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1.
Planta ; 254(4): 64, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487243

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Thirty CcMYB were identified to involve in flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis in pigeon pea genome. A comprehensive analysis of gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, distribution on chromosomes, gene duplication, and expression patterns was performed. MYB transcription factor is one of the largest gene families in plants and plays critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, the function of MYB genes in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) remains largely unknown. Here, 30 R2R3-MYB which involved flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis were identified in the pigeon pea genome and were classified into five groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Simultaneously, another 122 key enzyme genes from biosynthetic pathways of flavonoid and lignin were identified and all of them were mapped on 11 chromosomes with the co-linearity relationship. Among these genes, the intron/exon organization and motif compositions were conserved and they have undergone a strong purifying selection and tandem duplications during evolution. Expression profile analysis demonstrated most of these genes were expressed in different tissues and responded significantly to MeJA, RNA-seq analysis revealed clear details of genes varied with time of induction. Ten key genes from the phenylpropanoid pathway were selected to further verify whether they responded to induction under different abiotic stress conditions (UV-B, cold, heat, salt, drought, and GA3). This study elaborates on potential regulatory relationships between R2R3-MYB genes and some key genes involved in flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis under MeJA treatment, as well as adding to the understanding of improving abiotic stress tolerance and regulating the secondary metabolism in woody crops. A simplified discussion model for the different regulation networks involved with flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis in pigeon pea is proposed.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Cajanus/genética , Cajanus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
2.
Planta ; 254(4): 71, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505938

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Plant class IV ACBPs diverged with the split of monocots and eudicots. Difference in the subcellular localization supported the functional variation of plant class IV ACBP. Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are divided into class I-IV in plants. Class IV ACBPs are kelch motif containing proteins that are specific to plants. The currently known subcellular localizations of plant class IV ACBPs are either in the cytosol (Arabidopsis) or in the peroxisomes (rice). However, it is not clear whether peroxisomal localization of class IV ACBP is a shared character that distinguishes eudicots and monocots. Here, the phylogeny of class IV ACBPs from 73 plant species and subcellular localization of class IV ACBPs from six monocots and eudicots were conducted. Phylogenetic analysis of 112 orthologues revealed that monocot class IV ACBPs were basal to the monophyletic clade formed by eudicots and basal angiosperm. Transient expression of GFP fusions in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that monocot maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and eudicot poplar (Populus trichocarpa) all contained at least one peroxisomal localized class IV ACBP, while orthologues from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and soybean (Glycine max) were all cytosolic. Combining the location of Arabidopsis and rice class IV ACBPs, it indicates that maintaining at least one peroxisomal class IV ACBP could be a shared feature within the tested monocots, while cytosolic class IV ACBPs would be preferred in the tested eudicots. Furthermore, the interaction between OsACBP6 and peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter provided clues for the functional mechanism of OsACBP6.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Coenzima A , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam/genética , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 654, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of male sterile materials is of great significance for the development of plant fertility research. Wucai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. rosularis Tsen) is a variety of non-heading Chinese cabbage. There are few studies on the male sterility of wucai, and the mechanism of male sterility is not clear. In this study, the male sterile mutant MS7-2 and the wild-type fertile plant MF7-2 were studied. RESULTS: Phenotypic characteristics and cytological analysis showed that MS7-2 abortion occurred at the tetrad period. The content of related sugars in the flower buds of MS7-2 was significantly lower than that of MF7-2, and a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accumulated. Through transcriptome sequencing of MS7-2 and MF7-2 flower buds at three different developmental stages (a-c), 2865, 3847, and 4981 differentially expressed genes were identified in MS7-2 at the flower bud development stage, stage c, and stage e, respectively, compared with MF7-2. Many of these genes were enriched in carbohydrate metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation, and most of them were down-regulated in MS7-2. The down-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and secondary metabolite synthesis as well as the accumulation of ROS in MS7-2 led to pollen abortion in MS7-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps elucidate the mechanism of anther abortion in wucai, providing a basis for further research on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of male sterility and the screening and cloning of key genes in wucai.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3838-3845, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472257

RESUMO

The longevity mechanism of ginseng(Panax ginseng) is related to its strong meristematic ability. In this paper, this study used bioinformatic methods to identify the members of the ginseng TCP gene family in the whole genome and analyzed their sequence characteristics. Then, quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR was performed to analyze the TCP genes containing elements rela-ted to meristem expression in the taproots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves. According to the data, this study further explored the expression specificity of TCP genes in ginseng tissues, which facilitated the dissection of the longevity mechanism of ginseng. The ginseng TCP members were identified and analyzed using PlantTFDB, ExPASy, MEME, PLANTCARE, TBtools, MEGA and DNAMAN. The results demonstrated that there were 60 TCP gene family members in ginseng, and they could be divided into two classes: Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, in which the Class Ⅱ possessed two subclasses: CYC-TCP and CIN-TCP. The deduced TCP proteins in ginseng had the length of 128-793 aa, the isoelectric point of 4.49-9.84 and the relative molecular mass of 14.2-89.3 kDa. They all contained the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) domain. There are a variety of stress response-related cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of ginseng TCP genes, and PgTCP20-PgTCP24 contained the elements associated with meristematic expression. The transcription levels of PgTCP20-PgTCP24 were high in fibrous roots and leaves, but low in stems, indicating the tissue-specific expression of ginseng TCP genes. The Class Ⅰ TCP members which contained PgTCP20-PgTCP23, may be important regulators for the growth and development of ginseng roots.


Assuntos
Panax , Fatores de Transcrição , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445508

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of root-restriction cultivation on the root architecture, endogenous strigolactone (SL) content, and SL-related genes expression in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In addition, we clarified the effects of synthetic SL analog GR24 application on grapevine roots to explore the role of SLs in their development. The results showed that the root architecture changed significantly under root-restriction cultivation. At 40 days after transplantation (DAT), the contents of two types of SLs in roots under root restriction were both significantly lower than that in roots of the control. SL content was significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvCCD8 and VvD27, indicating that they play vital roles in SLs synthesis. After GR24 treatment for 20 days, the root length was significantly shorter than in the control. A low concentration (0.1 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the root diameter and increased the fine-root density, while a high concentration (10 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the lateral root (LR) length and increased the LR density. Concomitantly, GR24 (0.1 µM) reduced endogenous SL content. After GR24 treatment for 5 days, the total content of two tested SLs was highly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvDAD2, whereas it was highly negatively correlated with VvSMAXL4 at 20 days after GR24 treatment. This study helps to clarify the internal mechanism of root-restriction cultivation affecting the changes in grapevine root architecture, as well as further explore the important role of SLs in the growth of grapevine roots in response to root-restriction treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dioxigenases/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445522

RESUMO

Crocetin is an apocarotenoid formed from the oxidative cleavage of zeaxanthin, by the carotenoid cleavage enzymes CCD2 (in Crocus species) and specific CCD4 enzymes in Buddleja davidii and Gardenia jasminoides. Crocetin accumulates in the stigma of saffron in the form of glucosides and crocins, which contain one to five glucose molecules. Crocetin glycosylation was hypothesized to involve at least two enzymes from superfamily 1 UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferases. One of them, UGT74AD1, produces crocins with one and two glucose molecules, which are substrates for a second UGT, which could belong to the UGT79, 91, or 94 families. An in silico search of Crocus transcriptomes revealed six candidate UGT genes from family 91. The transcript profiles of one of them, UGT91P3, matched the metabolite profile of crocin accumulation, and were co-expressed with UGT74AD1. In addition, both UGTs interact in a two-hybrid assay. Recombinant UGT91P3 produced mostly crocins with four and five glucose molecules in vitro, and in a combined transient expression assay with CCD2 and UGT74AD1 enzymes in Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest a role of UGT91P3 in the biosynthesis of highly glucosylated crocins in saffron, and that it represents the last missing gene in crocins biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Crocus/enzimologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Simulação por Computador , Crocus/química , Crocus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicosilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445524

RESUMO

The family of B-box (BBX) transcription factors contains one or two B-BOX domains and sometimes also features a highly conserved CCT domain, which plays important roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Nevertheless, no systematic study of the BBX gene family in Iris germanica L. has been undertaken. In this study, a set of six BBX TF family genes from I. germanica was identified based on transcriptomic sequences, and clustered into three clades according to phylogenetic analysis. A transient expression analysis revealed that all six BBX proteins were localized in the nucleus. A yeast one-hybrid assay demonstrated that IgBBX3 has transactivational activity, while IgBBX1, IgBBX2, IgBBX4, and IgBBX5 have no transcriptional activation ability. The transcript abundance of IgBBXs in different tissues was divided into two major groups. The expression of IgBBX1, IgBBX2, IgBBX3 and IgBBX5 was higher in leaves, whereas IgBBX4 and IgBBX6 was higher in roots. The stress response patterns of six IgBBX were detected under phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. The results of this study lay the basis for further research on the functions of BBX gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses, which will promote their application in I. germanica breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Iris (Planta)/genética , Iris (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445535

RESUMO

Apples (Malus domestica Borkh) are prone to preharvest fruit drop, which is more pronounced in 'Honeycrisp'. Hexanal is known to improve fruit retention in several economically important crops. The effects of hexanal on the fruit retention of 'Honeycrisp' apples were assessed using physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic approaches. Fruit retention and fruit firmness were significantly improved by hexanal, while sugars and fresh weight did not show a significant change in response to hexanal treatment. At commercial maturity, abscisic acid and melatonin levels were significantly lower in the treated fruit abscission zone (FAZ) compared to control. At this stage, a total of 726 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between treated and control FAZ. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that hexanal downregulated ethylene biosynthesis genes, such as S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAM2) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidases (ACO3, ACO4, and ACO4-like), while it upregulated the receptor genes ETR2 and ERS1. Genes related to ABA biosynthesis (FDPS and CLE25) were also downregulated. On the contrary, key genes involved in gibberellic acid biosynthesis (GA20OX-like and KO) were upregulated. Further, hexanal downregulated the expression of genes related to cell wall degrading enzymes, such as polygalacturonase (PG1), glucanases (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase), and expansins (EXPA1-like, EXPA6, EXPA8, EXPA10-like, EXPA16-like). Our findings reveal that hexanal reduced the sensitivity of FAZ cells to ethylene and ABA. Simultaneously, hexanal maintained the cell wall integrity of FAZ cells by regulating genes involved in cell wall modifications. Thus, delayed fruit abscission by hexanal is most likely achieved by minimizing ABA through an ethylene-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445541

RESUMO

Mallotus japonicus is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in East Asia for applications as a gastrointestinal drug. However, the molecular components involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites have not yet been explored, primarily due to a lack of omics resources. In this study, we established metabolome and transcriptome resources for M. japonicus to capture the diverse metabolite constituents and active transcripts involved in its biosynthesis and regulation. A combination of untargeted metabolite profiling with data-dependent metabolite fragmentation and metabolite annotation through manual curation and feature-based molecular networking established an overall metabospace of M. japonicus represented by 2129 metabolite features. M. japonicus de novo transcriptome assembly showed 96.9% transcriptome completeness, representing 226,250 active transcripts across seven tissues. We identified specialized metabolites biosynthesis in a tissue-specific manner, with a strong correlation between transcripts expression and metabolite accumulations in M. japonicus. The correlation- and network-based integration of metabolome and transcriptome datasets identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of key specialized metabolites of M. japonicus. We further used phylogenetic analysis to identify 13 C-glycosyltransferases and 11 methyltransferases coding candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of medicinally important bergenin. This study provides comprehensive, high-quality multi-omics resources to further investigate biological properties of specialized metabolites biosynthesis in M. japonicus.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mallotus (Planta)/genética , Mallotus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445207

RESUMO

Recent studies show a crucial role of post-transcriptional processes in the regulation of gene expression. Our research has shown that mRNA retention in the nucleus plays a significant role in such regulation. We studied larch microsporocytes during meiotic prophase, characterized by pulsatile transcriptional activity. After each pulse, the transcriptional activity is silenced, but the transcripts synthesized at this time are not exported immediately to the cytoplasm but are retained in the cell nucleus and especially in Cajal bodies, where non-fully-spliced transcripts with retained introns are accumulated. Analysis of the transcriptome of these cells and detailed analysis of the nuclear retention and transport dynamics of several mRNAs revealed two main patterns of nuclear accumulation and transport. The majority of studied transcripts followed the first one, consisting of a more extended retention period and slow release to the cytoplasm. We have shown this in detail for the pre-mRNA and mRNA encoding RNA pol II subunit 10. In this pre-mRNA, a second (retained) intron is posttranscriptionally spliced at a precisely defined time. Fully mature mRNA is then released into the cytoplasm, where the RNA pol II complexes are produced. These proteins are necessary for transcription in the next pulse to occur.mRNAs encoding translation factors and SERRATE followed the second pattern, in which the retention period was shorter and transcripts were rapidly transferred to the cytoplasm. The presence of such a mechanism in various cell types from a diverse range of organisms suggests that it is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of gene regulation.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Larix/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Prófase , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Larix/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445398

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs) are an important group of phytohormones associated with diverse growth and developmental processes, including cell elongation, seed germination, and secondary growth. Recent genomic and genetic analyses have advanced our knowledge of GA signaling pathways and related genes in model plant species. However, functional genomics analyses of GA signaling pathways in Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, have rarely been carried out, despite its well-known economical and medicinal importance. Here, we conducted functional characterization of GA receptors and investigated their physiological roles in the secondary growth of P. ginseng storage roots. We found that the physiological and genetic functions of P. ginseng gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1s (PgGID1s) have been evolutionarily conserved. Additionally, the essential domains and residues in the primary protein structure for interaction with active GAs and DELLA proteins are well-conserved. Overexpression of PgGID1s in Arabidopsis completely restored the GA deficient phenotype of the Arabidopsis gid1a gid1c (atgid1a/c) double mutant. Exogenous GA treatment greatly enhanced the secondary growth of tap roots; however, paclobutrazol (PCZ), a GA biosynthetic inhibitor, reduced root growth in P. ginseng. Transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng roots revealed that GA-induced root secondary growth is closely associated with cell wall biogenesis, the cell cycle, the jasmonic acid (JA) response, and nitrate assimilation, suggesting that a transcriptional network regulate root secondary growth in P. ginseng. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism controlling secondary root growth in P. ginseng.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Panax/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360893

RESUMO

Flowering is a morphogenetic process in which angiosperms shift from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. Flowering time has a strong influence on fruit growth, which is closely related to productivity. Therefore, research on crop flowering time is particularly important. To better understand the flowering period of the tomato, we performed transcriptome sequencing of early flower buds and flowers during the extension period in the later-flowering "Moneymaker" material and the earlier-flowering "20965" homozygous inbred line, and we analyzed the obtained data. At least 43.92 million clean reads were obtained from 12 datasets, and the similarity with the tomato internal reference genome was 92.86-94.57%. Based on gene expression and background annotations, 49 candidate genes related to flowering time and flower development were initially screened, among which the greatest number belong to the photoperiod pathway. According to the expression pattern of candidate genes, the cause of early flowering of "20965" is predicted. The modes of action of the differentially expressed genes were classified, and the results show that they are closely related to hormone regulation and participated in a variety of life activities in crops. The candidate genes we screened and the analysis of their expression patterns provide a basis for future functional verification, helping to explore the molecular mechanism of tomato flowering time more comprehensively.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Transcriptoma , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361121

RESUMO

The first line of plant defence responses against pathogens can be induced by the bacterial flg22 and can be dependent on various external and internal factors. Here, we firstly studied the effects of daytime and ethylene (ET) using Never ripe (Nr) mutants in the local and systemic defence responses of intact tomato plants after flg22 treatments. Flg22 was applied in the afternoon and at night and rapid reactions were detected. The production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide was induced by flg22 locally, while superoxide was induced systemically, in wild type plants in the light period, but all remained lower at night and in Nr leaves. Flg22 elevated, locally, the ET, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels in the light period; these levels did not change significantly at night. Expression of Pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1), Ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and Defensin (DEF) showed also daytime- and ET-dependent changes. Enhanced ERF1 and DEF expression and stomatal closure were also observable in systemic leaves of wild type plants in the light. These data demonstrate that early biotic signalling in flg22-treated leaves and distal ones is an ET-dependent process and it is also determined by the time of day and inhibited in the early night phase.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Etilenos/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 10002-10016, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406741

RESUMO

Theanine and flavonoids (especially proanthocyanidins) are the most important and abundant secondary metabolites synthesized in the roots of tea plants. Nitrogen promotes theanine and represses flavonoid biosynthesis in tea plant roots, but the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Here, we analyzed theanine and flavonoid metabolism in tea plant roots under nitrogen deficiency and explored the regulatory mechanism using proteome and ubiquitylome profiling together with transcriptome data. Differentially expressed proteins responsive to nitrogen deficiency were identified and found to be enriched in flavonoid, nitrogen, and amino acid metabolism pathways. The proteins responding to nitrogen deficiency at the transcriptional level, translational level, and both transcriptional and translational levels were classified. Nitrogen-deficiency-responsive and ubiquitinated proteins were further identified. Our results showed that most genes encoding enzymes in the theanine synthesis pathway, such as CsAlaDC, CsGDH, and CsGOGATs, were repressed by nitrogen deficiency at transcriptional and/or protein level(s). While a large number of enzymes in flavonoid metabolism were upregulated at the transcriptional and/or translational level(s). Importantly, the ubiquitylomic analysis identified important proteins, especially the hub enzymes in theanine and flavonoid biosynthesis, such as CsAlaDC, CsTSI, CsGS, CsPAL, and CsCHS, modified by ubiquitination. This study provided novel insights into the regulation of theanine and flavonoid biosynthesis and will contribute to future studies on the post-translational regulation of secondary metabolism in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Nitrogênio , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutamatos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 395, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification and functional analysis of genes that improve tolerance to low potassium stress in S. spontaneum is crucial for breeding sugarcane cultivars with efficient potassium utilization. Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein is a calcium sensor that interacts with specific CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) upon plants' exposure to various abiotic stresses. RESULTS: In this study, nine CBL genes were identified from S. spontaneum. Phylogenetic analysis of 113 CBLs from 13 representative plants showed gene expansion and strong purifying selection in the CBL family. Analysis of CBL expression patterns revealed that SsCBL01 was the most commonly expressed gene in various tissues at different developmental stages. Expression analysis of SsCBLs under low K+ stress indicated that potassium deficiency moderately altered the transcription of SsCBLs. Subcellular localization showed that SsCBL01 is a plasma membrane protein and heterologous expression in yeast suggested that, while SsCBL01 alone could not absorb K+, it positively regulated K+ absorption mediated by the potassium transporter SsHAK1. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided insights into the evolution of the CBL gene family and preliminarily demonstrated that the plasma membrane protein SsCBL01 was involved in the response to low K+ stress in S. spontaneum.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Deficiência de Potássio/genética , Saccharum/genética , Membrana Celular , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4713, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354054

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cold-sensitive species that often faces chilling stress, which adversely affects growth and reproduction. However, the genetic basis of low-temperature adaptation in maize remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that natural variation in the type-A Response Regulator 1 (ZmRR1) gene leads to differences in chilling tolerance among maize inbred lines. Association analysis reveals that InDel-35 of ZmRR1, encoding a protein harboring a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) phosphorylation residue, is strongly associated with chilling tolerance. ZmMPK8, a negative regulator of chilling tolerance, interacts with and phosphorylates ZmRR1 at Ser15. The deletion of a 45-bp region of ZmRR1 harboring Ser15 inhibits its degradation via the 26 S proteasome pathway by preventing its phosphorylation by ZmMPK8. Transcriptome analysis indicates that ZmRR1 positively regulates the expression of ZmDREB1 and Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes to enhance chilling tolerance. Our findings thus provide a potential genetic resource for improving chilling tolerance in maize.


Assuntos
Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Alelos , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 622, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum) is the most critical sugar crop worldwide. As one of the most enriched transcription factor families in plants, MYB genes display a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement by trait modification. We have identified the sugarcane MYB gene family at a whole-genome level through systematic evolution analyses and expression profiling. R2R3-MYB is a large subfamily involved in many plant-specific processes. RESULTS: A total of 202 R2R3-MYB genes (356 alleles) were identified in the polyploid Saccharum spontaneum genomic sequence and classified into 15 subgroups by phylogenetic analysis. The sugarcane MYB family had more members by a comparative analysis in sorghum and significant advantages among most plants, especially grasses. Collinearity analysis revealed that 70% of the SsR2R3-MYB genes had experienced duplication events, logically suggesting the contributors to the MYB gene family expansion. Functional characterization was performed to identify 56 SsR2R3-MYB genes involved in various plant bioprocesses with expression profiling analysis on 60 RNA-seq databases. We identified 22 MYB genes specifically expressed in the stem, of which RT-qPCR validated MYB43, MYB53, MYB65, MYB78, and MYB99. Allelic expression dominance analysis implied the differential expression of alleles might be responsible for the high expression of MYB in the stem. MYB169, MYB181, MYB192 were identified as candidate C4 photosynthetic regulators by C4 expression pattern and robust circadian oscillations. Furthermore, stress expression analysis showed that MYB36, MYB48, MYB54, MYB61 actively responded to drought treatment; 19 and 10 MYB genes were involved in response to the sugarcane pokkah boeng and mosaic disease, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family in sugarcane. SsMYBs probably played an essential role in stem development and the adaptation of various stress conditions. The results will provide detailed insights and rich resources to understand the functional diversity of MYB transcription factors and facilitate the breeding of essential traits in sugarcane.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 947, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373580

RESUMO

Land plant genomes carry tens to hundreds of Resistance (R) genes to combat pathogens. The induction of antiviral R-gene-mediated resistance often results in a hypersensitive response (HR), which is characterized by virus containment in the initially infected tissues and programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cells. Alternatively, systemic HR (SHR) is sometimes observed in certain R gene-virus combinations, such that the virus systemically infects the plant and PCD induction follows the spread of infection, resulting in systemic plant death. SHR has been suggested to be the result of inefficient resistance induction; however, no quantitative comparison has been performed to support this hypothesis. In this study, we report that the average number of viral genomes that establish cell infection decreased by 28.7% and 12.7% upon HR induction by wild-type cucumber mosaic virus and SHR induction by a single-amino acid variant, respectively. These results suggest that a small decrease in the level of resistance induction can change an HR to an SHR. Although SHR appears to be a failure of resistance at the individual level, our simulations imply that suicidal individual death in SHR may function as an antiviral mechanism at the population level, by protecting neighboring uninfected kin plants.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes vpr/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Tabaco/virologia , Cucumovirus/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4941, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400639

RESUMO

Plant small RNAs are important regulatory elements that fine-tune gene expression and maintain genome integrity by silencing transposons. Reproductive organs of monocots produce abundant phased, small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs). The 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs triggered by miR2118 are highly enriched in pre-meiotic anthers, and have been found in multiple eudicot species, in contrast with prior reports of monocot specificity. The 24-nt reproductive phasiRNAs are triggered by miR2275, and are highly enriched during meiosis in many angiosperms. Here, we report the widespread presence of the 21-nt reproductive phasiRNA pathway in eudicots including canonical and non-canonical microRNA (miRNA) triggers of this pathway. In eudicots, these 21-nt phasiRNAs are enriched in pre-meiotic stages, a spatiotemporal distribution consistent with that of monocots and suggesting a role in anther development. Although this pathway is apparently absent in well-studied eudicot families including the Brassicaceae, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, our work in eudicots supports an earlier singular finding in spruce, a gymnosperm, indicating that the pathway of 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs emerged in seed plants and was lost in some lineages.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Meiose , MicroRNAs/genética , Filogenia , Picea/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360921

RESUMO

Hybrid varieties can provide the boost needed to increase stagnant wheat yields through heterosis. The lack of an efficient hybridization system, which can lower the cost of goods of hybrid seed production, has been a major impediment to commercialization of hybrid wheat varieties. In this review, we discuss the progress made in characterization of nuclear genetic male sterility (NGMS) in wheat and its advantages over two widely referenced hybridization systems, i.e., chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We have characterized four wheat genes, i.e., Ms1, Ms5, TaMs26 and TaMs45, that sporophytically contribute to male fertility and yield recessive male sterility when mutated. While Ms1 and Ms5 are Triticeae specific genes, analysis of TaMs26 and TaMs45 demonstrated conservation of function across plant species. The main features of each of these genes is discussed with respect to the functional contribution of three sub-genomes and requirements for complementation of their respective mutants. Three seed production systems based on three genes, MS1, TaMS26 and TaMS45, were developed and a proof of concept was demonstrated for each system. The Tams26 and ms1 mutants were maintained through a TDNA cassette in a Seed Production Technology-like system, whereas Tams45 male sterility was maintained through creation of a telosome addition line. These genes represent different options for hybridization systems utilizing NGMS in wheat, which can potentially be utilized for commercial-scale hybrid seed production.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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