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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127668, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758805

RESUMO

Hulled Reins and hulless Lamont oats were dehulled and/or sequentially abraded to produce ten pearling fines and corresponding pearled kernels. Contents of nutrients (protein, oil, starch, beta-glucan, ash and other carbohydrates) and avenanthramides (AVA) 2p, 2c, 2f, and 5p in processing fractions and starting grains were measured. Results show that distribution patterns of nutrients varied with individual nutrients, but those of AVAs varied with variety and individual AVAs. In both varieties, from the surface to inner endosperms, protein and oil increased then decreased; ash and other carbohydrates decreased; starch increased; and beta-glucan unchanged except for the surface area. In Lamont oat, the four AVAs decreased, but in Reins oat, AVA 2p decreased while 2c, 2f and 5p increased, then decreased. Compared to whole grain, pearled oats not only contained lower AVAs, protein, oil, ash, and other carbohydrates and higher beta-glucan and starch but also had a different AVA composition.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Sementes/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/análise , beta-Glucanas/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127604, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777562

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein fraction, and bioavailability of Fe and Zn in the grains of five sorghum landraces grown in Sudan. The results showed significant differences in all quality tests among the landraces. The Tetron landrace showed the highest percentage of crude protein and IVPD among the landraces. Additionally, most of the landrace grains had high contents of Fe and Zn with a high rate of bioavailability. The Kolom 4055 and Wad akar exhibited significantly higher total phenolic contents, with antioxidant activity of 79.3% and 83.4%, respectively. The glutelin content was relatively higher compared to the other fractions, irrespective of sorghum landraces. The principal components cumulatively accounted for 89.3% of the total variation among the five sorghum landraces. It can be concluded that these landraces could be used in the improvement of new value-added crops using the by-products of sorghum grains.


Assuntos
Sorghum/química , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Flavonoides/análise , Variação Genética , Glutens/análise , Ferro/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Sorghum/genética , Sudão , Zinco/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 336: 127711, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777656

RESUMO

Wrinkled and round peas (two varieties each type) cultivated in two locations were milled to obtain fine and coarse wrinkled (WPF) and round pea flour (RPF). WPF exhibited markedly increased pasting viscosities at 120 and 140 °C compared with 95 °C. Overall, the pasting properties of WPF were considerably lower than those of RPF. Resistant starch (RS) contents of cooked WPF (17.2-22.2%, dsb) were significantly larger than those of RPF (7.9-11.4%), resulting from higher starch gelatinization temperatures, greater amylose contents, and presence of more protein and fiber in WPF. The two particle sizes affected the water-holding capacity (WHC) of WPF, gelatinization enthalpy changes (ΔH) of WPF and RPF, and pasting properties and starch digestibility of RPF. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted to reveal the relationships among the techno-functional parameters of pea flours. Wrinkled pea showed promise to generate new pea flours with distinct functionality and enhanced nutritional value.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ervilhas/química , Amilose/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/química , Amido/farmacocinética , Temperatura , Viscosidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370277

RESUMO

Bee pollen is a natural product that has valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics and has recently garnered increasing attention in the food industry due to its nutritive value. Here, we harvested pollen loads from the Al-Ahsa oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia during spring, summer, autumn, and winter in 2018/2019 to compare the nutritional value of bee pollen protein with the amino acid requirements of honeybees and adult humans. Based on the nutritional value of bee pollen protein, the optimal season for harvesting bee pollen was determined. The composition of the bee pollen showed the highest contents of crude protein, total amino acids, leucine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, threonine, and glycine in samples collected in spring. The highest contents of lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, tyrosine, and cysteine were observed in samples collected in winter. The highest contents of histidine, methionine, and serine were in samples collected in autumn. Moreover, the highest levels of aspartic acid, proline, and alanine were in samples collected in summer. Leucine, valine, lysine, histidine, threonine, and phenylalanine (except in autumn bee pollen) contents in pollen from all four seasons were above the requirements of honeybees. Leucine, valine, histidine, isoleucine (except in autumn bee pollen), lysine (except in spring and summer bee pollen), and threonine (except in winter and spring bee pollen) in all tested samples were above the requirements of adult humans. In comparison with the minimal amino acid requirements of adult humans and honeybees, the 1st limiting amino acid in bee pollen collected during the different seasons was methionine. Bee pollen collected during spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) can be considered a nutritive food source for adult humans and honeybees.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Pólen/química , Adulto , Aminoácidos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abelhas/fisiologia , Dieta , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Arábia Saudita , Estações do Ano
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525930

RESUMO

As rice is an important staple food globally, research for development and enhancement of its nutritional value it is an imperative task. Identification of nutrient enriched rice germplasm and exploiting them for breeding programme is the easiest way to develop better quality rice. In this study, we analyzed 113 aromatic rice germplasm in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underpinning nutrition components and determined by measuring the normal frequency distribution for Fe, Zn, amylose, and protein content in those rice germplasm. Comparatively, the germplasm Radhuni pagal, Kalobakri, Thakurbhog (26.6 ppm) and Hatisail exhibited the highest mean values for Fe (16.9 ppm), Zn (34.1 ppm), amylose (26.6 ppm) and protein content (11.0 ppm), respectively. Moreover, a significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.693) was observed between Fe and Zn contents. Cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis D2 distances revealed four major clusters of 113 rice germplasm, with cluster III containing a maximum 37 germplasm and a maximum inter-cluster distance between clusters III and IV. The 45 polymorphic SSRs and four trait associations exhibited eight significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on eight different chromosomes using composite interval mapping (CIM). The highly significant QTL (variance 7.89%, LOD 2.02) for protein content (QTL.pro.1) was observed on chromosome 1 at 94.9cM position. Also, four QTLs for amylose content were observed with the highly significant QTL.amy.8 located on chromosome 8 exhibiting 7.2% variance with LOD 1.83. Only one QTL (QTL.Fe.9) for Fe content was located on chromosome 9 (LOD 1.24), and two (QTL.Zn.4 and QTL.Zn.5) for Zn on chromosome 4 (LOD 1.71) and 5 (LOD 1.18), respectively. Overall, germplasm from clusters III and IV might offer higher heterotic response with the identified QTLs playing a significant role in any rice biofortification breeding program and released with development of new varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Amilose/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Ferro/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Análise de Regressão , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Zinco/análise
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1053-1058, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237445

RESUMO

In order to reveal the main nutrients and functional ingredients in the shoots of Polygonatum cyrtonema, the polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, and total phenols were determined. The tested samples cultured in Ma'nijiaonong, Hengtang village, Tianmushan town, Lin'an, Zhejiang, which were collected from three provenances(Pan'an and Longquan in Zhejiang and Qingyang in Anhui). The results showed that the polysaccharide content of the shoots varied from 2.34% to 12.73%, roughly one-third of rhizomes. The protein content varied from 107.75 to 192.49 mg·g~(-1), nearly 5.50 times more than rhizomes. Moreover, the average of total amino acid content was 193.13-248.74 mg·g~(-1), approximately 4.16 times of rhizomes. And the essential amino acids account for 35.57%-39.44% of the total amino acids content, which was close to the standard of the ideal protein proposed by FAO/WHO(the essential amino acid/total amino acid is about 40%). In addition, the taste amino acids(TaAA) changed from 160.12 to 208.29 mg·g~(-1), revealing the material basis of "shoots were extremely delicious" in Chinese ancient herbal medicine. Additionally, the total phenols varied from 51.21-58.76 mg·g~(-1), about 2.96 times of rhizomes. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of tested shoots was over 95%, which obviously superior to rhizomes. Therefore, the shoots of P. cyrtonema is a very high-quality vegetable and functional food with good development potential. Furthermore, the main nutrients and functional substances in P. cyrtonema shoots are closely related to the provenances and harvesting seasons. It is important to improve the quality and yield of the shoots by strengthening the variety of breeding and cultivation techniques.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Nutrientes/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Polygonatum/química , Aminoácidos Essenciais/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Rizoma
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3868, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123184

RESUMO

A. blitum is good sources of abundant natural antioxidant phytopigments such as anthocyanin, betalain, betaxanthin, and betacyanin and antioxidant phytochemicals of interest in the food industry. The chances of utilizing amaranth pigments and phytochemicals had been evaluated for extracting colorful juice as drink purposes. Hence, the presence of nutrients, phytopigments, phytochemicals, and radical scavenging activity of selected A. blitum leafy vegetables were evaluated. Leaves of A. blitum have considerable fiber, moisture, protein, and carbohydrates. It has considerable magnesium, calcium, potassium (30.42, 24.74, 10.24 mg g-1), zinc, iron, copper, manganese, (878.98, 1153.83, 26.13, 207.50 µg g-1), phytopigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll ab, chlorophyll b, (63.69, 90.60, 29.32 mg 100 g-1), betalain, betaxanthin, betacyanin (112.01, 58.38, 53.63 µg 100 g-1), vitamin C (1848.15 µg g-1), total carotenoids, ß-carotene (1675.38, 1281.66 µg g-1), TPC, TFC (253.45 GAE and 162.97 RE µg g-1 DW), and TAC (29.46, 55.72 µg g-1 DW in Tolax equivalent DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity) in A. blitum. The accessions DS3, DS6, DS8, and DS12 exhibited the highest TAC in Trolox equivalent DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity, flavonoids, and considerable phytopigments. These accessions had excellent antioxidant profiles along with high yielding potentiality. Hence, A. blitum provides an excellent source of proximate, phenolics, minerals, flavonoids, vitamins, and phytopigments to address the nutritional and antioxidant deficiency in daily diet.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Verduras/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(6): 2579-2584, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that proteins and other quality parameters of wheats may have changed over a century of wheat breeding. These changes may affect protein digestibility. The in vitro protein digestibility of breads made with 21 cultivars of wheat introduced or released in the USA between 1870 and 2013 was therefore evaluated. RESULTS: Protein digestibility increased with release year, but was not normally distributed; three older cultivars had significantly lower digestibility than the other cultivars: 42.0 ± 0.3 mol% (primary amino N/total N) versus 34.7 ± 0.7 mol%; P < 0.001. High molecular weight (MW) protein fractions increased and low MW protein fractions decreased with release year, but these changes were not related to protein digestibility. Thus, other differences in protein composition or other flour components may contribute to diminished digestibility of the three older cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified differences in protein digestibility among wheat cultivars that may have important implications for human nutrition. Further investigation is required to determine the specific characteristics that differentiate high- and low-digestibility wheat cultivars. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Digestão , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Triticum/química , Pão/análise , Farinha , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Triticum/classificação
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0222517, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830064

RESUMO

Amaranth has two morphological types (morphs), one is red and another is green morph. Red morph amaranth is a marvelous source of nutrients, antioxidant pigments, minerals, and phytochemicals compared to green morph amaranth. For this purpose, we selected 25 red morph genotypes to evaluate in terms of proximate, minerals, antioxidant pigments and phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in RCBD design in three replicates. The leaves of red morph amaranth are an excellent source of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, and protein. We found remarkable potassium, calcium, magnesium (24.96, 10.13, 30.01 mg g-1), iron, manganese, copper, zinc (1089.19, 243.59, 25.77, 986.61 µg g-1), chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b (31.79, 16.05 mg 100 g-1), ß-cyanins, total flavonoids (102.10 RE µg g-1 DW), ß-xanthins, betalains (33.30, 33.09, 66.40 µg 100 g-1), carotenoids, total phenolics (172.23 GAE µg g-1 DW), ß-carotene (1225.94, 1043.18 µg g-1), vitamin C (955.19 µg g-1), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS+) (19.97 and 39.09 TEAC µg g-1 DW) in the red morph amaranth leaves. We can select the genotype RA5, RA8, RA18, RA22, and RA25 as antioxidant-enriched red morph amaranth. It revealed that amaranth ß-cyanins, phenolics, betalains, flavonoids, ß-xanthins, carotenoids, vitamin C, and ß-carotene had strong antioxidant activity. These phytochemicals contributed significantly in the antioxidant potentials of red morphs amaranth. Red morph amaranth could be a potential source of nutrients, antioxidant pigments, minerals, and phytochemicals as these compounds scavenged ROS and served as potential antioxidants in our daily diet to attaining nutritional and antioxidant sufficiency.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Verduras/química
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382375

RESUMO

As a source of bioactive compounds, species of the genus Lupinus are interesting legumes from a nutritional point of view. Although wild species are abundant and represent a potential source of nutrients and biologically active compounds, most research has focused on domesticated and semi-domesticated species, such as Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, and Lupinus mutabilis. Therefore, in this review, we focus on recent research conducted on the wild Lupinus species of Mexico. The nutritional content of these species is characterized (similar to those of the domesticated species), including proteins (isolates), lipids, minerals, dietary fiber, and bioactive compounds, such as oligosaccharides, flavonoids, and alkaloids.


Assuntos
Lupinus/química , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Humanos , México , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Prebióticos/análise , Sementes
11.
Food Chem ; 299: 125161, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323439

RESUMO

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) is an annual herbaceous flowering plant showing appropriate nutritional and functional properties due to its high quality protein with a wide amino acid spectrum, particularly rich in lysine. The mature quinoa seed predominantly consists of 11S-type globulin called chenopodin, comprising about 37% of the total protein, and also 2S albumin accounting for 35% of the seed protein both stabilized through disulfide bridges. Moreover, quinoa seed contains low concentration of prolamins (0.5-7% of total protein) making it suitable for patients with celiac disease. Different enzymatic, chemical and physical modification methods also can influence the structural and finally nutritional and functional properties of protein isolate. Consequently, considering appropriate nutritional and functional properties of quinoa protein, it can be considered as a good candidate to supply human food products.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dissulfetos/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Prolaminas/análise , Sementes/química
12.
Food Chem ; 299: 125095, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279124

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas (H2), a multifunctional signaling molecule, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) (2 ppm) was used for the processing of sprouted black barley (Hordeum distichum L.), and the results showed that the HRW treatment could significantly increase the germination rate and growth rate of black barley (P < 0.05). A chemical component analysis showed that in sprouted black barley, the HRW treatment could change the distribution of phytochemicals (e.g., the ionic strength of guanosine), increase the concentrations of free vanillic acid, coumaric acid, sinapic acid, conjugated sinapic acid, Ca and Fe and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate, and decrease the protein, fat, starch and dietary fibre contents compared with the results obtained after treatment with ultra-pure water (P < 0.05). HRW can be used for the processing of sprouted grains to effectively increase their germination efficiency and concentrations of bioactive phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/análise , Água/química , Água/farmacologia
13.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261709

RESUMO

Amahewu is a fermented non-alcoholic cereal grain beverage, popular in Southern Africa. This study evaluates the possibility of producing an acceptable provitamin A (PVA)-biofortified maize amahewu, complemented with bambara flour, to contribute towards the alleviation of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Germinated, roasted, and raw bambara flours, were added at 30% (w/w) substitution level, separately, to either white maize or PVA-biofortified maize flour, and processed into amahewu. Wheat bran (5% w/w) was used as reference inoculum. Amahewu samples were analyzed for nutritional properties and acceptability. The protein and lysine contents of amahewu almost doubled with the inclusion of germinated bambara. Protein digestibility of amahewu samples increased by almost 45% with the inclusion of bambara. PVA-biofortified maize amahewu samples complemented with bambara were extremely liked for their color, aroma, and taste when compared with their white maize counterparts. The principal component analysis explained 96% of the variation and PVA-biofortified maize amahewu samples were differentiated from white maize amahewu samples. The taste of amahewu resulting from roasting and germination of bambara was preferred in PVA-biofortified maize amahewu, compared to white maize amahewu. We conclude that PVA-biofortified maize amahewu, complemented with germinated bambara, has the potential to contribute towards the alleviation of PEM and VAD.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Grão Comestível , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Provitaminas/análise , Vigna , Vitamina A/análise , Zea mays , Cor , Digestão , Germinação , Humanos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Paladar , Percepção Gustatória
14.
Food Chem ; 297: 124956, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253306

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion moisture and temperature on the physical characteristics of breakfast cereals. The chemical composition, microbiological risk and acceptance of the selected breakfast cereal with the best physical quality were assessed to determine the technological viability of the use of these by-products by the food industry. The response surface method and a rotatable central composite design were used, and a desirability test was performed based on adjusted regression models. The breakfast cereal produced under these conditions had protein, lipid and dietary fiber contents of 7.55, 0.97 and 6.12 g 100 g-1, respectively. In regards to the sensory analysis, the evaluated breakfast cereal received average acceptance scores ranging from "neither like or dislike" to "like moderately". The use of rice, passion fruit and milk by-products was shown to be an alternative for the production of extruded breakfast cereal.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Alimentos Especializados , Desjejum , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos , Oryza/química , Passiflora/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Pós , Soro do Leite/química
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218830, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246993

RESUMO

Edible insect rearing could provide one alternative for protein production by having a smaller environmental impact than traditional livestock farming due to insects' ability to convert organic side streams. Currently, the insect rearing industry utilizes soybeans as a major source of protein in the feeds. Protein-rich by-products of food industry could be used to replace them in insect feeds, but it is not known if they also meet the insects' nutritional requirements. Our study evaluated the growth performance of two widely used edible cricket species, Acheta domesticus and Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), on 18 experimental diets. The experimental diets included commercial chicken feeds and cricket diets, where soybean was partly and completely replaced with by-products from food industry: potato protein, barley mash, barley feed, compressed leftover of turnip rape and mix of broad bean and pea on three levels of protein. We found that the high- and medium-protein turnip rape and barley mash diets produced the highest yield and an increase in all performance variables. Overall, the high- and medium-protein diets produced the highest yield, growth and fastest development. Our results showed that by-products of food industry could be utilized as a part of the cricket feeds and thus advance the goals of circular economy.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Insetos Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gryllidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Indústria Alimentícia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise
16.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(3): 384-390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103424

RESUMO

The present work investigates the bioconversion of the olive cake (OC) generated by olive oil industries in Morocco through solid-state fermentation using selected filamentous fungi to increase its nutritional values for subsequent valorization as ruminants feed. The fungi, namely Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium flocciferum, Rhizodiscina cf. lignyota, and Aspergillus niger were cultured on OC for 15 days. Chemical composition as well as enzymes activities were determined. Results showed (i) an increase in protein content of up to 94% for treated OC and (ii) significant (P < 0.05) decreases of phenolic compounds, up to 43%, 70% and 42% for total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, and total condensed tannins, respectively. Moreover, the RP-HPLC analysis of fermented OC confirmed the degradation of individual phenolic compounds by the strains. These findings demonstrate that F. flocciferum and Rhizodiscina cf. lignyota are efficient enzymes producers leading to a nutritive enhancement of this by-product.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Olea/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Análise de Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Olea/metabolismo , Resíduos Sólidos , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida
17.
Food Res Int ; 121: 412-421, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108765

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable films using fruit and vegetable residue (FVR) flour with different granulometry range and pectin levels. The FVR flour was divided in three fractions, according to their granulometric distribution: A (425-500 µm), B (212-300 µm) and C (<150 µm). FVR presented heterogeneous particle size distribution and fibrous structure showing granular compounds adhered to the surface. The fiber contents decreased according to granulometry, whereas the protein content increased. The films obtained from FVR were malleable, homogeneous, yellowish, and presented high solubility (90%). The granulometry reduction and the pectin addition have significantly improved the viscosity and the yellow color of the film solutions (FS). There was decrease of solubility (50%) and improvement of the mechanical properties of the pectin-based films: decrease of elongation (16-30%) and increase of tensile strength (2.88 ±â€¯0.79 MPa). The sorption isotherms of the pectin-FVR films evidenced the lower availability of polar groups able to work as water-sorption sites. Therefore, different residue fractions could have different applications depending on their particle size and composition, either as source of dietary fibers (the thickest fractions) or as raw material for film production.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Farinha/análise , Frutas , Pectinas/química , Verduras , Fenômenos Químicos , Colorimetria , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Lipídeos/análise , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Reologia , Amido/química , Açúcares/análise , Resistência à Tração , Água/química
18.
Arch Pediatr ; 26(4): 238-246, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979632

RESUMO

Foods for special medical purposes (FSMPs) with a protein fraction made of hydrolyzed rice protein (HRPs) have been on the market in Europe since the 2000s for the treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). HRP formulas (HRPFs) are proposed as a plant-based alternative to cow's milk protein-based extensively hydrolyzed formulas (CMP-eHF) beside the soy protein formulas whose use in CMPA is controversial. HRPFs do not contain phytoestrogens and are derived from non-genetically modified rice. HRPFs are strictly plant-based apart from the addition of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). As the amino acid content of rice proteins differs from that of human milk proteins, the protein quality of these formulas is improved by supplementation with free lysine, threonine, and tryptophan. The consumption of HRPFs has risen: for example, in France HRPFs account for 4.9% in volume of all formulas for children aged 0-3 years. Several studies have shown the adequacy of HRPFs in treating CMPA. They ensure satisfactory growth from the 1st weeks of life for infants and toddlers, both in healthy children and in those with CMPA. HRPFs can be used to treat children with CMPA either straightaway or in second intention in cases of poor tolerance to CMP-eHF for organoleptic reasons or for lack of efficacy. In France, the cost of HRPFs is close to that of regular infant or follow-on formulas.


Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/dietoterapia , Oryza , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3052, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816158

RESUMO

Rapeseed proteins are described to be poorly digestible in chickens. To further identify some molecular locks that may limit their use in poultry nutrition, we conducted a proteomic study on the various chicken digestive contents and proposed an integrative view of the proteins recruited in the crop, proventriculus/gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum for digestion of rapeseed by-products. Twenty-seven distinct rapeseed proteins were identified in the hydrosoluble fraction of the feed prior ingestion. The number of rapeseed proteins identified in digestive contents decreases throughout the digestion process while some are progressively solubilized in the most distal digestive segment, likely due to a combined effect of pH and activity of specific hydrolytic enzymes. Fifteen chicken proteins were identified in the hydrosoluble proventriculus/gizzard content, including chymotrypsin-like elastase and pepsin. Interestingly, on the 69 distinct proteins identified in duodenum, only 9 were proteolytic enzymes, whereas the others were associated with homeostasis, and carbohydrate, lipid, vitamin and hormone metabolisms. In contrast, chicken proteins identified in jejunal and ileal contents were mostly proteases and peptidases. The present work highlights the relevance of using integrative proteomics applied to the entire digestive tract to better appreciate the protein profile and functions of each digestive segment.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Brassica napus , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/análise , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteômica
20.
Food Chem ; 286: 98-105, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827672

RESUMO

Three cooking temperatures (72, 80, and 88 °C) were applied to two rice genotypes (Puitá Inta CL and INOV CL) for preparing quick cooking brown rice. Samples were analyzed for cooking time, color, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), damaged grains, amylose, protein content and extractability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), sensory properties, and in vitro digestion. Cooking time was reduced from 23.0-23.6 to 5.5-6.9 min when the highest temperature was applied, depending on genotype. The greatest grain deformation was observed for treatments from Puitá Inta CL. XRD showed greater ability of brown rice from Puitá Inta CL to gelatinize at 88 °C. Appearance, texture, and flavor of quick cooking brown rice prepared at 88 °C was inferior to its brown rice counterparts. Starch digestibility decreased by around 20-22% in 88 °C-prepared-quick cooking brown rice. Lower digestibility values were determined for 88 °C-treated-INOV CL, and were associated with grain integrity.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/química , Amilose/análise , Amilose/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cor , Digestão , Genótipo , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Paladar , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
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