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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 371, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propamocarb (PM) is one of the main pesticides used for controlling cucumber downy mildew. However, due to its volatility and internal absorption, PM can easily form pesticide residues on cucumber fruits that seriously endanger human health and pollute the environment. The breeding of new cucumber varieties with a low abundance of PM residues via genetic methods constitutes an effective strategy for reducing pesticide residues and improving cucumber safety and quality. To help elucidate the molecular mechanism resulting in a low PM residue abundance in cucumber, we used the cucumber cultivar 'D0351' (which has the lowest PM residue content) as the test material and identified genes related to low PM residue abundance through high-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-Seq). RESULTS: CsMAPEG was constitutively expressed and showed both varietal and organizational differences. This gene was strongly expressed in 'D0351'. The expression levels of CsMAPEG in different cucumber tissues under PM stress were as follows: fruit>leaf>stem>root. CsMAPEG can respond to salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA) and Corynespora cassiicola Wei (Cor) stress and thus plays an important regulatory role in plant responses to abiotic and biological stresses. The PM residue abundance in the fruits of CsMAPEG-overexpressing plants was lower than those found in antisense CsMAPEG plants and wild-type plants at all tested time points. The results revealed that CsMAPEG played a positive role in reducing the PM residue abundance. A CsMAPEG sense construct increased the contents of SOD, POD and GST in cucumber fruits, enhanced the degradation and metabolism of PM in cucumber, and thus effectively reduced the pesticide residue abundance in cucumber fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The expression patterns of CsMAPEG in cucumber cultivars with high and low pesticide residue abundances and a transgenic verification analysis showed that CsMAPEG can actively respond to PM stress and effectively reduce the PM residue abundance in cucumber fruits. The results of this study will help researchers further elucidate the mechanism responsible for a low PM residue abundance in cucumber and lay a foundation for the breeding of new agricultural cucumber varieties with low pesticide residue abundances.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/farmacologia , Cucumis sativus/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Genes de Plantas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Clonagem Molecular , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/enzimologia , Cucumis sativus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transformação Genética
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 300, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits the growth, productivity, and geographical distribution of plants. A comparative proteomics and gene expression analysis was performed to better understand salinity tolerance mechanisms in chickpea. RESULTS: Ten days of NaCl treatments resulted in the differential expression of 364 reproducible spots in seedlings of two contrasting chickpea genotypes, Flip 97-43c (salt tolerant, T1) and Flip 97-196c (salt susceptible, S1). Notably, after 3 days of salinity, 80% of the identified proteins in T1 were upregulated, while only 41% in S2 had higher expression than the controls. The proteins were classified into eight functional categories, and three groups of co-expression profile. The second co-expressed group of proteins had higher and/or stable expression in T1, relative to S2, suggesting coordinated regulation and the importance of some processes involved in salinity acclimation. This group was mainly enriched in proteins associated with photosynthesis (39%; viz. chlorophyll a-b binding protein, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein, ATP synthase, RuBisCO subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), stress responsiveness (21%; viz. heat shock 70 kDa protein, 20 kDa chaperonin, LEA-2 and ascorbate peroxidase), and protein synthesis and degradation (14%; viz. zinc metalloprotease FTSH 2 and elongation factor Tu). Thus, the levels and/or early and late responses in the activation of targeted proteins explained the variation in salinity tolerance between genotypes. Furthermore, T1 recorded more correlations between the targeted transcripts and their corresponding protein expression profiles than S2. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the proteomic basis of a salt-tolerance mechanism in chickpea, and offers unexpected and poorly understood molecular resources as reliable starting points for further dissection.


Assuntos
Cicer/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Cicer/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 308, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land preparation is an important component of fragrant rice production. However, the effect of tillage on fragrant rice production is unclear, especially regarding the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is the main compound of the unique aroma of fragrant rice. This study aimed to explore 2-AP biosynthesis in fragrant rice under different tillage regimes. Three tillage methods were applied in the present study: conventional rotary tillage (CK) as the control, plough tillage (PT), and no-tillage (NT). RESULT: Compared with CK, the PT treatment increased 2-AP content in grain, upregulated the activity of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and increased contents of 1-pyrroline and pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C). Furthermore, the PT treatment increased the grain yield and nitrogen accumulation of fragrant rice. Meanwhile, the 2-AP content in the grain produced under the NT treatment was significantly higher than that in the grain produced under both the PT and CK treatments due to the enhancement of proline content and the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and △1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS). However, the present study observed that the overall production of fragrant rice under NT conditions was inferior due to lower yield, nitrogen accumulation, and anti-oxidative enzymatic activities. Moreover, the organic matter content and soil microorganism quantity increased due to PT and NT treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CK, PT improved fragrant rice grain yield and nitrogen accumulation and induced an increase in OAT activity and led to an increase in 2-AP concentration. No-tillage also produced increased 2-AP content in grain by enhancing PDH and P5CS activities but limited yields and nitrogen accumulation in fragrant rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo , Pirróis/metabolismo , Odorantes , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Prolina Oxidase/genética , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 309, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethylene promotes fruit ripening whereas 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a non-toxic antagonist of ethylene, delays fruit ripening via the inhibition of ethylene receptor. However, unsuitable 1-MCP treatment can cause fruit ripening disorders. RESULTS: In this study, we show that short-term 1-MCP treatment (400 nL•L- 1, 2 h) significantly delays papaya fruit ripening with normal ripening characteristics. However, long-term 1-MCP treatment (400 nL•L- 1, 16 h) causes a "rubbery" texture of fruit. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a total of 5529 genes were differently expressed during fruit ripening compared to freshly harvested fruits. Comprehensive functional enrichment analysis showed that the metabolic pathways of carbon metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, biosynthesis of amino acids, and starch and sucrose metabolism are involved in fruit ripening. 1-MCP treatment significantly affected fruit transcript levels. A total of 3595 and 5998 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between short-term 1-MCP, long-term 1-MCP treatment and the control, respectively. DEGs are mostly enriched in the similar pathway involved in fruit ripening. A large number of DEGs were also identified between long-term and short-term 1-MCP treatment, with most of the DEGs being enriched in carbon metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and biosynthesis of amino acids. The 1-MCP treatments accelerated the lignin accumulation and delayed cellulose degradation during fruit ripening. Considering the rubbery phenotype, we inferred that the cell wall metabolism and hormone signal pathways are closely related to papaya fruit ripening disorder. The RNA-Seq output was confirmed using RT-qPCR by 28 selected genes that were involved in cell wall metabolism and hormone signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that long-term 1-MCP treatment severely inhibited ethylene signaling and the cell wall metabolism pathways, which may result in the failure of cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Our results reveal multiple ripening-associated events during papaya fruit ripening and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying 1-MCP treatment on fruit ripening and the regulatory networks.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 287, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars display orange or yellow background skin, whereas some cultivars are particularly preferred by consumers because of their red blushed skin on the background. RESULTS: In this study, two blushed ('Jianali' and 'Hongyu') and two nonblushed ('Baixing' and 'Luntaixiaobaixing') cultivars were used to investigate the formation mechanism of blushed skin in apricots. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the blushed cultivars accumulated higher cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and peonidin-3-O-rutinoside levels during fruit ripening than the nonblushed cultivars. Based on coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), a putative anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB, PaMYB10, and seven structural genes were identified from transcriptome data. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaMYB10 clustered in the anthocyanin-related MYB clade. Sequence alignments revealed that PaMYB10 contained a bHLH-interaction motif ([DE]Lx2[RK]x3Lx6Lx3R) and an ANDV motif. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PaMYB10 was a nuclear protein. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and seven genes responsible for anthocyanin synthesis were significantly higher in blushed than in nonblushed apricots, which was consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin. In addition, bagging significantly inhibited the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and the structural genes in 'Jianali' and blocked the red coloration and anthocyanin accumulation. Transient PaMYB10 overexpression in 'Luntaixiaobaixing' fruits resulted in the red blushed skin at the maturation stage. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data reveal that three anthocyanins are responsible for the blushed skin of apricots, identify PaMYB10 as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apricots, and demonstrate that blush formation depends on light.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosídeos/genética , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 288, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae (Phytomyxea, Rhizaria) is one of the economically most important diseases of Brassica crops. The formation of hypertrophied roots accompanied by altered metabolism and hormone homeostasis is typical for infected plants. Not all roots of infected plants show the same phenotypic changes. While some roots remain uninfected, others develop galls of diverse size. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the intra-plant heterogeneity of P. brassicae root galls and symptomless roots of the same host plants (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) collected from a commercial field in Austria using transcriptome analyses. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were markedly different between symptomless roots and gall tissue. Symptomless roots showed transcriptomic traits previously described for resistant plants. Genes involved in host cell wall synthesis and reinforcement were up-regulated in symptomless roots indicating elevated tolerance against P. brassicae. By contrast, genes involved in cell wall degradation and modification processes like expansion were up-regulated in root galls. Hormone metabolism differed between symptomless roots and galls. Brassinosteroid-synthesis was down-regulated in root galls, whereas jasmonic acid synthesis was down-regulated in symptomless roots. Cytokinin metabolism and signalling were up-regulated in symptomless roots with the exception of one CKX6 homolog, which was strongly down-regulated. Salicylic acid (SA) mediated defence response was up-regulated in symptomless roots, compared with root gall tissue. This is probably caused by a secreted benzoic acid/salicylic acid methyl transferase from the pathogen (PbBSMT), which was one of the highest expressed pathogen genes in gall tissue. The PbBSMT derived Methyl-SA potentially leads to increased pathogen tolerance in uninfected roots. CONCLUSIONS: Infected and uninfected roots of clubroot infected plants showed transcriptomic differences similar to those previously described between clubroot resistant and susceptible hosts. The here described intra-plant heterogeneity suggests, that for a better understanding of clubroot disease targeted, spatial analyses of clubroot infected plants will be vital in understanding this economically important disease.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plasmodioforídeos/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Brassica/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 294, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is the third largest oil seed crop in the world. The seeds of this plant store lipids in oil bodies, and oleosin is the most important structural protein in oil bodies. However, the function of oleosin in oil crops has received little attention. RESULTS: In the present study, 48 oleosin sequences from the Brassica napus genome were identified and divided into four lineages (T, U, SH, SL). Synteny analysis revealed that most of the oleosin genes were conserved, and all of these genes experienced purifying selection during evolution. Three and four important oleosin genes from Arabidopsis and B. napus, respectively, were cloned and analyzed for function in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of these oleosin genes in Arabidopsis increased the seed oil content slightly, except for BnaOLE3. Further analysis revealed that the average oil body size of the transgenic seeds was slightly larger than that of the wild type (WT), except for BnaOLE1. The fatty acid profiles showed that the linoleic acid content (13.3% at most) increased and the peanut acid content (11% at most) decreased in the transgenic lines. In addition, the seed size and thousand-seed weight (TSW) also increased in the transgenic lines, which could lead to increased total lipid production. CONCLUSION: We identified oleosin genes in the B. napus genome, and overexpression of oleosin in Arabidopsis seeds increased the seed weight and linoleic acid content (13.3% at most).


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintenia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 292, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oilseed Camelina sativa is grown for a range of applications, including for biofuel, biolubricants, and as a source of omega-3 fatty acids for the aquaculture feed industry. The seed meal co-product is used as a source of protein for animal feed; however, the low value of the meal hinders profitability and more widespread application of camelina. The nutritional quality of the seed meal is largely determined by the abundance of specific seed storage proteins and their amino acid composition. Manipulation of seed storage proteins has been shown to be an effective means for either adjustment of nutritional content of seeds or for enhancing accumulation of high-value recombinant proteins in seeds. RESULTS: CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used to generate deletions in the first exon of the three homoeologous genes encoding the seed storage protein CRUCIFERIN C (CsCRUC), creating an identical premature stop-codon in each and resulting in a CsCRUC knockout line. The mutant alleles were detected by applying a droplet digital PCR drop-off assay. The quantitative nature of this technique is particularly valuable when applied to polyploid species because it can accurately determine the number of mutated alleles in a gene family. Loss of CRUC protein did not alter total seed protein content; however, the abundance of other cruciferin isoforms and other seed storage proteins was altered. Consequently, seed amino acid content was significantly changed with an increase in the proportion of alanine, cysteine and proline, and decrease of isoleucine, tyrosine and valine. CsCRUC knockout seeds did not have changed total oil content, but the fatty acid profile was significantly altered with increased relative abundance of all saturated fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the plasticity of the camelina seed proteome and establishes a CRUC-devoid line, providing a framework for modifying camelina seed protein composition. The results also illustrate a possible link between the composition of the seed proteome and fatty acid profile.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Globulinas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Sequência de Bases , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Globulinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 296, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature senescence of flag leaf severely affects wheat yield and quality. Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is the most obvious symptom during leaf senescence and catalyzed by a series of enzymes. Pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase (Pheophytinase, PPH) gene encodes a Chl degradation hydrolase. RESULTS: In this study, the coding, genomic and promoter sequences of wheat TaPPH-A gene were cloned. The corresponding lengths were 1467 bp, 4479 bp and 3666 bp, respectively. Sequence structure analysis showed that TaPPH-A contained five exons and four introns. After the multiple sequences alignment of TaPPH-A genome from 36 accessions in a wheat diversity panel, four SNPs and one 2-bp InDel were observed, which formed two haplotypes, TaPPH-7A-1 and TaPPH-7A-2. Based on the SNP at 1299 bp (A/G), a molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS was developed to distinguish allelic variation (A/G). Using the molecular markers, 13 SSR, and 116 SNP markers, a linkage map of chromosome 7A were integrated. TaPPH-A was mapped on the chromosome region flanked by Xwmc9 (0.94 cM) and AX-95634545 (1.04 cM) on 7A in a DH population. Association analysis between TaPPH-7A allelic variation and agronomic traits found that TaPPH-7A was associated with TGW in 11 of 12 environments and Chl content at grain-filling stage under drought stress using Population 1 consisted of 323 accessions. The accessions possessed TaPPH-7A-1 (A) had higher TGW and Chl content than those possessed TaPPH-7A-2 (G), thus TaPPH-7A-1 (A) was a favorable allelic variation. By analyzing the frequency of favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) in Population 2 with 157 landraces and Population 3 with 348 modern cultivars, we found it increased from pre-1950 (0) to 1960s (54.5%), then maintained a relatively stable level about 56% from 1960s to 1990s. CONCLUSION: These results suggested the favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) should be valuable in enhancing grain yield by improving the source (chlorophyll content) and sink (the developing grain) simultaneously. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS could be integrated into a breeding kit of screening high TGW wheat for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 298, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors play important roles in the growth, development and stress responses of plants, including (presumably) physic nut (Jatropha curcas), which has high drought and salinity tolerance. However, although physic nut's genome has been released, there is little knowledge of the functions, expression profiles and evolutionary histories of the species' HD-ZIP genes. RESULTS: In this study, 32 HD-ZIP genes were identified in the physic nut genome (JcHDZs) and divided into four groups (I-IV) based on phylogenetic analysis with homologs from rice, maize and Arabidopsis. The analysis also showed that most of the JcHDZ genes were closer to members from Arabidopsis than to members from rice and maize. Of the 32 JcHDZ genes, most showed differential expression patterns among four tissues (root, stem cortex, leaf, and seed). Expression profile analysis based on RNA-seq data indicated that 15 of the JcHDZ genes respond to at least one abiotic stressor (drought and/or salinity) in leaves at least at one time point. Transient expression of a JcHDZ16-YFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts cells showed that JcHDZ16 is localized in the nucleus. In addition, rice seedlings transgenically expressing JcHDZ16 had lower proline contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) together with higher relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents under salt stress conditions (indicating higher sensitivity) than wild-type plants. The transgenic seedlings also showed increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA, and increases in the transcriptional abundance of several salt stress-responsive genes were impaired in their responses to salt stress. Further data on JcHDZ16-overexpressing plants subjected to salt stress treatment verified the putative role of JcHDZ genes in salt stress responses. CONCLUSION: Our results may provide foundations for further investigation of functions of JcHDZ genes in responses to abiotic stress, and promote application of JcHDZ genes in physic nut breeding.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Jatropha/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 299, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SPL (SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like) is a class of plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in many growth and developmental processes, including shoot and inflorescence branching, embryonic development, signal transduction, leaf initiation, phase transition, and flower and fruit development. The SPL gene family has been identified and characterized in many species but has not been well studied in tartary buckwheat, which is an important edible and medicinal crop. RESULTS: In this study, 24 Fagopyrum tataricum SPL (FtSPL) genes were identified and renamed according to the chromosomal distribution of the FtSPL genes. According to the amino acid sequence of the SBP domain and gene structure, the SPL genes were divided into eight groups (group I to group VII) by phylogenetic tree analysis. A total of 10 motifs were detected in the tartary buckwheat SPL genes. The expression patterns of 23 SPL genes in different tissues and fruits at different developmental stages (green fruit stage, discoloration stage and initial maturity stage) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). CONCLUSIONS: The tartary buckwheat genome contained 24 SPL genes, and most of the genes were expressed in different tissues. qRT-PCR showed that FtSPLs played important roles in the growth and development of tartary buckwheat, and genes that might regulate flower and fruit development were preliminarily identified. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the SBP-box gene family in tartary buckwheat and lays a significant foundation for further studies on the functional characteristics of FtSPL genes and improvement of tartary buckwheat crops.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9265-9276, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361479

RESUMO

Fungal infections significantly alter the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants, but the mechanisms for VOCs affecting fungal infections of plants remain largely unknown. Here, we found that infection by Botrytis cinerea upregulated linalool production by strawberries and fumigation with linalool was able to inhibit the infection of fruits by the fungus. Linalool treatment downregulated the expression of rate-limiting enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, and this reduced the ergosterol content in the fungi cell membrane and impaired membrane integrity. Linalool treatment also caused damage to mitochondrial membranes by collapsing mitochondrial membrane potential and also downregulated genes involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in a significant decrease in the ATP content. Linalool treatment increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in response to which the treated fungal cells produced more of the ROS scavenger pyruvate. RNA-Seq and proteomic analysis data showed that linalool treatment slowed the rates of transcription and translation.


Assuntos
Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
13.
Plant Sci ; 286: 17-27, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300138

RESUMO

The plant-specific gibberellic acid (GA)-stimulated transcript gene family is critical for plant growth and development. There are 10 family members in rice (Oryza sativa), known as OsGASRs. However, few have been functionally characterized. Here, we investigated the function of OsGASR9 in rice. OsGASR9 transcripts were detected in various tissues, with the lowest and highest levels in leaves and panicles, respectively. Greater mRNA levels accumulated in young, compared with in old, panicles and spikelets. OsGASR9 localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. Transgenic RNA interference-derived lines in the Zhonghua 11 background exhibited reduced plant height, grain size and yield compared with the wild-type. The two osgasr9 mutants in the Nipponbare background showed similar phenotypes. Conversely, the overexpression of OsGASR9 in the two backgrounds increased plant height and grain size. A significantly increased grain yield per plant was also observed in the overexpression lines having a Nipponbare background. Furthermore, by measuring the GA-induced lengths of the second leaf sheaths and α-amylase activity levels of seeds, we concluded that OsGASR9 is a positive regulator of responses to GA in rice. Thus, OsGASR9 may regulate plant height, grain size and yield through the GA pathway and could have an application value in breeding.


Assuntos
Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência de RNA
14.
Plant Sci ; 286: 28-36, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300139

RESUMO

MYB family genes act as important regulators modulating the response to abiotic stress in plants. However, much less is known about MYB proteins in cotton. Here, we found that a cotton MYB gene, GhMYB73, was induced by NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA). Silencing GhMYB73 expression in cotton increased sensitivity to salt stress. The cotyledon greening rate of Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing GhMYB73 under NaCl or mannitol treatment was significantly enhanced during the seedling germination stage. What's more, several osmotic stress-induced genes, such as AtNHX1, AtSOS3 and AtP5CS1, were more highly induced in the over-expression lines than in wild type under salt treatment, supporting the hypothesis that GhMYB73 contributes to salinity tolerance by improving osmotic stress resistance. Arabidopsis lines over-expressing GhMYB73 had superior germination and cotyledon greening under ABA treatment, and some abiotic stress-induced genes involved in ABA pathways (AtPYL8, AtABF3, AtRD29B and AtABI5), had increased transcription levels under salt-stress conditions in these lines. Furthermore, we found that GhMYB73 physically interacts with GhPYL8 and AtPYL8, suggesting that GhMYB73 regulates ABA signaling during salinity stress response. Taken together, over-expression of GhMYB73 significantly increases tolerance to salt and ABA stress, indicating that it can potentially be used in transgenic technology approaches to improve cotton salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Gossypium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genes myb , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Plant Sci ; 286: 57-67, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300142

RESUMO

Phosphorus in plant cells occurs in inorganic form as both ortho- and pyrophosphate or bound to organic compounds, like e.g., nucleotides, phosphorylated metabolites, phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins, or phytate as P storage in the vacuoles of seeds. Individual compartments of the cell are surrounded by membranes that are selective barriers to avoid uncontrolled solute exchange. A controlled exchange of phosphate or phosphorylated metabolites is accomplished by specific phosphate transporters (PHTs) and the plastidial phosphate translocator family (PTs) of the inner envelope membrane. Plastids, in particular chloroplasts, are the site of various anabolic sequences of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Apart from their role in metabolism PHTs and PTs are presumed to be also involved in communication between organelles and plant organs. Here we will focus on the integration of phosphate transport and homeostasis in signaling processes. Recent developments in this field will be critically assessed and potential future developments discussed. In particular, the occurrence of various plastid types in one organ (i.e. the leaf) with different functions with respect to metabolism or sensing, as has been documented recently following a tissue-specific proteomics approach (Beltran et al., 2018), will shed new light on functional aspects of phosphate homeostasis.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Citoplasma/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Plant Sci ; 286: 68-77, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300143

RESUMO

Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit worldwide; however, the development of the apple industry is limited by fungal disease. Apple bitter rot caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most devastating apple diseases, leading to large-scale losses in apple quality and production. WRKY transcription factors have important functions in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, their biological and molecular functions in non-model plants, including apple, remain poorly understood. Here, we isolated MdWRKY100 from 'Hanfu' apple. The MdWRKY100 protein fused to green fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus, and MdWRKY100 in yeast cells displayed transcriptional activation activity, which is consistent with the function of a transcription factor. Additionally, several putative cis-acting elements involved in abiotic stress responsiveness were also identified in the MdWRKY100 promoter. Transcriptional analysis revealed that MdWRKY100 was expressed ubiquitously in all examined apple organs. Overexpression in apple increased resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, while RNAi silencing transgenic plants were more sensitive to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Collectively, our data demonstrate that MdWRKY100 is a positive regulator of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resistance in apple.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Plant Sci ; 286: 7-16, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300144

RESUMO

Cotton fibers are developed epidermal cells of the seed coat and contain large amounts of cellulose and minor lignin-like components. Lignin in the cell walls of cotton fibers effectively provides mechanical strength and is also presumed to restrict fiber elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis. To analyze the effect of lignin and lignin-like phenolics on fiber quality and the transcriptional regulation of lignin synthesis in cotton fibers, we characterized the function of a bHLH transcription factor, GhbHLH18, during fiber elongation stage. GhbHLH18 knock-down plants have longer and stronger fibers, and accumulate less lignin-like phenolics in mature cotton fibers than control plants. By mining public transcriptomic data for developing fibers, we discovered that GhbHLH18 is coexpressed with most lignin synthesis pathway genes. Furthermore, we showed that GhbHLH18 strongly binds to the E-box in the promoter region of GhPER8 and activates its expression. Transient over expression of GhPER8 protein in tobacco leaves significantly decreased the content of coniferyl alcohol and sinapic alcohol-the substrate respectively for G-lignin and S-lignin biosynthesis. These results suggest that GhbHLH18 is negatively associated with fiber quality by activating peroxidase-mediated lignin metabolism, thus the paper represents an alternative strategy to improve fiber quality.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão/análise , Gossypium/genética , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Plant Sci ; 286: 89-97, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300146

RESUMO

Cottonseed oil is one of the most important renewable resources for edible oil and biodiesel. To detect QTLs associated with cottonseed oil content (OC) and identify candidate genes that regulate oil biosynthesis, a panel of upland cotton germplasm lines was selected among those previously used to perform GWASs in China. In the present study, 13 QTLs associated with 53 common SNPs on 13 chromosomes were identified in multiple environments based on 15,369 polymorphic SNPs using the Cotton63 KSNP array. Of these, the OC QTL qOC-Dt5-1 delineated by nine SNPs occurred in a confidence interval of 4 SSRs with previously reported OC QTLs. A combined transcriptome and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that a peroxidase gene (GhPRXR1) was predominantly expressed during the middle-late stage (20-35 days post anthesis) of ovule development. The overexpression of GhPRXR1 in yeast significantly increased the OC by 20.01-37.25 %. Suppression of GhPRXR1 gene expression in the virus-induced gene-silenced cotton reduced the OC by 18.11%. Our results contribute to identifying more OC QTLs and verifying a candidate gene that influences cottonseed oil biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gossypium/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Óleos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , China , Gossypium/química , Gossypium/enzimologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 316, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HKT channels mediate sodium uniport or sodium and potassium symport in plants. Monocotyledons express a higher number of HKT proteins than dicotyledons, and it is only within this clade of HKT channels that cation symport mechanisms are found. The prevailing ion composition in the extracellular medium affects the transport abilities of various HKT channels by changing their selectivity or ion transport rates. How this mutual effect is achieved at the molecular level is still unknown. Here, we built a homology model of the monocotyledonous OsHKT2;2, which shows sodium and potassium symport activity. We performed molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of sodium and potassium ions to investigate the mutual effect of cation species. RESULTS: By analyzing ion-protein interactions, we identified a cation coordination site on the extracellular protein surface, which is formed by residues P71, D75, D501 and K504. Proline and the two aspartate residues coordinate cations, while K504 forms salt bridges with D75 and D501 and may be involved in the forwarding of cations towards the pore entrance. Functional validation via electrophysiological experiments confirmed the biological relevance of the predicted ion coordination site and identified K504 as a central key residue. Mutation of the cation coordinating residues affected the functionality of HKT only slightly. Additional in silico mutants and simulations of K504 supported experimental results. CONCLUSION: We identified an extracellular cation coordination site, which is involved in ion coordination and influences the conduction of OsHKT2;2. This finding proposes a new viewpoint in the discussion of how the mutual effect of variable ion species may be achieved in HKT channels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Cátions/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Eletrofisiologia , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xenopus laevis
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8441-8451, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339045

RESUMO

The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 µmol mol-1) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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