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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 339, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an edible cereal crop whose sprouts have been marketed and commercialized for their higher levels of anti-oxidants, including rutin and anthocyanin. UDP-glucose flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGTs) play an important role in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in plants. So far, few studies are available on UFGT genes that may play a role in tartary buckwheat flavonoids biosynthesis. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of seven UFGTs from tartary buckwheat that are potentially involved in flavonoid biosynthesis (and have varying effects on plant growth and development when overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.) RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the potential function of the seven FtUFGT proteins, FtUFGT6, FtUFGT7, FtUFGT8, FtUFGT9, FtUFGT15, FtUFGT40, and FtUFGT41, could be divided into three Arabidopsis thaliana functional subgroups that are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis of and anthocyanin accumulation. A significant positive correlation between FtUFGT8 and FtUFGT15 expression and anthocyanin accumulation capacity was observed in the tartary buckwheat seedlings after cold stress. Overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that FtUFGT8, FtUFGT15, and FtUFGT41 significantly increased the anthocyanin content in transgenic plants. Unexpectedly, overexpression of FtUFGT6, while not leading to enhanced anthocyanin accumulation, significantly enhanced the growth yield of transgenic plants. When wild-type plants have only cotyledons, most of the transgenic plants of FtUFGT6 had grown true leaves. Moreover, the growth speed of the oxFtUFGT6 transgenic plant root was also significantly faster than that of the wild type. At later growth, FtUFGT6 transgenic plants showed larger leaves, earlier twitching times and more tillers than wild type, whereas FtUFGT15 showed opposite results. CONCLUSIONS: Seven FtUFGTs were isolated from tartary buckwheat. FtUFGT8, FtUFGT15, and FtUFGT41 can significantly increase the accumulation of total anthocyanins in transgenic plants. Furthermore, overexpression of FtUFGT6 increased the overall yield of Arabidopsis transgenic plants at all growth stages. However, FtUFGT15 shows the opposite trend at later growth stage and delays the growth speed of plants. These results suggested that the biological function of FtUFGT genes in tartary buckwheat is diverse.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência Conservada , Fagopyrum/enzimologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Glicosiltransferases/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 370, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidences show that SPLs are crucial regulators of plant abiotic stress tolerance and the highly conserved module miR156/SPL appears to balance plant growth and stress responses. The halophyte Tamarix chinensis is highly resistant to salt tress. SPLs of T. chinensis (TcSPLs) and theirs roles in salt stress responses remain elusive. RESULTS: In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the TcSPLs gene family including 12 members belonging to 7 groups. The physicochemical properties and conserved motifs showed divergence among groups and similarity in each group. The microRNA response elements (MREs) are conserved in location and sequence, with the exception of first MRE within TcSPL5. The miR156-targeted SPLs are identified by dual-luciferase reporter assay of MRE-miR156 interaction. The digital expression gene profiles cluster suggested potential different functions of miR156-targeted SPLs vs non-targeted SPLs in response to salt stress. The expression patterns analysis of miR156-targeted SPLs with a reverse expression trend to TcmiR156 suggested 1 h (salt stress time) could be a critical time point of post-transcription regulation in salt stress responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrated the post-transcription regulation of miR156-targeted TcSPLs and transcription regulation of non-targeted TcSPLs in salt stress responses, and would be helpful to expound the miR156/SPL-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying T. chinensis salt stress tolerance.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/genética , Tamaricaceae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Genes de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Transcriptoma
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 372, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct timing of flowering is critical for plants to produce enough viable offspring. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), flowering time is regulated by an intricate network of molecular signaling pathways. Arabidopsis srr1-1 mutants lacking SENSITIVITY TO RED LIGHT REDUCED 1 (SRR1) expression flower early, particularly under short day (SD) conditions (1). SRR1 ensures that plants do not flower prematurely in such non-inductive conditions by controlling repression of the key florigen FT. Here, we have examined the role of SRR1 in the closely related crop species Brassica napus. RESULTS: Arabidopsis SRR1 has five homologs in Brassica napus. They can be divided into two groups, where the A02 and C02 copies show high similarity to AtSRR1 on the protein level. The other group, including the A03, A10 and C09 copies all carry a larger deletion in the amino acid sequence. Three of the homologs are expressed at detectable levels: A02, C02 and C09. Notably, the gene copies show a differential expression pattern between spring and winter type accessions of B. napus. When the three expressed gene copies were introduced into the srr1-1 background, only A02 and C02 were able to complement the srr1-1 early flowering phenotype, while C09 could not. Transcriptional analysis of known SRR1 targets in Bna.SRR1-transformed lines showed that CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1) expression is key for flowering time control via SRR1. CONCLUSIONS: We observed subfunctionalization of the B. napus SRR1 gene copies, with differential expression between early and late flowering accessions of some Bna.SRR1 copies. This suggests involvement of Bna.SRR1 in regulation of seasonal flowering in B. napus. The C09 gene copy was unable to complement srr1-1 plants, but is highly expressed in B. napus, suggesting specialization of a particular function. Furthermore, the C09 protein carries a deletion which may pinpoint a key region of the SRR1 protein potentially important for its molecular function. This is important evidence of functional domain annotation in the highly conserved but unique SRR1 amino acid sequence.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dosagem de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 342, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GRAS are plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development. Although the GRAS gene family has been studied in many plants, there has been little research on the GRAS genes of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), which is an important crop rich in rutin. The recently published whole genome sequence of Tartary buckwheat allows us to study the characteristics and expression patterns of the GRAS gene family in Tartary buckwheat at the genome-wide level. RESULTS: In this study, 47 GRAS genes of Tartary buckwheat were identified and divided into 10 subfamilies: LISCL, HAM, DELLA, SCR, PAT1, SCL4/7, LAS, SHR, SCL3, and DLT. FtGRAS genes were unevenly distributed on 8 chromosomes, and members of the same subfamily contained similar gene structures and motif compositions. Some FtGRAS genes may have been produced by gene duplications; tandem duplication contributed more to the expansion of the GRAS gene family in Tartary buckwheat. Real-time PCR showed that the transcription levels of FtGRAS were significantly different in different tissues and fruit development stages, implying that FtGRAS might have different functions. Furthermore, an increase in fruit weight was induced by exogenous paclobutrazol, and the transcription level of the DELLA subfamily member FtGRAS22 was significantly upregulated during the whole fruit development stage. Therefore, FtGRAS22 may be a potential target for molecular breeding or genetic editing. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this systematic analysis lays a foundation for further study of the functional characteristics of GRAS genes and for the improvement of Tartary buckwheat crops.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 345, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aquaporin (AQP) proteins comprise a group of membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that are responsible for transporting water and other small molecules, which is crucial for plant survival under stress conditions including salt stress. Despite the vital role of AQPs, little is known about them in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). RESULTS: In this study, we identified 39 aquaporin-encoding genes in cucumber that were separated by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIP, TIP, NIP, SIP, and XIP). Their substrate specificity was then assessed based on key amino acid residues such as the aromatic/Arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions, and specificity-determining positions. The putative cis-regulatory motifs available in the promoter region of each AQP gene were analyzed and results revealed that their promoter regions contain many abiotic related cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, analysis of previously released RNA-seq data revealed tissue- and treatment-specific expression patterns of cucumber AQP genes (CsAQPs). Three aquaporins (CsTIP1;1, CsPIP2;4, and CsPIP1;2) were the most transcript abundance genes, with CsTIP1;1 showing the highest expression levels among all aquaporins. Subcellular localization analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells revealed the diverse and broad array of sub-cellular localizations of CsAQPs. We then performed RNA-seq to identify the expression pattern of CsAQPs under salt stress and found a general decreased expression level of root CsAQPs. Moreover, qRT-PCR revealed rapid changes in the expression levels of CsAQPs in response to diverse abiotic stresses including salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000, heat, and chilling stresses. Additionally, transient expression of AQPs in N. benthamiana increased leaf water loss rate, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of plant water status under stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that CsAQPs play important roles in response to salt stress. The genome-wide identification and primary function characterization of cucumber aquaporins provides insight to elucidate the complexity of the AQP gene family and their biological functions in cucumber.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/fisiologia , Cucumis sativus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Água/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 350, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family, which contains multiple 35-amino acid repeats, constitutes one of the largest gene families in plants. PPR proteins function in organelles to target specific transcripts and are involved in plant development and growth. However, the function of PPR proteins in cotton is still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized a PPR gene YELLOW-GREEN LEAF (GhYGL1d) that is required for cotton plastid development. The GhYGL1d gene has a DYW domain in C-terminal and is highly express in leaves, localized to the chloroplast fractions. GhYGL1d share high amino acid-sequence homology with AtECB2. In atecb2 mutant, overexpression of GhYGL1d rescued the seedling lethal phenotype and restored the editing of accD and ndhF transcripts. Silencing of GhYGL1d led to the reduction of chlorophyll and phenotypically yellow-green leaves in cotton. Compared with wild type, GhYGL1d-silenced cotton showed significant deformations of thylakoid structures. Furthermore, the transcription levels of plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP) and nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP) dependent genes were decreased in GhYGL1d-silenced cotton. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that GhYGL1d not only contributes to the editing of accD and ndhF genes, but also affects the expression of NEP- and PEP-dependent genes to regulate the development of thylakoids, and therefore regulates leaf variegation in cotton.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Gossypium/anatomia & histologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 353, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PHOSPHATE1 (PHO1) gene family plays diverse roles in inorganic phosphate (Pi) transfer and signal transduction, and plant development. However, the functions and diversification of soybean PHO1 family are poorly understood. RESULTS: Cultivated soybean (Glycine max) was domesticated from wild soybean (Glycine soja). To illuminate their roles in this evolutionary process, we comparatively investigated the G. max PHO1 genes (GmPHO1) in Suinong 14 (SN14) and G. soja PHO1 genes (GsPHO1) in ZYD00006 (ZYD6). The sequences of the orthologous Gm-GsPHO1 pairs were grouped into two Classes. The expression of Class I in both SN14 and ZYD6 was widely but relatively high in developing fruits, whereas Class II was predominantly expressed in the roots. The whole family displayed diverse response patterns to salt stresses and Pi-starvation in roots. Between SN14 and ZYD6, most PHO1 genes responded similarly to salinity stresses, and half had sharp contrasts in response to Pi-starvation, which corroborated the differential response capacities to salinity and low-Pi stress between SN14 and ZYD6. Furthermore, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, most Class II members and GmPHO1;H9 from Class I could enhance salt tolerance, while only two Class II genes (GmPHO1;H4 and GmPHO1;H8) differently altered sensitivity to Pi-starvation. The expression of critical genes was accordingly altered in either salt or Pi signaling pathways in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CONCLUSIONS: Our work identifies some PHO1 genes as promising genetic materials for soybean improvement, and suggests that expression variation is decisive to functional divergence of the orthologous Gm-GsPHO1 pairs, which plays an adaptive role during soybean evolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Arabidopsis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Salino/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Soja/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 352, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice plants show yellowing, stunting, withering, reduced tillering and utimately low productivity in susceptible varieties under low temperature stress. Comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify novel transcripts, gain new insights into different gene expression and pathways involved in cold tolerance in rice. RESULTS: Comparative transcriptome analyses of 5 treatments based on chilling stress exposure revealed more down regulated genes in susceptible and higher up regulated genes in tolerant genotypes. A total of 13930 and 10599 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in cold susceptible variety (CSV) and cold tolerant variety (CTV), respectively. A continuous increase in DEGs at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h exposure of cold stress was detected in both the genotypes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 18 CSV and 28 CTV term significantly involved in molecular function, cellular component and biological process. GO classification showed a significant role of transcription regulation, oxygen, lipid binding, catalytic and hydrolase activity for tolerance response. Absence of photosynthesis related genes, storage products like starch and synthesis of other classes of molecules like fatty acids and terpenes during the stress were noticed in susceptible genotype. However, biological regulations, generation of precursor metabolites, signal transduction, photosynthesis, regulation of cellular process, energy and carbohydrate metabolism were seen in tolerant genotype during the stress. KEGG pathway annotation revealed more number of genes regulating different pathways resulting in more tolerant. During early response phase, 24 and 11 DEGs were enriched in CTV and CSV, respectively in energy metabolism pathways. Among the 1583 DEG transcription factors (TF) genes, 69 WRKY, 46 bZIP, 41 NAC, 40 ERF, 31/14 MYB/MYB-related, 22 bHLH, 17 Nin-like 7 HSF and 4C3H were involved during early response phase. Late response phase showed 30 bHLH, 65 NAC, 30 ERF, 26/20 MYB/MYB-related, 11 C3H, 12 HSF, 86 Nin-like, 41 AP2/ERF, 55 bZIP and 98 WRKY members TF genes. The recovery phase included 18 bHLH, 50 NAC, 31 ERF, 24/13 MYB/MYB-related, 4 C3H, 4 HSF, 14 Nin-like, 31 bZIP and 114 WRKY TF genes. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome analysis of contrasting genotypes for cold tolerance detected the genes, pathways and transcription factors involved in the stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 351, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rubisco activase (RCA) regulates the activity of Rubisco and is a key enzyme of photosynthesis. RCA expression was widely reported to affect plant photosynthesis and crop yield, but the molecular basis of natural variation in RCA expression in a wide range of maize materials has not been fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, correlation analysis in approximately 200 maize inbred lines revealed a significantly positive correlation between the expression of maize RCA gene ZmRCAß and grain yield. A genome-wide association study revealed both cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) and trans-eQTLs underlying the expression of ZmRCAß, with the latter playing a more important role. Further allele mining and genetic transformation analysis showed that a 2-bp insertion and a 14-bp insertion in the promoter of ZmRCAß conferred increased gene expression. Because rice is reported to have higher RCA gene expression than does maize, we subsequently compared the genetic factors underlying RCA gene expression between maize and rice. The promoter activity of the rice RCA gene was shown to be stronger than that of the maize RCA gene, suggesting that replacing the maize RCA gene promoter with that of the rice RCA gene would improve the expression of RCA in maize. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed two DNA polymorphisms regulating maize RCA gene ZmRCAß expression, and the RCA gene promoter activity of rice was stronger than that of maize. This work increased understanding of the genetic mechanism that underlies RCA gene expression and identify new targets for both genetic engineering and selection for maize yield improvement.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 330, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dioecy is an important sexual system wherein, male and female flowers are borne on separate unisexual plants. Knowledge of sex-related differences can enhance our understanding in molecular and developmental processes leading to unisexual flower development. Coccinia grandis is a dioecious species belonging to Cucurbitaceae, a family well-known for diverse sexual forms. Male and female plants have 22A + XY and 22A + XX chromosomes, respectively. Previously, we have reported a gynomonoecious form (22A + XX) of C. grandis bearing morphologically hermaphrodite flowers (GyM-H) and female flowers (GyM-F). Also, we have showed that foliar spray of AgNO3 on female plant induces morphologically hermaphrodite bud development (Ag-H) despite the absence of Y-chromosome. RESULTS: To identify sex-related differences, total proteomes from male, female, GyM-H and Ag-H flower buds at early and middle stages of development were analysed by label-free proteomics. Protein search against the cucumber protein sequences (Phytozome) as well as in silico translated C. grandis flower bud transcriptome database, resulted in the identification of 2426 and 3385 proteins (FDR ≤ 1%), respectively. The latter database was chosen for further analysis as it led to the detection of higher number of proteins. Identified proteins were annotated using BLAST2GO pipeline. SWATH-MS-based comparative abundance analysis between Female_Early_vs_Male_Early, Ag_Early_vs_Female_Early, GyM-H_Middle_vs_Male_Middle and Ag_Middle_vs_ Male_Middle led to the identification of 650, 1108, 905 and 805 differentially expressed proteins, respectively, at fold change ≥1.5 and P ≤ 0.05. Ethylene biosynthesis-related candidates as highlighted in protein interaction network were upregulated in female buds compared to male buds. AgNO3 treatment on female plant induced proteins related to pollen development in Ag-H buds. Additionally, a few proteins governing pollen germination and tube growth were highly enriched in male buds compared to Ag-H and GyM-H buds. CONCLUSION: Overall, current proteomic analysis provides insights in the identification of key proteins governing dioecy and unisexual flower development in cucurbitaceae, the second largest horticultural family in terms of economic importance. Also, our results suggest that the ethylene-mediated stamen inhibition might be conserved in dioecious C. grandis similar to its monoecious cucurbit relatives. Further, male-biased proteins associated with pollen germination and tube growth identified here can help in understanding pollen fertility.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diferenciação Sexual , Cromossomos de Plantas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteoma/fisiologia
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) containing only a single zinc finger domain play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, the evolutionary history and functions of the ZFP gene family have not been identified in cotton. RESULTS: In this paper, we identified 29 ZFP genes in Gossypium hirsutum. This gene family was divided into seven subfamilies, 22 of which were distributed over 17 chromosomes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 20 GhZFP genes originated from whole genome duplications and two originated from dispersed duplication events, indicating that whole genome duplication is the main force in the expansion of the GhZFP gene family. Most GhZFP8 subfamily genes, except for GhZFP8-3, were highly expressed during fiber cell growth, and were induced by brassinosteroids in vitro. Furthermore, we found that a large number of GhZFP genes contained gibberellic acid responsive elements, auxin responsive elements, and E-box elements in their promoter regions. Exogenous application of these hormones significantly stimulated the expression of these genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that GhZFP8 genes are involved in cotton fiber development and widely induced by auxin, gibberellin and BR, which provides a foundation for the identification of more downstream genes with potential roles in phytohormone stimuli, and a basis for breeding better cotton varieties in the future.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada/genética , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Gossypium/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcriptoma , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 310, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hypersensitive defense response (HR) in plants is a fast, localized necrotic response around the point of pathogen ingress. HR is usually triggered by a pathogen recognition event mediated by a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein. The autoactive maize NLR gene Rp1-D21 confers a spontaneous HR response in the absence of pathogen recognition. Previous work identified a set of loci associated with variation in the strength of Rp1-D21-induced HR. A polygalacturonase gene homolog, here termed ZmPGH1, was identified as a possible causal gene at one of these loci on chromosome 7. RESULTS: Expression of ZmPGH1 inhibited the HR-inducing activity of both Rp1-D21 and that of another autoactive NLR, RPM1(D505V), in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression assay system. Overexpression of ZmPGH1 in a transposon insertion line of maize was associated with suppression of chemically-induced programmed cell death and with suppression of HR induced by Rp1-D21 in maize plants grown in the field. CONCLUSIONS: ZmPGH1 functions as a suppressor of programmed cell death induced by at least two autoactive NLR proteins and by two chemical inducers. These findings deepen our understanding of the control of the HR in plants.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Poligalacturonase/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Apoptose/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Leucina , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poligalacturonase/química , Poligalacturonase/genética , Recombinação Genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos , Tabaco/genética , Zea mays/enzimologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/imunologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 270, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bemisia tabaci is a major leaf feeding insect pest to pepper (Capsicum annuum), causing serious damage to pepper growth and yield. It is particularly important to study the mechanism of pepper resistance to B. tabaci, and to breed and promote the varieties of pepper resistant to B. tabaci. However, very limited molecular mechanism is available about how plants perceive and defend themselves from the destructive pest. Proteome technologies have provided an idea method for studying plant physiological processes in response to B. tabaci. RESULTS: Here, a highly resistant genotype and a highly susceptible genotype were exposed to B. tabaci feeding for 48 h to explore the defense mechanisms of pepper resistance to B. tabaci. The proteomic differences between both genotypes were compared using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The quantitative data were validated by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The results showed that 37 differential abundance proteins (DAPs) were identified in the RG (resistant genotype), while 17 DAPs were identified in the SG (susceptible genotype) at 48 h after B. tabaci feeding. 77 DAPs were identified when comparing RG with SG without feeding. The DAP functions were determined for the classification of the pathways, mainly involved in redox regulation, stress response, protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and carbon metabolism. Some candidate DAPs are closely related to B. tabaci resistance such as annexin D4-like (ANN4), calreticulin-3 (CRT3), heme-binding protein 2-like (HBP1), acidic endochitinase pcht28-like (PR3) and lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this study indicates complex resistance-related events in B. tabaci interaction, provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the response of plant to B. tabaci, and identifies some candidate proteins against B. tabaci attack.


Assuntos
Capsicum/parasitologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Animais , Capsicum/imunologia , Genótipo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(6): 635-645, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147815

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Rice WSL6 is involved in chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and is essential for early chloroplast development. Construction of the genetic translation system is a prerequisite for chloroplast development in plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a white stripe leaf6 (wsl6) mutant in rice. The mutant seedlings displayed white-striped leaves that were more severe under low-temperature conditions. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the wsl6 mutant was defective in early chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that WSL6 encodes an Era-type guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein located in chloroplasts. Immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated an absence of 70S ribosomes in wsl6 chloroplasts. Further research showed that WSL6 binds to the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunit of chloroplast ribosome 30S. In summary, these results show that WSL6 is essential for chloroplast ribosome biogenesis during early chloroplast development in rice.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Teste de Complementação Genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação , Oryza/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 263, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because flavonoids and trichomes play crucial roles in plant defence, their formation requires fine transcriptional control by multiple transcription factor families. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the R2R3-MYB transcription factors that regulate both flavonoid metabolism and trichome development. RESULTS: Here, we identified a unique SG4-like-MYB TF from Tartary buckwheat, FtMYB8, which harbours the C2 repression motif and an additional TLLLFR repression motif. The expression profiles of FtMYB8 combined with the transcriptional activity of PFtMYB8 promoter showed that FtMYB8 mRNA mainly accumulated in roots during the true leaf stage and flowering stage and in bud trichomes and flowers, and the expression of this gene was markedly induced by MeJA, ABA and UV-B treatments but repressed by dark treatment. Overexpression of FtMYB8 in Arabidopsis reduces the accumulation of anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin by specifically inhibiting TT12 expression, which may depend on the interaction between FtMYB8 and TT8. Interestingly, this interaction may also negatively regulate the marginal trichome initiation in Arabidopsis leaves. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that FtMYB8 may fine-tune the accumulation of anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin in the roots and flowers of Tartary buckwheat by balancing the inductive effects of transcriptional activators, and probably regulate trichome distribution in the buds of Tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Tricomas/metabolismo
16.
Plant Sci ; 285: 14-25, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203878

RESUMO

Intracellular Na+/H+ antiporters (NHXs) play important roles in plant tolerance to salt stress. However, plant NHXs functioning in salt tolerance and the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this report, we report the identification and functional characterization of PbrNHX2 isolated from Pyrus betulaefolia. PbrNHX2 expression levels were induced by salt, and dehydration, but was unaffected by cold. PbrNHX2 was localized in the tonoplast. Overexpression of PbrNHX2 in tobacco and Pyrus ussuriensis conferred enhanced tolerance to salt tolerance, whereas down-regulation of PbrNHX2 in Pyrus betulaefolia by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in elevated salt sensitivity. The transgenic lines contained lower levels of Na+, higher levels of K+, and higher K/Na ratio, whereas they were changed in an opposite way when PbrNHX2 was silenced. In addition, the transgenic plants accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared with wild type, accompanied by higher activities of three antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the data demonstrate that PbrNHX2 plays a positive role in salt tolerance and that it holds a great potential for engineering salt tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estresse Salino , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/fisiologia , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/fisiologia , Tabaco
17.
Plant Sci ; 285: 165-174, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203881

RESUMO

The TPL/TPR co-repressor is involved in many plant signaling pathways, including those regulating the switch from vegetative to reproductive growth. Here, a TPL homolog (TPL 1-2) was isolated from chrysanthemum. Its product was found to be deposited in the nucleus. The abundance of TPL1-2 transcript varied across the plant, with its highest level being recorded in the stem apex, and its lowest in the root and stem. In the leaf, the abundance of TPL1-2 transcript was highest at dusk in plants exposed to long days, and at dawn in those exposed to short days. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to induce an N176H mutation in TPL1-2. The constitutive expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of the wild type and the mutated alleles of TPL1-2 had a contrasting effect on flowering time, with the mutant transgene expressors flowering later than the wild type transgene expressors. The flowering-related genes FT, TSF, FUL and AP1 were all more strongly transcribed in the mutant transgene expressors than in the wild type transgene expressors.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
18.
Plant Sci ; 285: 193-199, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203884

RESUMO

Wheat domestication was a milestone in the rise of agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent. As opposed to the freely dispersing seeds of its tetraploid progenitor wild emmer, the hallmark trait of domesticated wheat is intact, harvestable spikes. During domestication, wheat acquired recessive loss-of-function mutations in the Brittle Rachis 1 genes, both in the A genome (BTR1-A) and B genome (BTR1-B). In this study, we probe the geographical provenances of these mutations via haplotype analyses of a collection of wild and domesticated accessions. Our results show that the precursor of the domesticated haplotype of BTR1-A was detected in 32% of the wild accessions gathered throughout the Levant, from central Israel to central Turkey. In contrast, the precursor of the domesticated haplotype of BTR1-B, which carries a distinct 11 bp deletion in the promoter region, was found in only 10% of the tested wild accessions, all from the Southern Levant. Moreover, we identified of a single wild emmer accession in Southern Levant that carries the progenitor haplotypes for both BTR1-A and BTR1-B genes. These observations suggest that at least part of the emmer domestication process occurred in Southern Levant, contrary to the widely held view that the northern part of the Fertile Crescent was the center of wheat domestication.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Haplótipos/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
Plant Sci ; 285: 230-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203888

RESUMO

In higher plants, Fibrillins (FBNs) constitute a conserved plastid-lipid-associated (PAPs) protein family and modulate the metabolite transport and lipid metabolism in plastids of dicot species. However, FBNs have not functionally characterized in monocot species. In this study, the function of rice fibrillin 1 (OsFBN1) was investigated. The subcellular localization assay showed that the N-terminal chloroplast transport peptide (CTP) could facilitate the import of OsFBN1 into chloroplast. OsFBN1 specifically bound C18- and C20- fatty acids in vitro. Overexpressing OsFBN1 increased the tiller number but decreased the panicle length, grain-filling percent and JA levels compared to the wild type and RNAi silencing lines under heat stress. In addition, the overexpressing lines had more plastoglobules (PGs) than the wild type and RNAi silencing lines under both normal and heat stress conditions. Moreover, overexpressing OsFBN1 affected the transcription levels of OsAOS2 in JA synthesis, OsTHF1, OsABC1K7 and OsPsaE in thylakoid stability and photosynthesis, OsABC1-4 and OsSPS2 in ubiquinone-metabolism, OsHDR, OsDXR, and OsFPPS in isoprenoid metabolism. Collectively, these findings suggest the essential role of rice OsFBN1 in PG formation and lipid metabolism in chloroplasts, which coordinately regulate the growth and grain filling of the overexpressing lines under heat stress.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tilacoides/metabolismo
20.
Plant Sci ; 285: 26-33, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203891

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 90 s (Hsp90s), one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones, is an essential component of the protective stress response. A previous study reported at least 12 genes in the GmHsp90s family in soybean and that GmHsp90A2 overexpression enhanced thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigate the roles of GmHsp90A2 in soybean by utilizing stable transgenic soybean lines overexpressing GmHsp90A2 and mutant lines generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The results showed that compared with wild-type plants (WT) and empty vector control plants (VC), T3 transgenic soybean plants overexpressing GmHsp90A2 exhibited increased tolerance to heat stress through higher chlorophyll and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in plants. Conversely, reduced chlorophyll and increased MDA contents in T2 homozygous GmHsp90A2-knockout mutants indicated decreased tolerance to heat stress. GmHsp90A2 was found to interact with GmHsp90A1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, subcellular localization analyses revealed that GmHsp90A2 was localized to the cytoplasm and cell membrane; as shown by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, GmHsp90A2 interacted with GmHsp90A1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm and cell membrane. Hence, we conclude that GmHsp90A1 is able to bind to GmHsp90A2 to form a complex and that this complex enters the nucleus. In summary, GmHsp90A2 might respond to heat stress and positively regulate thermotolerance by interacting with GmHsp90A1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Clorofila/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Soja/fisiologia , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
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