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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125525, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639577

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline content in germinated maize kernels. MeJA treatment promoted carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline accumulation, while salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM) reduced carotenoids accumulation. There was a significant increase of 42.5% in lutein content when treated with 0.5 µM MeJA. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of seven carotenogenic genes were explored by MeJA and SHAM. The results showed that 0.5 µM MeJA significantly increased the gene expression levels of PSY, PDS, ZDS, LCYB, LCYE, BCH1, CYP97C, and their transcript levels, which were strongly associated with carotenoids content. Treatment of MeJA affected the carotenoids biosynthesis gene and led to the accumulation of carotenoids. These new findings would help to develop innovative approach for enrichment of lutein in germinated maize kernels for further development of functional food materials.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Germinação , Luteína/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Gene ; 725: 144160, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639431

RESUMO

Bambusapervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsisgrandis, a fast-growing and easily propagated bamboo species, has been extensively planted in the southern China, resulting in huge ecological benefits. In recent years, it was found that the pathogenic fungus Arthrinium phaeospermum caused the death of a large amount of bamboo. In this study, the transcriptome of B. pervariabilis × D. grandis, induced by inactivated protein AP-toxin from A. phaeospermum was sequenced and analyzed, to reveal the resistance mechanism induced by biotic agents of B. pervariabilis × D. grandis against A. phaeospermum at the gene level. Transcriptome sequencing was performed by Illumina HiSeq 2000 in order to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of B. pervariabilis × D. grandis in response to different treatment conditions. In total, 201,875,606 clean reads were obtained, and the percentage of Q30 bases in each sample was more than 94.21%. There were 6398 DEGs in the D-J group (inoculation with a pathogenic spore suspension after three days of AP-toxin induction) compared to the S-J group (inoculation with a pathogenic spore suspension after inoculation of sterile water for three days) with 3297 up-regulated and 3101 down-regulated genes. For the D-S group (inoculation with sterile water after inoculation of AP-toxin for three days), there were 2032 DEGs in comparison to the S-S group (inoculation with sterile water only), with 1035 up-regulated genes and 997 down-regulated genes. These identified genes were mainly involved in lignin and phytoprotein synthesis, tetrapyrrole synthesis, redox reactions, photosynthesis, and other processes. The fluorescence quantitative results showed that 22 pairs of primer amplification products were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated. The rate of similarity between these results and the sequencing results of the transcription group was 100%, which confirmed the authenticity of the transcriptome sequencing results. Redox proteins, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and S-adenosine-L-methionine synthetase, among others, were highly expressed; these results may indicate the level of disease resistance of the bamboo. These results provide a foundation for the further exploration of resistance genes and their functions.


Assuntos
Bambusa/genética , Sasa/genética , Xylariales/genética , China , Resistência à Doença , Fungos/patogenicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Micoses/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Toxinas Biológicas , Transcriptoma , Xylariales/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 728: 144288, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846710

RESUMO

Phytophthora root rot, caused by the soilborne oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici (Leon.), is a devastating disease causing significant losses in pepper production worldwide. To uncover the mechanism of root-mediated resistance to P. capsici we elucidated the dynamic transcriptome of whole pepper roots of the resistant accession CM334 and the susceptible accession NMCA10399 after P. capsici infection at 0, 12 and 36 hpi using RNA-Seq method. We detected that the roots of the resistant CM334 and the susceptible NMCA10399 had different transcriptional responses to P. capsici, suggesting the former activated a response to P. capsici earlier than the latter. KEGG enrichment analysis showed the pathways involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites were those in which the most DEGs were enriched. Focusing on the gene regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes, we found genes related to the key enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were activated earlier with greater changes in the resistant accession than in the susceptible one. Moreover, genes related to cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR1) were also upregulated in resistant roots but downregulated with great folder changes in susceptible roots. Briefly, we inferred that the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, especially cinnamaldehyde and lignin derived from its branches, played significant roles in pepper root resistance to P. capsici. These results provide new insight into root-mediated resistance to P. capsici in pepper.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12709-12719, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697495

RESUMO

The major components of wheat storage proteins are gliadins and glutenins, and as they contribute differently to baking quality, a balanced mixture of these components is essential. The application of foliar nitrogen (N) at anthesis is a common practice to improve protein concentration and composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a foliar N application at anthesis on storage protein gene expression during grain development and on the distribution of protein concentration and protein body size within the grain. In this experiment, an additional N application at anthesis stimulated the expression of genes of the majority of storage proteins when the N supply was low. Furthermore, it led to higher protein concentrations in the subaleurone layers, while in the center of the lobes, the protein concentrations were decreased. These changes will affect the protein recovery in white flours, as proportionally more protein might be lost during milling processes.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Farinha/análise , Proteínas de Grãos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
5.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 56, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the key enzyme in plant starch biosynthesis, is a heterotetramer composed of two identical large subunits and two identical small subunits. AGPase has plastidial and cytosolic isoforms in higher plants, whereas it is mainly detected in the cytosol of grain endosperms in cereal crops. Our previous results have shown that the expression of the TaAGPL1 gene, encoding the cytosolic large subunit of wheat AGPase, temporally coincides with the rate of starch accumulation and that its overexpression dramatically increases wheat AGPase activity and the rate of starch accumulation, suggesting an important role. METHODS: In this study, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening using the promoter of the TaAGPL1 gene as bait and a wheat grain cDNA library as prey to screen out the upstream regulators of TaAGPL1 gene. And the barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method was used to verify the functional characterization of the identified regulators in starch biosynthesis. RESULTS: Disulfide isomerase 1-2 protein (TaPDIL1-2) was screened out, and its binding to the TaAGPL1-1D promoter was further verified using another yeast one-hybrid screen. Transiently silenced wheat plants of the TaPDIL1-2 gene were obtained by using BSMV-VIGS method under field conditions. In grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaPDIL1-2-silenced wheat plants, the TaAGPL1 gene transcription levels, grain starch contents, and 1000-kernel weight also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: As important chaperones involved in oxidative protein folding, PDIL proteins have been reported to form hetero-dimers with some transcription factors, and thus, our results suggested that TaPDIL1-2 protein could indirectly and negatively regulate the expression of the TaAGPL1 gene and function in starch biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Pão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição , Triticum/genética
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3015-3021, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602848

RESUMO

Three Chrysanthemum-chalcone-isomerase genes( CmCHI) were successfully cloned by PCR from the database of Chrysanthemum transcriptome and named CmCHI1,CmCHI2 and CmCHI3,respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the base numbers of CmCHI1-3 open reading frame were 708,633 and 681 bp,encoding 235,210 and 226 amino acids,respectively. Three fusion proteins of about 30 kDa were successfully induced by prokaryotic expression technology,and the corresponding recombinant fusion proteins were isolated and purified by Ni-NTA resin column. Clustering analysis showed that the 3 CmCHI were homologous with Compositae plants,and CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 belonged to type Ⅰ CHI. CmCHI2 belongs to type Ⅳ CHI. Using ß-actin as an internal reference gene,RT-qPCR was used to detect and analyze the expression of CmCHI1-3 genes in Hangju. The results showed that the expression levels of CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 were higher,while the expression levels of CmCHI2 were lower. It was concluded that CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 were the main chalcone isomerase genes involved in the synthesis of flavonoids in Hangju,and CmCHI2 was a helper gene. Flooding treatment significantly promoted the expression of CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 genes,but had no regulatory effect on CmCHI2. The above results provided a basis for further study of the molecular regulation mechanism of CHI gene in the metabolism of flavonoids in Hangju,which laid a foundation for improving the content of flavonoids in Hangju and finally improving the medicinal quality of Hangju.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Chrysanthemum/enzimologia , Clonagem Molecular
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3588-3593, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602927

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii is a medicinal plant commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,and with pharmacological activities in anti-tumor and obesity treatment. The known active ingredients in T. wilfordii are mainly terpenoids,but with very low content. Therefore,the analysis of the biosynthesis pathway of terpenoids in T. wilfordii has become a research hotspot to solve the problem of its resources. Terpenoid synthase( TPS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a wide variety of terpenoid skeletons. In this study,a gene fragment with an ORF of 1 785 bp was cloned from T. wilfordii. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using NCBI's BLASTP,ProtParam and Interpro online tools and MEGA 6.0 software. The response of this gene to methyl jasmonate was also detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR,and its catalytic function was verified by prokaryotic expression and in vitro enzymatic assay. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the amino acid sequence encoded by this gene had both N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain of TPS,as well as the DDxx D conserved domain of the class I of TPS family. And Tw MTS gathered together with TPS-b subfamily in the Neighbor-Joining Tree constructed with known homologous TPSs. The results of RT-PCR showed that 50 µmol·L-1 MeJA 12 h could increase the expression of Tw MTS to 735 times in the control group at 12 h,and 1 644 times at 24 h. In addition,in vitro enzymatic reaction results showed that Tw MTS can catalyze the production of ß-citronellol with GPP as substrate,indicating that Tw MTS was a monoterpene synthase. The above results provided a new element for the synthetic biology database of T. wilfordii terpenoids,and laid the foundation for future biosynthesis research.


Assuntos
Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tripterygium/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Tripterygium/enzimologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMO

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Protein Pept Lett ; 26(10): 768-775, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metallothioneins (MTs) are members of a family of low molecular weight and cysteine-rich proteins that are involved in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Plants have multiple MT types that are generally divided into four subgroups according to the arrangement of Cys residues. METHODS: In the present study the E. coli cells which heterologously express four different rice MT (OsMT) isoforms were analyzed for the accumulation of two forms of chromium, Cr3+ and Cr6+. RESULTS: The results show that the transgenic bacteria were more tolerant than control cells when they were grown up in the medium comprising Cr(NO3)3.9H2O or Na2CrO4. The cells expressing OsMT1, OsMT2, OsMT3 and OsMT4 give rise to 6.5-, 2.7-, 5.5- and 2.1-fold improvements on the accumulation capacity for Cr3+ and 9-, 3-, 5- and 3- fold Cr6+ respectively compared with comparison to the control strain. Furthermore, the purified recombinant GST-OsMTs were tested for their binding ability to Cr+3 and Cr+6 in vitro. DISCUSSION: The data show that the recombinant GST-OsMT1 and GST-OsMT2 were able to bind both Cr3+ and Cr6+, in vitro. However, their binding strength was low with respect to previous tested divalent ions like Cd2+.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Metalotioneína/química , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cátions/química , Cisteína/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metalotioneína/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11805-11814, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566383

RESUMO

The impact of cross-breeding two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants on the content of phytic acid and the metabolite profile of the resulting double mutant was investigated. Progenies resulting from the cross of Os-lpa-XS110-1, a rice mutant carrying the myo-inositol kinase (OsMIK) mutated gene, and Os-lpa-XS110-2, with the multidrug resistance-associated protein ABC transporter gene 5 (OsMRP5) as the mutation target, were subjected to high-pressure ion chromatography. The reduction of the phytic acid content in the double mutant (-63%) was much more pronounced than in the single mutants (-26 and -47%). Gas chromatography-based metabolite profiling revealed a superimposition of the metabolite profiles inherited from the lpa progenitors in the double mutant progenies; the resulting metabolite signature was predominated by the OsMIK mutation effect. The study demonstrated that cross-breeding of two single lpa mutants can be employed to generate double lpa rice mutants showing both a significant reduction in the content of phytic acid and the imprinting of a specific mutation-induced metabolite signature.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/química , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12408-12418, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644287

RESUMO

Vegetables are an ideal source of human Se intake; it is important to understand selenium (Se) speciation in plants due to the distinct biological functions of selenocompounds. In this hydroponic study, the accumulation and assimilation of selenite and selenate in pak choi (Brassica rapa), a vastly consumed vegetable, were investigated at 1-168 h with HPLC speciation and RNA-sequencing. The results showed that the Se content in shoots and Se translocation factors with selenate addition were at least 10.81 and 11.62 times, respectively, higher than those with selenite addition. Selenite and selenate up-regulated the expression of SULT1;1 and PHT1;2 in roots by over 240% and 400%, respectively. Selenite addition always led to higher proportions of seleno-amino acids, while SeO42- was dominant under selenate addition (>49% of all Se species in shoots). However, in roots, SeO42- proportions declined substantially by 51% with a significant increase of selenomethionine proportions (63%) from 1 to 168 h. Moreover, with enhanced transcript of methionine gamma-lyase (60% of up-regulation compared to the control) plus high levels of methylselenium in shoots (approximately 70% of all Se species), almost 40% of Se was lost during the exposure under the selenite treatment. This work provides evidence that pak choi can rapidly transform selenite to methylselenium, and it is promising to use the plant for Se biofortification.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Brassica rapa/química , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hidroponia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Selênio/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12255-12263, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618580

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) honey, one of the most valuable honey varieties from China with unique characteristics, is vulnerable to being the target of adulteration and deliberate mislabeling of botanical origin. This study investigated the typical protein component of jujube honey to authenticate the floral source by SDS-PAGE analysis combined with LC-MS/MS identification, and its stability to heating was also evaluated. One band and two adjacent but independent bands, both with molecular weights of ∼19 kDa, were notably observed in Coomassie brilliant blue- and silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels, respectively, for jujube honey from different geographic origins, whereas that was not present for the other five botanical honey varieties, suggesting this protein component was suitable as a marker for jujube honey. LC-MS/MS identification revealed that it was constituted by one Z. jujuba-derived protein (gene number:Zj.jz016003045) and two A. mellifera-derived proteins (an uncharacterized protein with accession number tr|A0A088AC16 and a cleavage fragment from major royal jelly protein-1), and the existence of plant-derived protein was attributed to the special neutral pH of jujube honey. Additionally, these protein markers exhibited good stability to heating below 85 °C/30 min. This study provided a simple method to characterize jujube honey and first identified a protein indicator to determine the botanical origin of honey.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Ziziphus/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Mel/análise , Peso Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ziziphus/genética
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11077-11088, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525039

RESUMO

Cuticular wax accumulation in plants contributes to drought tolerance. Here, we compared the drought levels on two varieties with different genotypes in turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) and found that the drought tolerance was higher in the waxy KTRG-B48a than in the wax-free KTRG-B48b. A combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing analyses revealed that differential transcripts were mainly enriched in the wax synthesis pathway, and a splice variant (BrrWSD1-X2) was identified in the waxy KTRG-B48a. BrrWSD1-X2 had a stronger ability to synthesize wax esters than BrrWSD1-X1 using heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant H1246a. Then, we speculated that the T to C transversion of the third intron and the higher number of TA repeats in the third intron of BrrWSD1 DNA in the waxy KTRG-B48a may result in a lower efficiency of splicing recognition of the third intron, resulting in the emergence of BrrWSD1-X2 in waxy varieties.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Ésteres/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Secas , Processamento de RNA , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
14.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1732-1740, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479403

RESUMO

Plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a structural protein that can specifically recognize and bind to fungal polygalacturonase (PG). PGIP plays an important role in plant antifungal activity. In this study, a maize PGIP gene, namely ZmPGIP3, was cloned and characterized. Agarose diffusion assay suggested that ZmPGIP3 could inhibit the activity of PG. ZmPGIP3 expression was significantly induced by wounding, Rhizoctonia solani infection, jasmonate, and salicylic acid. ZmPGIP3 might be related to disease resistance. The gene encoding ZmPGIP3 was posed under the control of the ubiquitin promoter and constitutively expressed in transgenic rice. In an R. solani infection assay, ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice was more resistant to sheath blight than the wild-type rice regardless of the inoculated plant part (leaves or sheaths). Digital gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of some rice PGIP genes significantly increased in ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice, suggesting that ZmPGIP3 might activate the expression of some rice PGIP genes to resist sheath blight. Our investigation of the agronomic traits of ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice showed that ZmPGIP3 overexpression in rice did not show any detrimental phenotypic or agronomic effect. ZmPGIP3 is a promising candidate gene in the transgenic breeding for sheath blight resistance and crop improvement.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Rhizoctonia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10624-10636, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483633

RESUMO

The freshness and color quality of postharvest tea leaves can be markedly prolonged and retained by proper preservation measures. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes of chlorophyll and its derivatives in postharvest tea leaves under different low-temperature treatments using natural withering as a control. Chlorophyll decomposition was found closely related with chlorophyllide, pheophorbide, and pheophytin. Low-temperature withering could slow chlorophyll degradation in postharvest tea leaves via significant inhibition on the enzyme activity and gene expression of Mg-dechelatase, chlorophyllase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase. At the initial stage of withering, a significant increase was observed in the chlorophyll content, expression of chlorophyll-synthesis-related enzymes (such as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, etc.), and chlorophyll synthase activity in newly picked tea leaves. Moreover, an obvious decrease was found in the content of l-glutamate as the foremost precursor substance of chlorophyll synthesis. Hence, our findings revealed that the chlorophyll synthesis reaction was induced by the light-dehydration-stress in the initial withering of tea leaves. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring preservation technology in actual green tea production.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cor , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10563-10576, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487171

RESUMO

Sulfur (S) metabolism plays a vital role in Cd detoxification, but the collaboration between melatonin biosynthesis and S metabolism under Cd stress remains unaddressed. Using exogenous melatonin, melatonin-deficient tomato plants with a silenced caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, and COMT-overexpressing plants with cosuppression of sulfate transporter (SUT)1 and SUT2 genes, we found that melatonin deficiency decreased S accumulation and aggravated Cd phytotoxicity, whereas exogenous melatonin or overexpression of COMT increased S uptake and assimilation, resulting in an improved plant growth and Cd tolerance. Melatonin deficiency promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, but COMT overexpression caused the opposite effect. COMT overexpression failed to compensate the functional hierarchy of S when its uptake was inhibited by cosilencing of transporter SUT1 and SUT2. Our study provides genetic evidence that melatonin-mediated tolerance to Cd is closely associated with the efficient regulation of S metabolism, redox homeostasis, and Cd translocation in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11262-11276, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509416

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds are rich in flavonoids. However, the detailed flavonoid compositions and the molecular basis of flavonoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat seeds remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a combined metabolite profiling and transcriptome analysis to identify flavonoid compositions and characterize genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in the developing tartary buckwheat seeds. In total, 234 flavonoids, including 10 isoflavones, were identified. Of these, 80 flavonoids were significantly differential accumulation during seed development. Transcriptome analysis indicated that most structural genes and some potential regulatory genes of flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly differentially expressed in the course of seed development. Correlation analysis between transcriptome and metabolite profiling shown that the expression patterns of some differentially expressed structural genes and regulatory genes were more consistent with the changes in flavonoids profiles during seed development and promoted one SG7 subgroup R2R3-MYB transcription factors (FtPinG0009153900.01) was identified as the key regulatory gene of flavonoid biosynthesis. These findings provide valuable information for understanding the mechanism of flavonoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat seeds and the further development of tartary buckwheat health products.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11373-11379, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539240

RESUMO

Cadmium bioremediation with metal-binding proteins is primarily conducted using metallothioneins (MTs). However, in the present study, we investigated a non-MT cadmium-binding protein from Lentinula edodes (LECBP) as a remediation tool for cadmium biosorption in Escherichia coli. The results indicated that the expression of LECBP significantly enhanced the cadmium biosorption capacity of transgenic E. coli. The secondary structure and conformation of LECBP were changed after binding with cadmium as evidenced by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that carboxyl oxygen and amino nitrogen atoms were involved in the interaction between LECBP and cadmium. The results further demonstrated that glutamic acid and histidine residues are the potential binding sites. Our results have thus provided new insights into cadmium bioremediation in an aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cogumelos Shiitake/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Metalotioneína/química , Metalotioneína/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11694-11702, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558015

RESUMO

Sucrose synthase (SUS) plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism in plants. The SUS genes in licorice remain unknown. To reveal the sucrose metabolic pathway in licorice, all the 12 putative SUS genes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were systematically identified by genome mining, and two novel SUSs (GuSUS1 and GuSUS2) were isolated and characterized for the first time. Furthermore, we found that the flexible N-terminus was responsible for the low stability of plant SUSs, and deletion of redundant N-terminus improved the stability of GuSUS1 and GuSUS2. The half-life of both GuSUS1 and GuSUS2 mutants was increased by 2-fold. Finally, the GuSUS1 mutant was coupled with UGT73C11 for the glycosylation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) with uridine 5'-diphosphate disodium salt hydrate (UDP) in situ recycling, and GA conversion was increased by 7-fold. Our study not only identified the SUS genes in licorice but also provided a stable SUS mutant for the construction of an efficient UDP-recycling system for GA glycosylation.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Difosfato de Uridina/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Glucosiltransferases/química , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glicosilação , Ácido Glicirretínico/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Difosfato de Uridina/química
20.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 487(1): 264-268, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559594

RESUMO

We studied the effect of zinc excess (1000 µM) and low positive temperature (4°C) on the IRT1 gene expression in barley roots and leaves. Exposure at each of the stress factors separately induced an increase in the content of the HvIRT1 gene transcripts, which was more pronounced in leaves. At the same time, the growth of seedlings continued. Under the combined action of the stress factors in the first 3 days, the amount of mRNA also increased, but after 7 days of exposure it significantly declined, which correlated with the complete inhibition of seedling growth. It is assumed that the seedling growth inhibition under the combined effect of zinc excess and low temperature is associated with a decrease in the transcriptional activity of the HvIRT1 gene, due to the deficiency in a number of trace elements under these conditions.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente , Zinco/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
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