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1.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 539-548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879253

RESUMO

We investigated the mechanism underlying intestinal cadmium (Cd) uptake based on the mediators (metal transporters) of essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca, under normal conditions in female rats. These elements interact with Cd uptake from the intestinal tract. Cd concentration at each site of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) increased as Cd exposure increased. However, Cd concentration was the highest in the duodenum. The gene expression of ZIP14, DMT1, and ATP7A increased with increase in Cd concentration. Further, Cu concentration decreased as Cd concentration increased. In contrast, Fe concentration displayed a decreasing tendency with the increase in Cd concentration. The gene expression levels of ZIP14, DMT1, and ATP7A were positively correlated with Cd concentration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the positive sites of ZIP14 and DMT1 scattered in the area adjacent to the goblet cells, resorbable epithelial cells, and lamina propria in the duodenum tissue, according to the increase in Cd concentration. Cd is induced to synthesize and bind to metallothionein (MT-I and -II) and accumulate in the intestinal tissues, mainly in the duodenum. Such findings suggest that Cd, a contaminant element, is taken up from the intestinal tract by multiple metal transporters such as Cu, Fe, and Zn, thereby involving in the intestinal Cd absorption.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Cobre , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Duodeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Ferro , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Ratos , Zinco
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20235-20243, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753384

RESUMO

All cells require Mg2+ to replicate and proliferate. The macrophage protein Slc11a1 is proposed to protect mice from invading microbes by causing Mg2+ starvation in host tissues. However, the Mg2+ transporter MgtB enables the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to cause disease in mice harboring a functional Slc11a1 protein. Here, we report that, unexpectedly, the Salmonella small protein MgtR promotes MgtB degradation by the protease FtsH, which raises the question: How does Salmonella preserve MgtB to promote survival inside macrophages? We establish that the Salmonella small protein MgtU prevents MgtB proteolysis, even when MgtR is absent. Like MgtB, MgtU is necessary for survival in Slc11a1 +/+ macrophages, resistance to oxidative stress, and growth under Mg2+ limitation conditions. The Salmonella Mg2+ transporter MgtA is not protected by MgtU despite sharing 50% amino acid identity with MgtB and being degraded in an MgtR- and FtsH-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the mgtB, mgtR, and mgtU genes are part of the same transcript, providing a singular example of transcript-specifying proteins that promote and hinder degradation of the same target. Our findings demonstrate that small proteins can confer pathogen survival inside macrophages by altering the abundance of related transporters, thereby furthering homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Magnésio/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Linhagem Celular , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Virulência
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109217, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750324

RESUMO

Developing brain is very sensitive to the influence of environmental factors during gestation and the neonatal period. The aim of the study is to assess cobalt and iron accumulation in the brain as well as changes in the expression of iron-regulatory proteins transferrin receptor 1, hepcidin, and ferroportin in suckling mice. Perinatal exposure to cobalt chloride increased significantly cobalt content in brain tissue homogenates of 18-day-old (d18) and 25-day-old (d25) mice inducing alterations in brain iron homeostasis. Higher degree of transferrin receptor 1 expression was demonstrated in cobalt chloride-exposed mice with no substantial changes between d18 and d25 mice. A weak ferroportin expression was found in 18-day-old control and cobalt-treated mouse brain. Cobalt exposure of d25 mice resulted in increased ferroportin expression in brain compared to the untreated age-matched control group. Hepcidin level in cobalt-exposed groups was decreased in d18 mice and slightly increased in d25 mice. The obtained data contribute for the better understanding of metal toxicity impact on iron homeostasis in the developing brain with further possible implications in neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cobalto/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras do Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Cobalto/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepcidinas/genética , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras do Ferro/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 130-139, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645461

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that triggers toxic effects in various tissues such as the kidney, liver, and lung. Cd can also cause abnormal iron metabolism, leading to anemia. Iron homeostasis is regulated by intestinal absorption. However, whether Cd affects the iron absorption pathway is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the intestinal iron transporter system and Cd-induced iron deficiency anemia. C57BL/6J female and male mice, 129/Sv female mice, and DBA/2 female mice were given a single oral dose of CdCl2 by gavage. After 3 or 24 h, Cd decreased serum iron concentrations and inhibited the expression of iron transport-related genes in the duodenum. In particular, Cd decreased the levels of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin 1 in the duodenum. In addition, human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells were treated with CdCl2. After 72 h, Cd decreased the expression of iron transport-related factors in Caco-2 cells with a pattern similar to that seen in the murine duodenum. These findings suggest that Cd inhibits iron absorption through direct suppression of iron transport in duodenal enterocytes and contributes to abnormal iron metabolism.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/induzido quimicamente , Cádmio/toxicidade , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118135, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712297

RESUMO

In mammals, ferroportin (FPN) is the only known iron exporter, and it functions as a "water tap" in controlling iron absorption from the diet, iron egress from macrophages and other cells. However, its function is implemented not by itself but by a complex with many partners involved. In the current study, we elaborate on the direct partners in calibrating the capability of FPN in exporting iron out of cells, such as ceruloplasmin (CP), hephaestin (HP) and poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2). We also recapitulate the current understandings of the regulation of FPN concentration at the post-transcriptional level. Considering the importance of FPN in finetuning iron homeostasis, a few therapeutic options are pursued to target FPN and its partners in treating iron diseases. Nonetheless, limited knowledge has been obtained on direct and indirect partners of FPN, so that more efforts should be invested including their therapeutic values.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Células/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/genética , Ligação Proteica , Transcrição Genética
6.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 545-560, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504260

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGTγ-2, a trihelix transcription factor, is a positive regulator of rice responses to salt stress by regulating the expression of ion transporters. Salinity stress seriously restricts rice growth and yield. Trihelix transcription factors (GT factors) specifically bind to GT elements and play a diverse role in plant morphological development and responses to abiotic stresses. In our previous study, we found that the GT-1 element (GAAAAA) is a key element in the salinity-induced OsRAV2 promoter. Here, we identified a rice OsGTγ family member, OsGTγ-2, which directly interacted with the GT-1 element in the OsRAV2 promoter. OsGTγ-2 specifically targeted the nucleus, was mainly expressed in roots, sheathes, stems and seeds, and was induced by salinity, osmotic and oxidative stresses and abscisic acid (ABA). The seed germination rate, seedling growth and survival rate under salinity stress was improved in OsGTγ-2 overexpressing lines (PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2). In contrast, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated OsGTγ-2 knockout lines (osgtγ-2) showed salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. In response to salt stress, different Na+ and K+ acclamation patterns were observed in PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2 lines and osgtγ-2 plants were observed. The molecular mechanism of OsGTγ-2 in rice salt adaptation was also investigated. Several major genes responsible for ion transporting, such as the OsHKT2; 1, OsHKT1; 3 and OsNHX1 were transcriptionally regulated by OsGTγ-2. A subsequent yeast one-hybrid assay and EMSA indicated that OsGTγ-2 directly interacted with the promoters of OsHKT2; 1, OsNHX1 and OsHKT1; 3. Taken together, these results suggest that OsGTγ-2 is an important positive regulator involved in rice responses to salt stress and suggest a potential role for OsGTγ-2 in regulating salinity adaptation in rice.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Plântula/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(3): 211-221, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587097

RESUMO

Amino acid-derived isoindolines are synthetic compounds that were created with the idea of investigating their biological actions. The amino acid moiety was included on the grounds that it may help to avoid toxic effects. Recently, the isoindoline MDIMP was shown to inhibit both cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and voltage-dependent calcium channels. Here, we revealed that MDIMP binds preferentially to low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels. Using a holding potential of -90 mV, the following IC50 values were found (in micromolars): >1000 (CaV2.3), 957 (CaV1.3), 656 (CaV1.2), 219 (CaV3.2), and 132 (CaV3.1). Moreover, the isoindoline also promoted both accelerated inactivation kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and a modest upregulation of CaV1.3 and CaV2.3. Additional data indicate that although MDIMP binds to the closed state of the channels, it has more preference for the inactivated one. Concerning CaV3.1, the compound did not alter the shape of the instantaneous current-voltage curve, and substituting one or two residues in the selectivity filter drastically increased the IC50 value, suggesting that MDIMP binds to the extracellular side of the pore. However, an outward current failed in removing the inhibition, which implies an alternative mechanism may be involved. The enantiomer (R)-MDIMP [methyl (R)-2-(1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-4-methylpentanoate], on the other hand, was synthesized and evaluated, but it did not improve the affinity to LVA channels. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the possible underlying mechanisms and pharmacological relevance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We have studied the regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels by MDIMP, which disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac myocytes. The latter effect is more potent in atrial than ventricular myocytes, and this could be explained by our results showing that MDIMP preferentially blocks low-voltage-activated channels. Our data also provide mechanistic insights about the blockade and suggest that MDIMP is a promising member of the family of Ca2+ channel blockers, with possible application to the inhibition of subthreshold membrane depolarizations.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Isoindóis/síntese química , Isoindóis/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Isoindóis/química
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 561-580, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405802

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CmHKT1;1 selectively exports Na+ from plant cells. Upon NaCl stress, its expression increased in a salt-tolerant melon cultivar. Overexpression of CmHKT1;1 increased transgenic Arabidopsis salt tolerance through improved K+/Na+ balance. High-affinity K+ transporters (HKTs) are thought to be involved in reducing Na+ in plant shoots under salt stress and modulating salt tolerance, but their function in a moderately salt-tolerant species of melon (Cucumis melo L.) remains unclear. In this study, a Na+ transporter gene, CmHKT1;1 (GenBank accession number: MK986658), was isolated from melons based on genome data. The transcript of CmHKT1;1 was relatively more abundant in roots than in stems or leaves from melon seedlings. The tobacco transient expression system showed that CmHKT1;1 was plasma-membrane localized. Upon salt stress, CmHKT1;1 expression was more strongly upregulated in a salt-tolerant melon cultivar, 'Bingxuecui' (BXC) compared with a salt-sensitive cultivar, 'Yulu' (YL). Electrophysiological evidence demonstrated that CmHKT1;1 only transported Na+, rather than K+, when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Overexpression of CmHKT1;1 increased salt sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under NaCl treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis plants accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Na+ in shoots than wild type plants and showed a better K+/Na+ balance, leading to better Fv/Fm, root length, biomass, and enhanced plant growth. The CmHKT1;1 gene may serve as a useful candidate for improving crop salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clonagem Molecular , Cucumis melo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320289

RESUMO

Suboptimal lactation is a common, yet underappreciated cause for early cessation of breastfeeding. Molecular regulation of mammary gland function is critical to the process lactation; however, physiological factors underlying insufficient milk production are poorly understood. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 is critical for regulation of mammary gland development and maturation during puberty, lactation, and postlactation gland remodeling. Numerous genetic variants in the gene encoding ZnT2 (SLC30A2) are associated with low milk Zn concentration and result in severe Zn deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants. However, the functional impacts of genetic variation in ZnT2 on key mammary epithelial cell functions have not yet been systematically explored at the cellular level. Here we determined a common mutation in SLC30A2/ZnT2 substituting serine for threonine at amino acid 288 (Thr288Ser) was found in 20% of women producing low milk volume (n = 2/10) but was not identified in women producing normal volume. Exploration of cellular consequences in vitro using phosphomimetics showed the serine substitution promoted preferential phosphorylation of ZnT2, driving localization to the lysosome and increasing lysosome biogenesis and acidification. While the substitution did not initiate lysosome-mediated cell death, cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate the Thr288Ser mutation in SLC30A2/ZnT2 impairs critical functions of mammary epithelial cells and suggest a role for genetic variation in the regulation of milk production and lactation performance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mutação , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação/genética , Lisossomos/genética , Biogênese de Organelas , Fosforilação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Science ; 368(6487): 186-189, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273468

RESUMO

Bleeding and altered iron distribution occur in multiple gastrointestinal diseases, but the importance and regulation of these changes remain unclear. We found that hepcidin, the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, is required for tissue repair in the mouse intestine after experimental damage. This effect was independent of hepatocyte-derived hepcidin or systemic iron levels. Rather, we identified conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) as a source of hepcidin that is induced by microbial stimulation in mice, prominent in the inflamed intestine of humans, and essential for tissue repair. cDC-derived hepcidin acted on ferroportin-expressing phagocytes to promote local iron sequestration, which regulated the microbiota and consequently facilitated intestinal repair. Collectively, these results identify a pathway whereby cDC-derived hepcidin promotes mucosal healing in the intestine through means of nutritional immunity.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Deleção de Genes , Hepcidinas/genética , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Fagócitos/metabolismo
11.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(4): 469-478, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152546

RESUMO

Solute carriers (SLCs) are the largest family of transmembrane transporters in humans and are major determinants of cellular metabolism. Several SLCs have been shown to be required for the uptake of chemical compounds into cellular systems, but systematic surveys of transporter-drug relationships in human cells are currently lacking. We performed a series of genetic screens in a haploid human cell line against 60 cytotoxic compounds representative of the chemical space populated by approved drugs. By using an SLC-focused CRISPR-Cas9 library, we identified transporters whose absence induced resistance to the drugs tested. This included dependencies involving the transporters SLC11A2/SLC16A1 for artemisinin derivatives and SLC35A2/SLC38A5 for cisplatin. The functional dependence on SLCs observed for a significant proportion of the screened compounds suggests a widespread role for SLCs in the uptake and cellular activity of cytotoxic drugs and provides an experimentally validated set of SLC-drug associations for a number of clinically relevant compounds.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas Carreadoras de Solutos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Proteínas Carreadoras de Solutos/fisiologia , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 250: 117573, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209423

RESUMO

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a consequence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, resulting in oxidative damage and neurocognitive impairment. This study was designed to determine whether abnormal iron metabolism occurs in the brain under conditions of CIH and whether Huperzine A (HuA) could improve abnormal iron metabolism and neurological damage. The mouse model of CIH was established by reducing the percentage of inspired O2 (FiO2) from 21% to 9% 20 times/h for 8 h/day, and Huperzine A (HuA, 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during CIH exposure for 21 days. HuA significantly improved cognitive impairment and neuronal damage in the hippocampus of CIH mice via increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibiting caspase-3 cleavage. HuA considerably decreased ROS levels by downregulating the high levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX 2, NOX 4) mediated by CIH. There was an overload of iron, which was characterized by high levels of ferritin (FTL and FTH) and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and low levels of ferroportin 1 (FPN1) in the hippocampus of CIH mice. Decreased levels of TfR1 and FTL proteins observed in HuA treated CIH group, could reduce iron overload in hippocampus. HuA increased PSD 95 protein expression, CREB activation and BDNF protein expression to protect against synaptic plasticity impairment induced by CIH. HuA acts as an effective iron chelator to attenuate apoptosis, oxidative stress and synaptic plasticity mediated by CIH.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia/patologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose , Comportamento Animal , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasticidade Neuronal , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(3): 24, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182331

RESUMO

Purpose: Elevated levels of transforming-growth-factor (TGF)-ß2 in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and aqueous humor are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The underlying mechanism includes alteration of extracellular matrix homeostasis through Smad-dependent and independent signaling. Smad4, an essential co-Smad, upregulates hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Here, we explored whether TGF-ß2 upregulates hepcidin, implicating iron in the pathogenesis of POAG. Methods: Primary human TM cells and human and bovine ex vivo anterior segment organ cultures were exposed to bioactive TGF-ß2, hepcidin, heparin (a hepcidin antagonist), or N-acetyl carnosine (an antioxidant), and the change in the expression of hepcidin, ferroportin, ferritin, and TGF-ß2 was evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was quantified with dihydroethidium, an ROS-sensitive dye. Results: Primary human TM cells and bovine TM tissue synthesize hepcidin locally, which is upregulated by bioactive TGF-ß2. Hepcidin downregulates ferroportin, its downstream target, increasing ferritin and iron-catalyzed ROS. This causes reciprocal upregulation of TGF-ß2 at the transcriptional and translational levels. Heparin downregulates hepcidin, and reduces TGF-ß2-mediated increase in ferritin and ROS. Notably, both heparin and N-acetyl carnosine reduce TGF-ß2-mediated reciprocal upregulation of TGF-ß2. Conclusions: The above observations suggest that TGF-ß2 and hepcidin form a self-sustained feed-forward loop through iron-catalyzed ROS. This loop is partially disrupted by a hepcidin antagonist and an anti-oxidant, implicating iron and ROS in TGF-ß2-mediated POAG. We propose that modification of currently available hepcidin antagonists for ocular use may prove beneficial for the therapeutic management of TGF-ß2-associated POAG.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Western Blotting , Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Carnosina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Heparina/farmacologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Doadores de Tecidos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Toxicology ; 436: 152428, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151602

RESUMO

The increase in human infertility prevalence due to male reproductive disorders has been associated with extensive endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure. Acrylamide (AA) is a compound formed spontaneously during heat processing of some foods that are mainly consumed by children and adolescents. In this study, we evaluated the prepubertal AA exposure effects on male adult reproductive physiology using a prepubertal experimental model to analyze the pubertal development, spermatogenesis hormones levels and genes expression involved in male reproductive function. This study is the first one to use the validated protocol to correlate the AA exposure with puberty development, as well as the AA-induced endocrine disrupting effects on reproductive axis. AA did not affect the age at puberty, the reproductive organ's weight and serum hormonal levels. AA reduces spermatogenesis, induces morphological and functional defects on sperm and alters transcript expression of sexual hormone receptors (Ar and Esr2), the transcript expression of Tnf, Egr2, Rhcg and Lrrc34. These findings suggest that excessive AA consumption may impair their reproductive capacity at adulthood, despite no changes in hormonal profile being observed.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Desenvolvimento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteína 2 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Proteína 2 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130071

RESUMO

Proper amounts of copper supplemented in livestock feed improve the physical growth and traits of farm animals. The pancreas is an important organ with both exocrine and endocrine portions. To investigate the role and mechanism of copper in the sheep pancreas, we first established sheep pancreatic duct organoids (sPDOs). We found that an appropriate amount of copper benefited the formation and growth of sPDOs, whereas excess or deficient copper damaged sPDOs. We found that the proliferation-stimulating effect of copper was related to the copper chaperone antioxidant protein 1 (ATOX1)-dependent activation of MEK-ERK1/2 signaling. Atox1 knockdown suppressed the cell proliferation of sPDOs, even in the presence of the MEK activator. These results indicate that moderate concentrations of copper promote sPDO growth through ATOX1-regulated cell proliferation by activation of MEK-ERK. Moreover, our study indicates that organoids may be a useful model to study organ growth mechanisms in livestock.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ductos Pancreáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cobre/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Ductos Pancreáticos/metabolismo , Ovinos
16.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 685: 108350, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220566

RESUMO

Iron is an essential requirement for the survival and virulence of most bacteria. The bacterial ferrous iron transporter protein FeoB functions as a major reduced iron transporter in prokaryotes, but its biochemical mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we compared enzymatic properties of the cytosolic portions of pathogenic bacterial FeoBs to elucidate each bacterial strain-specific characteristic of the Feo system. We show that bacterial FeoBs are classified into two distinct groups that possess either a sole GTPase or an NTPase with a substrate promiscuity. This difference in nucleotide preference alters cellular requirements for monovalent and divalent cations. While the hydrolytic activity of the GTP-dependent FeoBs was stimulated by potassium, the action of the NTP-dependent FeoBs was not significantly affected by the presence of monovalent cations. Mutation of Asn11, having a role in potassium-dependent GTP hydrolysis, changed nucleotide specificity of the NTP-dependent FeoB, resulting in loss of ATPase activity. Sequence analysis suggested a possible association of alanine in the G5 motif for the NTP-dependent activity in FeoBs. This demonstration of the distinct enzymatic properties of bacterial FeoBs provides important insights into mechanistic details of Feo iron transport processes, as well as offers a promising species-specific anti-virulence target.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/química , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/química , Hidrólise , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/química , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 120: 103360, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126276

RESUMO

Ammonia is one of the principal kairomones originating from human and other animal emanations and in that context, plays an essential role in the host-seeking behaviors of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nevertheless, despite its importance in directing host-seeking, the mechanisms underlying ammonia detection in the mosquito olfactory system remains largely unknown. In addition to ongoing efforts to identify and characterize the molecular receptors that underlie ammonia sensitivity, previous studies have revealed a prominent role for ammonium transporters (Amt) in modulating antennal and behavioral responses in Drosophila melanogaster and An. gambiae. In the former, localization of DmAmt in antennal sensilla to auxiliary cells surrounding the ammonia sensory neurons led to the hypothesis that its role was to clear excess ammonium ions in the sensillar lymph. In the latter, RT-PCR and heterologous expression have been used to examine the expression and functional characteristics of the An. gambiae ammonium transporter, AgAmt. We now employ advanced transgenic tools to comprehensively examine AgAmt spatial localization across the peripheral chemosensory appendages in larvae and adult female An. gambiae. In the larval antennae, AgAmt appears localized in both neuronal and auxiliary cells. In contrast to D. melanogaster, in the adult antennae, AgAmt-derived signals are observed in both non-neuronal auxiliary cells and in sensory neurons in ammonia-responsive basiconic and coeloconic sensilla. In the maxillary palps, labella, and tarsi, AgAmt appears restricted to sensory neurons. We have also characterized the responses to ammonia of adult antennal coeloconic sensilla and maxillary palp capitate pegs revealing a correlation between sensillar AgAmt expression and ammonia sensitivity. Taken together, these data suggest that AgAmt may play heterogeneous roles in the adult and larval chemosensory apparatus and potentially broad utility as a supra-receptor target in mosquito control.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Anopheles/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anopheles/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Sensilas/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007991, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During infections involving intracellular pathogens, iron performs a double-edged function by providing the pathogen with nutrients, but also boosts the host's antimicrobial arsenal. Although the role of iron has been described in visceral leishmaniasis, information regarding its status in the dermal sequel, Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) remains limited. Accordingly, this study aimed to establish the status of iron within monocytes/macrophages of PKDL cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The intramonocytic labile iron pool (LIP), status of CD163 (hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenging receptor) and CD71 (transferrin receptor, Tfr) were evaluated within CD14+ monocytes by flow cytometry, and soluble CD163 by ELISA. At the lesional sites, Fe3+ status was evaluated by Prussian blue staining, parasite load by qPCR, while the mRNA expression of Tfr (TfR1/CD71), CD163, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2), Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Ferritin, Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP-1) and Ferroportin (Fpn-1) was evaluated by droplet digital PCR. Circulating monocytes demonstrated elevated levels of CD71, CD163 and soluble CD163, which corroborated with an enhanced lesional mRNA expression of TfR, CD163, DMT1 and Lcn-2. Additionally, the LIP was raised along with an elevated mRNA expression of ferritin and HO-1, as also iron exporters NRAMP-1 and Fpn-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In monocytes/macrophages of PKDL cases, enhancement of the iron influx gateways (TfR, CD163, DMT-1 and Lcn-2) possibly accounted for the enhanced LIP. However, enhancement of the iron exporters (NRAMP-1 and Fpn-1) defied the classical Ferritinlow/Ferroportinhigh phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. The creation of such a pro-parasitic environment suggests incorporation of chemotherapeutic strategies wherein the availability of iron to the parasite can be restricted.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Cutânea/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania donovani/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Lipocalina-2/genética , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 180-194, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Still in 1999 the first hints were published for the pharmacoresistant Cav2.3 calcium channel to be involved in the generation of epileptic seizures, as transcripts of alpha1E (Cav2.3) and alpha1G (Cav3.1) are changed in the brain of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Consecutively, the seizure susceptibility of mice lacking Cav2.3 was analyzed in great detail by using 4-aminopyridine, pentylene-tetrazol, N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainic acid to induce experimentally convulsive seizures. Further, γ-hydroxybutyrolactone was used for the induction of non-convulsive absence seizures. For all substances tested, Cav2.3-competent mice differed from their knockout counterparts in the sense that for convulsive seizures the deletion of the pharmacoresistant channel was beneficial for the outcome during experimentally induced seizures [1]. The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine reduces seizure activity in Cav2.3-competent but increases it in Cav2.3-deficient mice. In vivo, Cav2.3 must be under tight control by endogenous trace metal cations (Zn2+ and Cu2+). The dyshomeostasis of either of them, especially of Cu2+, may alter the regulation of Cav2.3 severely and its activity for Ca2+ conductance, and thus may change hippocampal and neocortical signaling to hypo- or hyperexcitation. METHODS: To investigate by telemetric EEG recordings the mechanism of generating hyperexcitation by kainate, mice were tested for their sensitivity of changes in neuronal (intracerebroventricular) concentrations of the trace metal cation Zn2+. As the blood-brain barrier limits the distribution of bioavailable Zn2+ or Cu2+ into the brain, we administered micromolar Zn2+ ions intracerebroventricularly in the presence of 1 mM histidine as carrier and compared the effects on behavior and EEG activity in both genotypes. RESULTS: Kainate seizures are more severe in Cav2.3-competent mice than in KO mice and histidine lessens seizure severity in competent but not in Cav2.3-deficient mice. Surprisingly, Zn2+ plus histidine resembles the kainate only control with more seizure severity in Cav2.3-competent than in deficient mice. CONCLUSION: Cav2.3 represents one important Zn2+-sensitive target, which is useful for modulating convulsive seizures.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacologia , Íons/química , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Zinco/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(6): 603-614, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052233

RESUMO

The WRKY transcription factor family is involved in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Its members contain a typical WRKY domain and can regulate plant physiological responses by binding to W-boxes in the promoter regions of downstream target genes. We identified the sweet sorghum SbWRKY50 (Sb09g005700) gene, which encodes a typical class II of the WRKY family protein that localizes to the nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. The expression of SbWRKY50 in sweet sorghum was reduced by salt stress, and its ectopic expression reduced the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Compared with the wild type, the germination rate, root length, biomass and potassium ion content of SbWRKY50 over-expression plants decreased significantly under salt-stress conditions, while the hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and sodium ion contents increased. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression levels of AtSOS1, AtHKT1 and genes related to osmotic and oxidative stresses in over-expression strains decreased under salt-stress conditions. Luciferase complementation imaging and yeast one-hybrid assays confirmed that SbWRKY50 could directly bind to the upstream promoter of the SOS1 gene in A. thaliana. However, in sweet sorghum, SbWRKY50 could directly bind to the upstream promoters of SOS1 and HKT1. These results suggest that the new WRKY transcription factor SbWRKY50 participates in plant salt response by controlling ion homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanisms are different in sweet sorghum and Arabidopsis, which may explain their different salt tolerance levels. The data provide information that can be applied to genetically modifying salt tolerance in different crop varieties.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biomassa , Proteínas de Transporte , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
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