signaling, which extends the current knowledge regarding the role of fish cGAS in the innate antiviral response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Carpa Dourada , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/imunologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 52-60, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216786

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on intestinal healthy status of tongue sole in terms of immunity, antioxidant status, digestive ability, mucosal barrier-related genes expression and microbiota. Three experimental diets were prepared with BA levels at 0 mg/kg (CT), 300 mg/kg (BA1) and 900 mg/kg (BA2) in a commercial basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicates with 120 fish (10.87 ± 0.32 g) in each tank. After an 8-week feeding trial, growth parameters were significantly enhanced in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), and compared with CT group, survival rate in BA2 group was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Intestinal lysozyme activity and contents of immunoglobulin M and complement 3 were significantly increased in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. BAs inclusion also significantly improved intestinal antioxidant capabilities by increasing antioxidase activities and decreasing malondialdehyde levels. In addition, compared with CT group, intestinal digestive ability was substantially enhanced as indicated by the significantly increased lipase activity in BA2 group (P < 0.05) and significantly increased amylase activity in BA1 and BA2 groups (P < 0.05). Coincidentally, BAs inclusion significantly upregulated the relative expression of intestinal mucosal barrier-related genes (P < 0.05). Further, dietary BAs distinctly remodeled intestinal microbiota by decreased the abundance of some potential pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, dietary BAs supplementation is an effective way to improve the intestinal healthy status of tongue sole.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Linguados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Complemento C3/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/metabolismo , Linguados/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
12.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1199-1209, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173184

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary digested soybean protein (DSP) and taurine on bile acid (BA) level, lipase activity, lipid apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), and growth performance of pompano (Trachinotus blochii). Five diets were formulated with fish meal (FM), defatted soybean meal (SBM), and the DSP as main dietary protein sources. The diets were denoted as follows: FMD (FM-based diet), SBMD (SBM-based diet), SBM+TD (SBM-based diet plus taurine), DSPD (DSP-based diet), and DSP+TD (DSP-based diet plus taurine). Fingerling pompano with an initial body weight (BW) of 21.4 g were stocked in 500-L tanks, with triplicate tanks per dietary treatment. For 8 weeks, the fish were hand-fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation twice daily. The results showed that the DSPD and DSP+TD groups had significantly higher final BW, weight gain, and specific growth rate, but lower feed conversion ratio, than the SBMD and SBM+TD groups, respectively (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in growth and feed performances between fish fed DSP+TD and FMD. The gallbladder and anterior intestinal BA levels, anterior intestinal lipase activity, and lipid and protein ADCs were markedly increased in fish fed DSPD and DSP+TD compared to those fed SBMD (P < 0.05), and no significant differences were detected between the DSP+TD and FMD groups. The findings of the present study suggested that dietary DSP inclusion with taurine supplementation might effectively improve lipid digestion and this contributed to growth enhancement in pompano fed a soybean protein-based diet.


Assuntos
Peixes , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Dieta , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/metabolismo , Vesícula Biliar/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112661, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182302

RESUMO

There are many toxicological studies on microplastics, but little is known about the effect of nanoplastics (NPs). Here, we evaluated the oxidative stress responses induced by NPs (10, 104 and 106 particles/l) in juvenile Larimichthys crocea during 14-d NPs exposure followed by a 7-d recovery. After exposure, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) and MDA levels increased in the liver of fish at the highest NPs concentration. SOD and CAT activities remained elevated above the baseline after recovery under high-concentration NPs but returned to the baseline in two other NP treatments. Although lipid peroxidation in liver was reversible, juvenile fish in NPs treatments exhibited a lower survival rate than the control during both exposure and recovery. Furthermore, IBR value and PCA analysis showed the potential adverse effects of NPs. Considering that NPs can reduce the survival of fish juveniles, impacts of NPs on fishery productivity should be considered.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Perciformes , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 999-1010, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987810

RESUMO

Regucalcin (RGN) is a calcium-binding protein mainly expressed in the liver. It functions in regulating activities of several calcium-dependent enzymes related to energy metabolism, antioxidant mechanisms, and apoptotic pathways. Previous proteomics analyses revealed downregulation of regucalcin in milkfish livers when acclimated to low temperature (18 °C) from normal temperature (28 °C). This study first identified the full-length sequence of milkfish regucalcin from the livers with high similarity in the protein structure and calcium-binding function compared to the regucalcin of other animals. The mRNA and protein expression of regucalcin in the livers of fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated milkfish under hypothermal acclimation were further analyzed. In FW milkfish, upregulation of regucalcin was found in mRNA and protein levels from 2 to 4 days, respectively, to 1 week after transfer to 18 °C for the two. However, in SW milkfish, upregulation of regucalcin occurred quickly and returned to the basal levels in 1 (mRNA expression) or 2 days (protein expression) up until 1 week after transfer. These results suggested potential roles of regucalcin in maintaining calcium homeostasis and its correlation to differential physiological responses in the livers of milkfish when they were acclimated to FW and SW.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Proteínas de Peixes , Peixes , Fígado/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Água Doce , Água do Mar , Regulação para Cima
15.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1063-1071, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999342

RESUMO

Ray-finned fishes of the superorder Ostariophysi are primarily freshwater (FW), and normally stenohaline. Differently, fishes of the superorder Acanthopterygii are essentially marine, and frequently euryhaline, with some secondary FW. Na+/K+-ATPase-immunoreactive ionocytes were localized in the branchial epithelia of 4 species of Ostariophysi and 3 of Acanthopterygii. The Ostariophysi grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cypriniformes), twospot Astyanax (Astyanax bimaculatus) and piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), Characiformes, and the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Siluriformes), all from FW, displayed ionocytes in the filament plus secondary lamellae (F + SL). In their turn, all the three species of Acanthopterygii showed immunoreactive ionocytes in the filaments only (F). They were the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Cichliformes) in FW, the dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu, Perciformes) in seawater (SW), and the green puffer (Sphoeroides greeleyi, Tetraodontiformes) in SW. Ionocytes normally extend their distribution to the secondary lamellae (F + SL) in Ostariophysi. In Acanthopterygii, we find more plasticity: ionocytes are more frequently restricted to the filament in SW, but also spread to SL in FW. It may be that the occurrence of ionocytes in SL is the ancestral condition, but some euryhaline acanthopterygians rely on the space of the SL for placement of additional ionocytes when in FW absorbing salt. Our study contributed to the identification of the pattern of ionocyte distribution in gills of Ostariophysi in respect to that of Acanthopterygii.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Nadadeiras de Animais , Animais
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1105-1117, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052972

RESUMO

Activation of the cAMP pathway by ß-adrenergic stimulation and cGMP pathway by activation of guanylate cyclase substantially affects red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties in mammals. However, whether similar mechanisms are involved in RBC regulation of lower vertebrates, especially teleosts, is not elucidated yet. In this study, we evaluated the effects of adenylate cyclase activation by epinephrine and forskolin, guanylate cyclase activation by sodium nitroprusside, and the role of Na+/H+-exchanger in the changes of osmotic fragility and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response in crucian carp RBCs. Western blot analysis of protein kinase A and protein kinase G substrate phosphorylation revealed that changes in osmotic fragility were regulated via the protein kinase A, but not protein kinase G signaling pathway. At the same time, the RVD response in crucian carp RBCs was not affected either by activation of adenylate or guanylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A activation significantly decreased RBC osmotic fragility, i.e., increased cell rigidity. Inhibition of Na+/H+-exchanger by amiloride had no effect on the epinephrine-mediated decrease of RBC osmotic fragility. NO donor SNP did not activate guanylate cyclase, however affected RBCs osmotic fragility by protein kinase G-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and NO are involved in the regulation of crucian carp RBC osmotic fragility, but not in RVD response. The authors confirm that the study has no clinical trial.


Assuntos
Carpas/sangue , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Animais , Plaquetas/enzimologia , Humanos , Fragilidade Osmótica
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 198-204, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965523

RESUMO

Water temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and survival of fish. Increased water temperature became a global problem and it is estimated that there will be an increase in water temperature due to global climate change. The physiological mechanism for the effects of high water temperature on the fish brain is not fully known. In the present study, fish were exposed to different temperatures (10 °C/15 °C/20 °C/25°) and brain tissues were sampled 2 h-4h-6h-8h per hour respectively and then we investigated transcriptional changes of BDNF, cFOS, apoptotic genes (caspase 3, Bax, Bcl2), heat shock genes (Hsp70 and Hsp 90) ER-Stress genes (grp78, atf6, and ire1) and oxidative stress genes (CAT, SOD, and GPx) and also immunoflourescence changes of BDNF and cFOSin rainbow trout brain. The results indicated that high temperature stress lead to physiological changes in the fish brain by causing a decrease in mRNA expression levels of CAT, SOD, GPx and Bcl2 and by causing an increase in mRNA expression of BDNF, cFOS, apoptotic genes (caspase 3, Bax), heat shock genes (Hsp70 and Hsp 90) ER-Stress genes (grp78, atf6, and ire1). This study will provide important information to elucidate the physiological mechanisms related to the effects of high water temperature on the fish brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Água/química , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 142-151, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940172

RESUMO

The molecular processes of immune responses in mucosal tissues such as fish gills under environmental stress are poorly understood. In the present study, pro-inflammatory response under hyposaline stress and its regulation by cortisol/corticosteroid receptors (CRs) in gill epithelial cells of the spotted scat Scatophagus argus were analyzed. The fish were transferred to freshwater for 6 days (144 h) of acclimation. Following freshwater exposure, the cortisol concentration increased transiently before returning to the control level over time. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-6) was stimulated by cortisol through CR signals at early stages of acclimation, but hyposaline stress inhibited their levels by the end of the experimental period. The transcriptional profile of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was quite different from these pro-inflammatory cytokines, and its value fluctuated within a narrow range during the experimental period. Full-length cDNAs of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor 1 (GR1) (different kinds of CRs) were cloned from the gills. Our results showed that MR and GR displayed mutually antagonistic effects during hyposaline stress. MR responded quickly at early stages, and its expression decreased with the drop of cortisol concentration. By contrast, GR expression was maintained at high levels after the acclimation of freshwater exposure. The tight coordination of GR and MR helps to shape the effects of stress on the immune system, which in turn, regulates the stress response. Our results confirm the interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity of GR and MR during the hyposaline challenge in gill epithelial cells of the spotted scat Scatophagus argus.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes , Brânquias/citologia , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
19.
Neuron ; 109(11): 1791-1809.e11, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979635

RESUMO

Optical manipulations of genetically defined cell types have generated significant insights into the dynamics of neural circuits. While optogenetic activation has been relatively straightforward, rapid and reversible synaptic inhibition has proven more elusive. Here, we leveraged the natural ability of inhibitory presynaptic GPCRs to suppress synaptic transmission and characterize parapinopsin (PPO) as a GPCR-based opsin for terminal inhibition. PPO is a photoswitchable opsin that couples to Gi/o signaling cascades and is rapidly activated by pulsed blue light, switched off with amber light, and effective for repeated, prolonged, and reversible inhibition. PPO rapidly and reversibly inhibits glutamate, GABA, and dopamine release at presynaptic terminals. Furthermore, PPO alters reward behaviors in a time-locked and reversible manner in vivo. These results demonstrate that PPO fills a significant gap in the neuroscience toolkit for rapid and reversible synaptic inhibition and has broad utility for spatiotemporal control of inhibitory GPCR signaling cascades.


Assuntos
Inibição Neural , Optogenética/métodos , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Recompensa , Transmissão Sináptica , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Exocitose , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 359: 129852, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940471

RESUMO

The generation of biologically active fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) is a useful technique to produce value-added products with potential application in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. Fish muscle is an attractive substrate for the production of protein hydrolysates due to its rich protein content, containing 15-25% of total fish protein. This paper reviews the production of protein hydrolysates from fish muscle, most commonly via enzymatic hydrolysis, and their subsequent bioactivities including anti-obesity, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities as measured by in vitro testing methods. Disease prevention with FPH potentially offers a safe and natural alternative to synthetic drugs. Small molecular weight (MW) FPHs generally exhibit favourable bioactivity than large MW fractions via enhanced absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. This review also discusses the relationship between amino acid (AA) composition and AA sequence of FPH and peptides and their exhibited in vitro bioactivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Animais , Hidrólise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo
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