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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127560, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711271

RESUMO

Post-fermented Pu-erh tea (PFPT) is a microbially-fermented tea with distinct sensory qualities and multiple health benefits. Aspergillus are the dominant fungi in the fermentation and the main contributors to the characteristics of PFPT, so their underlying functions warrant detailed study. Here, tea leaves were fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and resulting samples (designated as Asn, Ast and Asf, respectively) were analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods. Changes to the composition of flavonoids, glycerophospholipids, organo-oxygen compounds and fatty acids resulting from Aspergillus fermentation were observed. Carbohydrate-active enzymes, e.g., endoglucanases and cellulases, for degradation of cellulose, starch, lignin, pectin, xylan and xyloglucan were identified. Glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferases, tannase, laccases, vanillyl-alcohol oxidases and benzoquinone reductase were identified and hypothesized to catalyze hydrolysis, oxidation, polymerization and degradation of phenolic compounds. Together, functions of Aspergillius were demonstrated as production of enzymes to change concentrations and compositions of metabolites in tea leaves.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/fisiologia , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Chá , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/enzimologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/fisiologia , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Aspergillus niger/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fermentação , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Chá/química , Chá/metabolismo , Chá/microbiologia
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127517, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711266

RESUMO

To facilitate selective breeding of polyphenol-rich peanuts, we looked for mass spectrometry-based proteomic evidence, investigating a subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed by the Australian peanut breeding program. To do this, we used label-free shotgun proteomics for protein and peptide quantitation, statistically analyzed normalized spectral abundance factors using R-package, as well as assayed important antioxidants. Results revealed statistically significant protein expression changes in 82 proteins classified between high or low polyphenols expressing RILs. Metabolic changes in polyphenol-rich RIL p27-362 point towards increased enzymatic breakdown of sugars and phenylalanine biosynthesis. The study revealed phenylpropanoid pathway overexpression resulting in increased polyphenols biosynthesis. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, by 73.4 fold was also observed. A strong metabolic correlation exists with the observed phenotypic traits. Peanut RIL p27-362 presents a superior nutritional composition with antioxidant-rich peanut phenotype and could yield commercial profits. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifierPXD015493.


Assuntos
Arachis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Proteômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Arachis/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Catalase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 795-800, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641612

RESUMO

In this study, chemical properties, amino acid contents, fatty acid compositions of sesame seeds dependin on growing locations of sesame plants were evaluated. Protein contents of sesame seeds changed between 20.80% (Afghanistan) and 26.01% (India). Oil contents of seeds were changed between 44.69% (Mozambique) and 55.37% (Niger-Kany). Crude fiber contents of sesame seeds ranged from 17.30% (Ethiopia-Volega) to 28.78% (Mozambique). The highest protein, crude oil and crude fiber were found in India, Niger-Kany and Mozambique sesame seed samples, respectively. In addition, while glutamic acid contends of seeds change between 3.28% (Uganda and Niger-Benje) and 4.57% (India), arginine contents of seeds ranged from 2.36% (Uganda) to 3.10% (India). The total amino acid contents of sesame seeds ranged from 18.12% (Uganda) to 23.51% (India). Palmitic acid contents of sesame oils ranged from 7.93% (Uganda) to 9.55% (Burkina Faso). While oleic acid contents of sesame seed oils are found between 35.88% (Mozambique) and 44.54% (Afghanistan), linoleic acid contents of oils ranged from 37.41% (Afghanistan) to 47.44% (Mozambique). The high amount of protein, oil contents, amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids can be positively considered from the nutritional point of view.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Sementes/química , Sesamum/química , Afeganistão , África , Índia , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127422, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623129

RESUMO

During wheat cultivation, glyphosate-based herbicides are recommended to be applied a week prior to harvest during the ripe stage of physiological maturity. However, some grains may not be at this physiological stage due to non-uniform maturation within the field. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide timing on the chemistry of wheat gluten proteins and shikimic acid accumulation. The results of the study indicate that pre-harvest glyphosate application does not impact the amino acid composition, protein secondary structure or gluten protein composition. However, pre-harvest glyphosate application decreased the molecular weight of SDS extractable and unextractable proteins, and significantly increased the amount of shikimic acid accumulation, especially when applied early. Thus, this study indicates that pre-harvest use of glyphosate-based herbicides can cause significant differences in wheat protein chemistry and shikimic acid levels, especially when applied earlier than recommended, emphasizing the importance of timely application.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glutens/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Ácido Chiquímico/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127410, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682227

RESUMO

Insects represent a novel source of edible high nutritional value proteins which are gaining increasing interest as an alternative to traditional animal foods. In this work, cricket flour was used to produce gluten-free sourdough breads, suitable for celiac people and "source of proteins". The doughs were fermented by different methods and pH and microbial growth, volatile compounds, protein profile, and antioxidant activity, before and after baking, were analyzed and compared to standard gluten-free doughs. The results showed that cricket-enriched doughs and the standard had similar fermentation processes. Cricket enrichment conferred to the breads a typical flavoring profile, characterized by a unique bouquet of volatile compounds, made by nonanoic acid, 2,4-nonadienal (E,E), 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 3-octen-2-one, expressed in different amounts depending on the type of inoculum. Finally, antioxidant activities were significantly enhanced in cricket breads, indicating that cricket powder provides to bakery gluten-free goods high nutritional value proteins and antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pão/análise , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Pão/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127328, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569940

RESUMO

Granular protein is an important structural feature in determining starch digestibility. High-amylose wheat starch (HAWS) with >80% amylose content contains more granular protein than wild-type starch. As analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, granular-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is the major granular protein in isolated starch materials. GBSS content increases with amylose content (Spearman's correlation, p < 0.05), whereas the abundance relative to other proteins is similar among starches. Multiple amylase inhibitors were also identified. From Michaelis-Menten analysis, HAWS has a similar Km (Michaelis constant) as wild type, suggesting initial enzymatic binding is similar. After the pre-digestion of proteins, wild type had a greater change in starch digestibility than HAWS, probably due to the latter having 'thicker' granular-protein layers and higher enzymatic resistance of substrate per se. Overall, the study suggests that the greater granular protein content in HAWS is a factor that contributes to slower amylolysis compared to wild type.


Assuntos
Amilose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Amilose/análise , Amilose/química , Digestão , Hidrólise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Sintase do Amido/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1725-1734, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484938

RESUMO

The proximate composition, total phenolics, antioxidant activity, minerals, and trace elements were determined in 42 barley landraces in order to highlight their nutritional potential and promote their cultivation. Two-row barley landraces had a higher average content of starch, protein, total phenolic compounds, and iron, when compared with six-row ones that presented higher mean ash and fiber concentrations. Additionally, the six-row barley landraces with strongly pigmented grains had lower zinc and manganese and higher protein mean concentrations than the whitish or lightly pigmented barley landraces. Factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to correctly differentiate samples according to type of barley (landrace or commercial) and number of rows. In general, all the parameters varied considerably among the barley landraces analyzed, but some barley landraces could be emphasized according to fiber, minerals, and phenolic antioxidants. There were important differences in the mean values in all the chemical parameters according to the island of origin of the barley grains. The application of linear discriminant analysis was also a useful tool to differentiate all the barley landraces with six rows according to the island of origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Barley is a versatile cereal that can be used for human and animal feed, brewing, and as biodiesel. From the nutritional point of view, barley is rich in starch, protein, dietary fiber and minerals, as well as antioxidant compounds and vitamins. The landraces analyzed in this study have remained intact for the last 900 years, which gives opportunity to genome of these barley landraces to evolve some very specific traits. The physicochemical characterization of these local landraces carried out by us could be very useful as a source of new quality in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Minerais/análise , Sementes/química , Cruzamento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Hordeum/classificação , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Espanha , Amido/análise
8.
Gene ; 756: 144920, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593720

RESUMO

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in myriad regulatory processes, including secondary metabolism. In this study with Salvia miltiorrhiza, we isolated and characterized SmbHLH53, which encodes a bHLH family member. Expression of this gene was significantly induced by wounding and multiple hormones, including methyl jasmonic acid; transcript levels were highest in the leaves and roots. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SmbHLH53 clusters withAtbHLH17 and AtbHLH13, two negative regulators of jasmonate (JA) responses, and is localized in the nucleus and cell membrane. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays indicated that SmbHLH53 forms a homodimer as well as a heterodimer with SmbHLH37. It also interacts with both SmJAZs1/3/8 and SmMYC2, the core members of the JA signal pathway. Unexpectedly, we noted that overexpression of SmbHLH53 did not significantly influence the concentrations of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in transgenic plants. Results from yeast one-hybrid assays showed that SmbHLH53 binds to the promoters of SmTAT1, SmPAL1, and Sm4CL9, the key genes for enzymes in the pathway for phenolic acid synthesis. Assays of transient transcriptional activity demonstrated that SmbHLH53 represses the promoter of SmTAT1 while activating the promoter of Sm4CL9. Thus, the present work revealed that SmbHLH53 may play dual roles in regulating the genes for enzymes in the pathway for Sal B biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/análise , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Núcleo Celular/química , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Salvia miltiorrhiza/enzimologia , Metabolismo Secundário
9.
Food Chem ; 326: 126940, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413751

RESUMO

Silverskin, the main coffee roasting by-product, is rich in fiber, protein and antioxidants. Its protein fraction was studied regarding total, protein and non-protein nitrogen content. Amino acids were analysed after automated on-line derivatization. The method showed to be precise (<6.9%) and accurate (recoveries using a certified reference material and spiked blanks: 90-102%; for spiked samples: 73-113%). The real protein content of silverskin was 12%. One quarter of the total nitrogen corresponded to the non-protein fraction. All essential amino acids were present in the free form, except methionine. Regarding total amino acids, aspartic and glutamic acids (9-10 mg/g) were the major compounds. Branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were also present in substantial amounts (5-8 mg/g), as well as proline and arginine (~5 mg/g). Concluding, silverskin is a source of amino acids with relevance for the improvement of cognitive and physical performances.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Coffea/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Resíduos/análise , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes
10.
Food Chem ; 328: 127112, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470778

RESUMO

A ratiometric fluorescent probe (Probe 1) was developed for the sensitive detection of ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) activity. Probe 1 detected ß-gal activity in the range 0-1.0 U/mL, with a limit of detection of 0.025 U/mL. In addition, as different activities of ß-gal added, the luminescent intensity of Probe 1 gradually increased, as observed under a 365 nm ultraviolet lamp. Moreover, this method is low-volume, 20 µL, and time-efficient, 45 min per measurement. Probe 1 was successfully used to measure the ß-gal activity in real fruit samples in a qualitative manner, by the naked eye, fast semi-quantitative manner, by smartphone, or quantitative manner, by fluorescence spectrometer.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , beta-Galactosidase/análise , Limite de Detecção , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Smartphone , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384107

RESUMO

Plant breeders have long sought to develop lines that combine outstanding performance with high and stable quality in different environments. The high-arabinoxylan (AX) Chinese variety Yumai-34 was crossed with three Central European wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv-Mambo, Ukrainka) and 31 selected high-AX lines were compared for physical (hectolitre weight, thousand grain weight, flour yield), compositional (protein content, gluten content, pentosan) and processing quality traits (gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, Farinograph parameters) in a three-year experiment (2013-2015) in the F7-F9 generations. The stability and heritability of different traits, including the relative effects of the genotype (G) and environment (E), were determined focusing on grain composition. The contents of total and water-soluble pentosans were significantly affected by G, E and G × E interactions, but the heritability of total (TOT)-pentosan was significantly lower (0.341) than that of water-extractable (WE)-pentosan (0.825). The main component of the pentosans, the amount and composition (arabinose:xylose ratio) of the arabinoxylan (AX), was primarily determined by the environment and, accordingly, the broader heritability of these parameters were 0.516 and 0.772. However, genotype significantly affected the amount of water-soluble arabinoxylan and its composition and thus the heritability of these traits was also significant (0.840 and 0.721). The genotypes exhibiting higher stability of content of TOT-pentosan also showed more stable contents of WE-pentosan. There was a positive correlation between the stability of contents of WE-pentosan and WE-AX, while the stability of the WE-AX content and AX composition were also strongly correlated. Water absorption was strongly genetically determined with a heritability of 0.829 with the genotype determining 38.67% of the total variance. Many lines were grouped in the GGE biplot, indicating that they did not significantly differ stability.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Xilanos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Glutens/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1397-1402, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343400

RESUMO

Gluten-free (GF) products are on the rise due to their perceived healthiness. Hypoallergenic rice flour is typically used in GF products. New rice varieties with greater protein were recently developed. Physicochemical and sensory properties of white and brown high-protein rice flours (HPRFs) and muffins were compared to commercial rice flours. Sensory color of white high-protein rice muffin was favored. Other attributes were not statistically different between samples. HPRF muffins had greater frequencies of "just about right" levels for muffin crumbliness, moistness, and softness than the commercial control. Purchase intent was greater for both HPRF muffins than commercial brown rice muffins. Purchase intent increased further by 9% to 12%, after information that the products were gluten free and made with naturally higher protein rice flour was displayed. This information could be used to market GF food products if increased protein ingredient claims are included. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that greater protein content rice flour can be used to make gluten-free (GF) muffins that are acceptable to consumers. Analysis and application of higher protein rice flours could contribute to a large-scale use in GF baked goods that may aim to naturally increase nutritional value. This research also shows that purchase intent increases when the greater protein content and gluten free is stated. This information can be used for GF product development and marketing of these products.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Pão/análise , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glutens/análise , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Triticum/química
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203884

RESUMO

Global warming has reached an alarming situation, which led to a dangerous climatic condition. The irregular rainfalls and land degradation are the significant consequences of these climatic changes causing a decrease in crop productivity. The effect of drought and its tolerance mechanism, a comparative roots proteomic analysis of chickpea seedlings grown under hydroponic conditions for three weeks, performed at different time points using 2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After PD-Quest analysis, 110 differentially expressed spots subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF and 75 spots identified with a significant score. These identified proteins classified into eight categories based on their functional annotation. Proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism comprised 23% of total identified proteins include mainly glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, transaldolase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Proteins related to stress response (heat-shock protein, CS domain protein, and chitinase 2-like) contributed 16% of total protein spots followed by 13% involved in protein metabolism (adenosine kinase 2, and protein disulfide isomerase). ROS metabolism contributed 13% (glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, and thioredoxin), and 9% for signal transduction (actin-101, and 14-3-3-like protein B). Five percent protein identified for secondary metabolism (cinnamoyl-CoA reductase-1 and chalcone-flavononeisomerase 2) and 7% for nitrogen (N) and amino acid metabolism (glutamine synthetase and homocysteine methyltransferase). The abundance of some proteins validated by using Western blotting and Real-Time-PCR. The detailed information for drought-responsive root protein(s) through comparative proteomics analysis can be utilized in the future for genetic improvement programs to develop drought-tolerant chickpea lines.


Assuntos
Cicer/fisiologia , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteômica
14.
Food Chem ; 318: 126385, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135417

RESUMO

Rice landraces of North-East India have wide bio-diversity but remained nutritionally uncharacterized. Nutritional profiling of 33 indigenous rice landraces from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India, and effect milling was evaluated. Total dietary fiber (5.22 g/100 g) was significantly higher than high yielding or hybrid cultivars. Principal nutrient variability of brown rice were: ash (13% c. v.) > insoluble dietary fibre, IDF (12% c. v.) > protein (11.% c.v.) fat (11% c. v.). Compositional diversity exists among rice landraces. Average iron was lesser but zinc content was higher than popular high yielding cultivars. Nutrient changes due to milling were most profound for thiamin (-69%), IDF (-66%) followed by phytate (-66%). Nutritionally Arunachal rice landraces are comparable to high yielding cultivars with added advantage of significantly higher total dietary fiber and lower phytate content. Thus, Arunachal rice landraces represents an agronomically and nutritionally important pool for rice improvement/breeding.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Índia , Ferro/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Espectrofotometria , Zinco/análise
15.
Talanta ; 213: 120848, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200934

RESUMO

Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications (PTM) and plays critical roles in maintaining many biological processes of plant species, such as being a significant signal related to resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in tobacco. Compared to other organisms, in-depth profiling of plant phosphoproteome remains challenging due to the harsh extraction environment of plant proteins and low abundance of plant phosphorylation, generally requiring large amount of plant materials. Herein, we developed an integrated strategy for efficient sample preparation of amounts of plant tissues, by integrating ionic liquid (IL)-assisted protein extraction, in-solution digestion, precipitation-assisted IL removal, as well as immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) enrichment of phosphopeptides together. In this strategy, to improve the efficiency of protein extraction and enzymatic digestion, IL of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C12Im-Cl) was used as the solubilizer due to its excellent solubilizing ability and enzyme compatibility demonstrated in our previous work. Briefly, the extraction capability of C12Im-Cl for protein amount from tobacco leaves was improved 1.9-fold compared to the commonly used urea-assisted method. Notably, to avoid its interference with subsequent LC-MS analysis, the IL was easily removed from the peptide solution by our proposed ion substitution-mediated C12Im + precipitation strategy with high efficiency. By handling 10 mg of starting protein materials of tobacco leaves, 14,441 unique phosphopeptides, assigned to 5153 unique phosphoproteins were confidently identified. To the best of our knowledge, this was the most comprehensive phosphorylation dataset for tobacco so far. All the results demonstrated our strategy was of great potential to promote the large-scale analysis of plant phosphoproteome.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/química , Fosfopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fosfoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Tabaco/química , Precipitação Química , Fosfopeptídeos/análise , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
16.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(5): 462-469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003294

RESUMO

Biomarkers allow an integrated risk assessment of heavy metal pollution effects in living organisms. In this study, the biochemical effects of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn pollution in agricultural soil and their accumulation in Alium cepa L. (onion) were evaluated with ALA-D enzyme response as a biomarker, along with δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and total chlorophyll contents in leaves of this plant. Soil samples were randomly selected from agricultural areas in two regions, Mitrovica and Obiliqi, which are considered the most industrially polluted regions in Kosovo. Results show that Pb and Zn concentrations in soil samples from Mitrovica (1953-2576 mg kg -1) and Obiliqi regions (138-179 mg kg -1) and their bioaccumulation levels in onion were significantly higher in comparison with the control group. There was an adverse negative correlation between Pb or Zn concentration and ALA-D activity and total chlorophyll content, and a positive correlation with ALA content. This study indicates that ALA-D activity can be used as a very sensitive biomarker for evaluation of heavy metal pollution. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals from soil polluted areas poses a threat for food contamination and public health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Agricultura , Clorofila/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Kosovo , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Cebolas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Zinco/análise , Zinco/toxicidade
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2447, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051488

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is a critical post-translational modification machinery that governs a wide range of cellular functions by regulating protein homeostasis. Identification of ubiquitinated proteins and lysine residues can help researchers better understand the physiological roles of ubiquitin modification in different biological systems. In this study, we report the first comprehensive analysis of the peach ubiquitome by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based diglycine remnant affinity proteomics. Our systematic profiling revealed a total of 544 ubiquitination sites on a total of 352 protein substrates. Protein annotation and functional analysis suggested that ubiquitination is involved in modulating a variety of essential cellular and physiological processes in peach, including but not limited to carbon metabolism, histone assembly, translation and vesicular trafficking. Our results could facilitate future studies on how ubiquitination regulates the agricultural traits of different peach cultivars and other crop species.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteômica , Prunus persica/química , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/análise , Ubiquitinação
18.
Food Chem ; 315: 126246, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028198

RESUMO

Growing concerns about the safety of using synthetic surfactants to stabilize food emulsions have inspired a trend towards the use of natural ingredients like starch as alternative food stabilizers in what are called Pickering emulsions. The hydrophilicity of commercially available starches, however, necessitates further chemical treatment to increase their hydrophobicity and emulsifying ability. Here we demonstrate an alkaline isolation method to extract amaranth and quinoa starch from flour while retaining a high protein content, which gives these materials an emulsifying ability comparable to octenyl succinylated starches in the literature. We highlight the key role played by protein by showing that a serial reduction of the protein content leads to a parallel reduction in emulsifying ability, and that pH affects this ability. Our method of retaining proteins naturally present in amaranth and quinoa not only bolsters their nutritional profile but also takes advantage of these proteins' native hydrophobicity for improved emulsification.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Emulsificantes/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/química , Emulsões/química , Farinha , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Plantas/química
19.
Food Chem ; 317: 126423, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097824

RESUMO

The impact of pH (6-9) and NaCl concentration (0-0.5 mol.L-1) on sunflower protein extraction was studied through design of experiments. The considered criteria were protein extraction yield (total proteins, helianthinin and albumins), chlorogenic acids covalently bound to proteins, and free chlorogenic acid concentration in the aqueous extract. Statistical analysis showed that the obtained by design of experiments the polynomial models of each extraction criteria were reliable for predicting the responses. They were employed in an original multi-objective optimization methodology. The optimal conditions revealed to be pH 7.3/0.3 mol.L-1 NaCl yielded 46.83% and 59.16% of total protein and albumin extraction yield, 1.730 and 1.998 mg.g-1 of chlorogenic acids covalently bound to helianthinin and albumins in aqueous extract, respectively. The sunflower protein isolate obtained after extraction in this condition had good solubility (40-80% at pH 5-8), functional properties (foaming and emulsifying) and a satisfying color.


Assuntos
Helianthus/metabolismo , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Albuminas/análise , Albuminas/isolamento & purificação , Albuminas/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Extração Líquido-Líquido/instrumentação , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 229: 117935, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951940

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to use advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (ATR-Ft/IRS) to study an interaction between legume protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of newly developed genotypes of cool-climate adapted faba bean seed with low and normal tannin levels grown in western Canada. Protein molecular structures including amide I, II areas and peak heights, α-helix and ß-sheet peak heights in rumen biodegradation residues were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared molecular spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The nutritional properties were determined which included chemical and nutrient profiles, in situ rumen degradation kinetics, rumen protein degradation, and intestinal protein digestion in the newly developed genotypes of faba bean seeds with low and normal tannin levels. The results showed that the spectral intensity of faba bean varieties with a normal tannin level in rumen biodegradation residues was greater (P < 0.05) than that with a low tannin level. The spectral intensity of amide I, II areas and peak heights, α-helix and ß-sheet peak heights in all genotypes (except the variety of Snowdrop) in biodegradation residuals of faba bean seeds had a unique pattern with increasing first and then decreasing with the increasing of rumen incubation time. The molecular structures of protein (α-helix, ratio of α-helix to ß-sheet height and amide I to II area, R2 > 0.6) were associated with in situ degradation kinetics - soluble (S) and potential degradable fractions (D) and rumen protein degradation- bypass or undegraded protein (BCP or RUP). The molecular spectral parameters in the FTIR fingerprint region didn't form cluster among different genotypes in residual faba bean seeds in 12 h and 24 h incubation, which indicate they had similar protein molecular structures after incubation. In conclusion, there was an interaction between protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of newly developed cool-climate adapted faba bean seeds with normal and low level of tannin. The cool-climate adapted genotype had an impact on the protein molecular structure, and the protein utilization and metabolism were predictable from protein spectral molecular structures after rumen biodegradation with ATR-Ft/IRS spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Síncrotrons/instrumentação , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Digestão , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteólise
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